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ISSN 1000-0690
CN 22-1124/P
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  • 地理科学
      2002年, 第22卷, 第6期 刊出日期:2002-11-20 上一期    下一期
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    论文
    (高)科技型城市的指标体系内涵及其创新战略重点
    樊杰, 吕昕, 杨晓光, 田明
    地理科学. 2002, 22 (6): 641-648.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.06.641
    摘要   PDF (3053KB)
    在分析我国(高)科技型城市生成与发育条件、归纳世界主要(高)科技型城市发展模式的基础上,通过设计4类11个指标构成的(高)科技型城市判断指标体系、以及包括3个方面内容的(高)科技型城市标志,揭示了(高)科技型城市发展的战略目标与基本定位。继而提出了我国(高)科技型城市创新框架与重点,并对政府职能、中介体系与知识产权等近期创新网络构筑的核心内容,以及投融资和人才等近、远期支撑系统建设问题进行了深入探讨。
    High-tech city is a new type city that will emerge in 21 century in our country. In the 10th Five-year Plans of many regions, building a high-tech city is a key development strategy. This paper analyses the basic conditions of the formation and development of high-tech cities in terms of economic globalization, informationization, sustainable development and advantageous location theory. On the basis of reviewing the developing patterns of the main high-tech cities in the world, the paper puts forward the strategic goal and basic direction of high-tech cities' development. This paper also designs an estimation index system as follows:(1) Science and technology input scale and output efficiency, including ratio of science input to GDP, annual growth rate of high-tech industrial cluster, ratio of industrialization of R&D outcome within a year and the ratio of high-tech products with intellectual property rights.(2) Creativity and sustainability of innovation, including ratio of influx of graduates from first-class universities at home and abroad, reeducation of the incumbent in a year, the ratio of R&D staff to all the staff in the high-tech industry.(3) Perfection level of security system, including harmonization level of economic rules and policies with international convention, frequency of illegal activities.(4) Construction level of high-tech city's image, including ratio of the volume of e-commerce to the total, composite level of recycle of resources and disposal of pollutant. The above index system reflects three symbols of industrial structure, composite landscape and competitive edge of high-tech cities. Then this paper advances the innovation framework of high-tech cities in our country and make clear the strategic emphases of enhancing relations between main bodies of innovation and high-efficiency operation, and makes a deep discussion about the core contents of innovation such as functions of government in the construction of high-tech cities, intermediate agent system, policy system with the core of intellectual property rights, investment and financing system and talented supporting system.
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    城市用地与人口的异速增长和相关经验研究
    梁进社, 王旻
    地理科学. 2002, 22 (6): 649-654.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.06.649
    摘要   PDF (519KB)
    由于城市土地利用变化涉及的因素多,使获取动态研究所需的资料十分困难,所以,用少数几个主要因素定量地表达其变化就显得十分重要。从前人的成果,即以人口表示的城市位序-规模法则和以建成区面积表示的位序-规模法则出发,演绎出城市的用地规模和人口数量呈异速增长。这意味着,如果把整个城市看成是一个生命有机体,那么作为反映城市特征的城市用地规模和城市人口这两个重要变量,就是城市这个有机体的两个器官,他们的增长率是成比例的。还通过这个关系建立了城市建成区面积与市域人口和经济发展水平的数学模式。对我国部分城市的经验研究在一定程度上分别证明了这两个经验关系。
    Urban land use dynamics has been an important issue for LUCC. But as many factors are involved, and for the lack of corresponding time-serial data, dynamic study of urban land use is a hard nut to crack. This article aims at obtaining a function that can describe the dynamic process of the change of urban land magnitude. We start at the rank-size rule by urban population and the rank-size rule by urban built-up area, and derive a mathematical relationship that the land use size of a city and its population observe the law of allometric growth, which is derived from biological studies. In other words, when we consider a city as an organism, at least it has two organs, the size of the built-up area and the population of such an area, where the growth rate of the former is in proportion to the growth rate of the latter.Because of the lack of time-serial data of urban built-up area-population, we substitute urban non-agricultural residents for built-up area population and do regression analysis for the allometric growth relationship. Forty cities in China are presented for the case study, and the results verify the theoretical relationship. Then we deduce a function consisted of the size of built-up area, the total population and the GDP (gross domestic product) per capita of the city. It is as follows: lgs=c(lgp+lglgy)+k where s represents urban built-up area, p is the total population of a city, y is the GDP per capita of the city, and c and k are parameters. We have presented many large cities including Beijing, Shanghai, and Tianjin etc. as experiential studies, and gained such a function by regression analysis of a time-serial data of those cities. Results show that the function is correctly derived.Our results can be used to predict the size change of built-up area of a city in China that is being in the rapid urbanization.
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    东北地区生态环境保育与绿色社区建设
    宋玉祥
    地理科学. 2002, 22 (6): 655-659.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.06.655
    摘要   PDF (488KB)
    20世纪以来,东北地区资源环境发生了巨大的变化,为全球范围内具有短时限人地关系高强度作用特征的典型地区之一。区域资源过量消耗、生态环境趋于恶化,可持续发展面临威胁,保育生态环境成为一项十分迫切的任务。建设"绿色社区",是生态保育的有效措施和重要内容,也是生态建设的一项基础工程,建立绿色社区的目标是营造绿色文化、保育绿色生态和发展绿色经济,建立绿色社区的基本任务是发展生态经济,保育生态环境,解决农村生态环境退化,促进城市可持续发展。提出了绿色社区建设的实施方案。
    Since the beginning of the 20th century, the resources and environment in Northeast China have experienced a tremendous transition. This change makes the region to the one of the typical areas that are characterized by a kind of high tension of man-land relationship within short-term time scale all over the world. With resources excessively consuming and environment deteriorating, the regional sustainable development is facing threats; therefore the regional environment protection becomes a necessity. The green community is the carrier of ecological economy as well as the grassroots organization and elementary cell to develop ecological economy. The construction of green community also plays an important role in raising citizen accomplishments and strengthening social cohesiveness. Building green community is an important action of realizing regional sustainable development. The main goal is to build green culture, foster green ecology and develop green economy. The basic task is to develop ecological economy, protect and foster ecological environment, prevent the rural environment degradation to realize regional sustainable development. This article puts forward the objective, task, and the implementing plan for green community construction. Taking the lead in launching the green community construction in the Northeast has guidance and demonstration effect.
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    城市竞争力发展战略初步研究——以无锡市为例
    阎川, 颜涛, 林炳耀
    地理科学. 2002, 22 (6): 660-668.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.06.660
    摘要   PDF (829KB)
    对城市竞争力发展战略的基本框架作了初步研究,并结合无锡市进行了实证分析。重在分析城市竞争优势,发展模式之间的关系,试图从竞争力的角度出发,为制定城市发展战略提供新思路。
    It is ordinary to compete and collaborate among cities. However, urban researches have paid great attention to urban collaboration and obviously ignored urban competitiveness. This paper attempts to set up the integrated development stratagem of urban competitiveness to instruct individual urban growth.At first, this work provides scientific basis of development stratagem about urban competitiveness. It includes four areas: new growth theory, international trade theory, location theory and enterprise competition theory. The four kinds of theories provide foundations for development stratagem of urban competitiveness.Then, this paper points that the development stratagem system of urban competitiveness is constituted of five sections: 1) Regional competition situation. It is important to find out the rivals in region. 2) The present urban advantages. It means to make sure of urban industry advantages, enterprise advantage and location advantage. 3) The development model. Capital accumulation, technical progress and human capital are the major impetuses of urban competitiveness. 4) The problems of urban competitiveness. 5) Selection of development stratagem.So the system has been used in analyzing and appraising urban competitiveness in Wuxi City. According to the developmental pattern and trade competitiveness in national market and internal market, the pressure to Wuxi City is not from inter-provincial cities, but from Suzhou , Changzhou and Nanjing cities in Jiangsu Province. Although textile industry in Wuxi has great advantage and its scenery is attractive, lack of creativity and environmental deterioration worsen the above fortes. The current urban development model in Wuxi City has to be adjusted in order to keep the urban competitiveness and creativity and sustainable use in resources are decisive factors influencing urban competitiveness.At last, we can reasonably conclude that the greatest problem in Wuxi City is that the past fortes fade away but the new advantages have not been established. Therefore, consolidating its strong point and fostering the new competitiveness are urgent in Wuxi City. Because the situation of Wuxi City is typical in China, the study is helpful to proves the way of urban competitiveness.
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    1960~1997年新疆北部降水序列的趋势探测
    姜逢清, 朱诚, 胡汝骥
    地理科学. 2002, 22 (6): 669-672.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.06.669
    摘要   PDF (2372KB)
    利用非参数统计检验法(Mann-Kendall法)分析了新疆北部地区13个气象台站1961~1997近40年降水序列的趋势。因季节性差异,对1月、4月、7月、10月的降水序列也进行了分析。结果表明,1961~1997年新疆北部地区年降水序列大致存在增加的趋势,但不是很普遍;多数测站的年降水序列无趋势。以4月、10月为代表的春秋季降水量没有趋势存在;在少数测站以1月为代表的冬季降水序列出现了上升趋势,说明1961~1997年间新疆北部冬季降水量有一定量的增加;3个测站在以7月为代表的13个夏季降水序列中出现了上升趋势,还有一个测站出现了下降趋势,说明新疆北部地区夏季降水在1961~1997年间有少量的增加,并且降水变化趋势存在一定的地区差异。
    Located in inland and far from ocean, Xinjiang is characterized by its vast deserts. The ecological environment of Xinjiang is extremely fragile owing to the aridity. Therefore, it is recognized that Xinjiang is a sensitive and affected area to global warming. In recent years, it is found that there is a warming trend corresponding to global warming in this area. In the case of the precipitation, however, the trend is still uncertainty. Recently, researchers on the climatic change hold two completely different viewpoints on the trend of precipitation in this area. Part of the researchers hold that a warming and drying trend will occur in near future, which is concluded from some indirect evidences such as glacier retreat, lake desiccation and desert enlargement in this area. Others think that there is a warming and wetting trend resulted from decadal comparison of the climatic data in past decades. Thus, it can be seen from above discussion that there is a distinct divergence of views on the precipitation trend in this area. The intention of this paper is further to detect possible trend of annual total and seasonal precipitation records of northern Xinjiang using a non-parametric test. The precipitation series were the records that were observed at thirteen meteorological stations scattered in northern Xinjiang. The Mann-Kendall test was applied to annual and monthly series ranging from 1961 to 1997. The results show that there are four among twelve stations showed a significant upward trend for the annual series. The remaining eight stations showed no significant trend. These results indicate generally that there is a little upward trend in the annual total precipitation series of the northern Xinjiang during the period 1961-1997. Two stations with upward annual trend were specially chosen for monthly trend detecting in order to find out which months have contributed much to the annual trend. The result showed that there are obviously upward trend in the precipitation series of February and December for both Urumqi and Jinghe, which demonstrates that increasing of winter precipitation or snow fall has contributed much to the upward trend in annual precipitation series of the two stations. In order to take into account seasonality, seasonal series also were detected for trend. No trend are found in the spring (represented by April) and autumn (represented by October) series. Two among thirteen showed upward trend in the winter (January) series, which indicates a slight increasing of precipitation in the northern Xinjiang during period 1961-1997. In the summer (July) series, one station showed a downward trend, three stations showed an upward trend and the remaining nine stations showed no significant trend. These results demonstrate a small amount increasing of precipitation and a different trend of precipitation variation in the northern Xinjiang during period 1961-1997.
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    秦岭-黄淮平原交界带地貌演化阶段的信息熵判定
    管华, 高更和
    地理科学. 2002, 22 (6): 673-676.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.06.673
    摘要   PDF (2514KB)
    在地貌信息熵计算方法和涵义讨论的基础上,计算了秦岭-黄淮平原交界带面积大于100km2各流域的地貌信息熵值,进而分析了秦岭-黄淮平原交界带的地貌演化阶段。得出以下结论:该区地貌演化处于壮年期和老年期的过渡阶段;各流域坡面形状多为下凹形为主,但山地整体的坡面形状近于直线形。
    Based on the discussion of the calculation methods and the implications of the geomorphic information entropy,this paper calculated the numerical values of the geomophic information entropy of each drainage basin (area≥100km2) in the transitional region of Qinling mountains and Huang-Huai Plain,analysed their geomorphic evolution periods,and reached the following conclusions:the geomorphic evolution stage of the transitional region of Qinling mountains and Huang-Huai Plain is in the transitional period between mature stage and old stage;the slope shapes of the most of the drainage basins are concave,but the whole shape of the transitional region of Qinling mountains and Huang-Huai Plain is roughly straight line.
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    三江平原沼泽湿地景观格局变化及其生态效应
    李颖, 张养贞, 张树文
    地理科学. 2002, 22 (6): 677-682.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.06.677
    摘要   PDF (683KB)
    在遥感和地理信息系统的支持下,应用景观生态学的理论和方法,对景观类型的斑块和面积大小、形状特征、主要景观及其相关土地覆盖类型间的转化关系以及沼泽景观破碎化进行分析,定量分析和研究1986~2000年三江平原沼泽景观的动态变化,结果表明:15年来,三江平原沼泽的面积正在日益缩小,沼泽正在大幅度地转化为耕地,沼泽已经到了完全破碎化的边缘。最后分析了沼泽的动态变化引起的生态效应。
    Marsh was the most important and largest landscape in the Sanjiang Plain before the 19th century. With the repid increase of population and government investment, the farmland had been up to 524.0?104ha, the area of marsh had been down to 83.5?104ha in 2000, the landscape in the Sanjiang Plain had been in distinct changes. On the basis of remote sensing and GIS, using theory and methods of landscape ecology, the paper analyses quantificationally pacth areas, shape character and fragmentations of the marsh landscape in three periods of 1986,1996 and 2000, and surveys translation rates between marsh cover and other landcovers in the Sanjiang Plain from 1986 to 1996 and from 1996 to 2000, describes the spatial pattern of the marsh landscape in the Sanjiang Plain. The study indicates that the marsh area is being reduced increasingly, the marsh is being translated into cultivated land in larger range, and marsh landscape has been in the edge of complete fragmentation in the Sanjiang Plain. In the end, the paper analyses ecologic effect provoked by the marsh changes. In recent years,because of a large area of wetland being reclaimed in the Sanjiang Plain, ecological environment has been deteriorating ,which also has resulted in the degeneration of land, the destruction of biodiversity ,the decrease of valuable and rare animals and plants, and the descent of function of wetland.
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    150 ka B. P.以来萨拉乌苏河流域的CaCO3旋回
    罗开利, 李保生, 祝一志, 靳鹤龄, David Dian ZHANG, 余雪飞, 吕玉晓, 阎满存, 李后信, 姚春霞, 张宇红
    地理科学. 2002, 22 (6): 683-688.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.06.683
    摘要   PDF (946KB)
    以米浪沟湾地层剖面作为萨拉乌苏河流域的典型剖面,探讨了150kaB.P.以来的CaCO3含量分布与气候变化的关系。1) 该剖面CaCO3含量及其低-高变化同古风成沙与上覆河湖相或古土壤构成的沉积旋回呈现出明显的对应关系。与米浪沟湾剖面的沉积旋回一样,CaCO3在分布上相应地构成了27个含量高低变化旋回。2) CaCO3在风成沙中含量的分布比较稀散,0.8%~7.18%,平均值2.50%;在河湖相和古土壤中相对富集, 2.20%~14.90%,平均值5.74%。从而揭示出其时两者的气候背景是不同的,前者是干旱寒冷气候作用下的风力的侵蚀、搬运与堆积的产物;而后者则与暖湿气候环境下萨拉乌苏河流域地处鄂尔多斯高原和黄土高原之间特殊的低洼地貌位置有关。气候暖湿,河湖沼泽发育、成土成壤作用增强,低洼的集水条件有利于CaCO3的聚集。3) 导致米浪沟湾剖面CaCO3的多旋回相对稀散与聚集的根本原因可能是150kaB.P.以来北半球冰期-间冰期气候波动影响下毛乌素沙漠冬夏季风的多次更迭所致。
    This paper discuss the relationship between the calcium carbonate content and climatic change in the Milanggouwan stratigraphical section, being regarded as a prototype section in the Salawusu River valley since 150 ka B.P. 1) The calcium carbonate content in the section and its low-high change takes on remarkable corresponding relationship with the sedimentary cycles of palaeo-aeolian sands and its overlying fluvio-lacustrine facies or/and palaeosols. Same as the sedimentary cycles in the section, the calcium carbonate distibution composes 27 cycles of high and low content values accordingly.2) Calcium carbonate in the aeolian sands of Salawusu River Valley is relatively sparse, 0.8%-7.18%, with an average value of 2.50%; whereas relatively gathering in fluvio-lacustrine facies and palaeosols, 2.20%-14.90%, with an average value of 5.74%. It shows that the two climatic backgrounds then were different. The former was the result of erosion and accumulation under wind force during the cold-arid climate, whereas the latter was related to its particular low-lying physiognomy position between the Ordos Plateau and the Loess Plateau under warm-humid climate background. When the climate is warm-humid, fluvio-lacustrine and swamp facies develop, soil forming action strengthen, and low-lying catchment condition is benefit to calcium carbonate assemble.3) The principal reason of multi-cycle relative migration and gather of calcium carbonate in the Milanggouwan stratigraphical section is the repeatedly mutual alternate between the winter and summer monsoons in the Mu Us Desert, which was influenced by the climate vicissitudes in the northern hemisphere during glacial and interglacial periods since 150 ka B.P.
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    GIS支持的中美澳海岸线分维及其比较研究
    朱晓华, 杨秀春
    地理科学. 2002, 22 (6): 689-693.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.06.689
    摘要   PDF (453KB)
    利用GIS对中国、美国、澳大利亚海岸线进行了研究。主要内容包括:第一,同方法与同比例尺图源情况下各自海岸线分维的计算与比较;第二,中美澳海岸线分维随纬向的可能变化特征探讨;第三,海岸线分维在海岸线整体与部分之间的可能变化关系。所得结论在一定程度上丰富与加深了对海岸线分形性质的认识。
    Coastline is a traditional domain in the field of fractal research. Mandelbrot formulated the uncertainty of its length in his paper named "How long is the coastline of British?"which was published on "Science" in 1967. The fractal concept was presented for the first time in that paper and has been applied to many fields ever since. The fractal dimensions of different coastlines have been calculated by many researchers,such as Mandelbrot,Goodchild, Phillips, Qiu, Turcotte, Philip, Andrle, Jay Gao et al., Paar, Jiang et al., Stomczynski, Zhu et al. Generally,the present researches are still in the stage which focus on the calculation of fractal dimensions for different coastline. Till now,the related references and further researches on the fractal dimensions and their comparison of China,USA and Australia are seldom seen. The above issue is preliminarily discussed in this paper.
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    GIS支持下的山东省土壤侵蚀空间特征分析
    赵善伦, 尹民, 张伟
    地理科学. 2002, 22 (6): 694-699.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.06.694
    摘要   PDF (603KB)
    利用遥感(RS)技术提取土壤侵蚀信息,在地理信息系统(GIS)支持下,借助数据库管理系统(DBMS),建立空间数据库和属性数据库;以县级行政区域为综合分析单元,计算土壤侵蚀强度综合评价指数并进行分级处理,对山东省土壤侵蚀空间特征进行分析。
    Soil erosion is one of the most serious problems of environment. Soil erosion in Shandong Province is so serious that it is of great scientific and practical significance to research on it. In view of the serious environment situation of soil erosion, the spatial features of soil erosion in Shandong Province is analyzed by the unit of county in this paper. The main points are as following: ①Based on the classification index system of soil erosion type and intensity, the classification standards and the features of Landsat TM images are put forward. ② With the support of Geographical Information System (GIS), Remote Sensing (RS) and Database Management System (DBMS), the soil erosion information is distilled from Landsat TM images, the spatial and attribute databases are also built. ③On the basis of the model of IEISEI (Integrative Evaluation Index of Soil Erosion Intensity), the indexes are calculated and classified into eight degrees by the unit of county.④The spatial features of soil erosion in Shandong Province are analyzed, the soil erosion is very serious and there are two erosion centers in Shandong Province.
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    长江中下游河道岸线的整治与开发利用
    施少华, 林承坤, 杨桂山
    地理科学. 2002, 22 (6): 700-704.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.06.700
    摘要   PDF (2502KB)
    通过分析长江中下游河道的各段的整治措施,提出长江中下游河道整治的关键是:(1)控制河势,治理河岸崩塌,增强河床与河岸的稳定性;(2)充分重视三峡工程建成后对河道变化产生的影响;(3)科学合理地控制好长江采砂。并分析了长江岸线开发利用现状及存在问题,提出了岸线利用的原则。在长江中下游河道岸线利用过程中,还存在:河势不稳定,布局不合理,深水浅用浪费岸线资源和水污染严重等问题,提出遵照河道演变规律开发岸线,保护河岸工程的安全,根据河岸水质污污染与河床特点合理布置引水口和排污口,提高引水质量。
    The article adequately analyze the governing measures on every section of the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, and a series of key ways to maintain and harness the river course at the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River were put forward, namely, 1) control the river situation, harness the collapse of river bank, strengthen the stability of river bed and bank.; 2)pay full attention to the possible influences on river course change which caused by 'Three Gorges Project'; 3)regulate the sand-mining in the Yangtze River scientifically and rationally. In addition the current situation and existing problems of exploiting on the water front resources of the Yangtze River was also analyzed, according to it, the principles of exploiting the water front was proposed. In the process of exploiting the water front resources at the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, some problems also exist, such as instability of river situation, irriational distribution, serious water pollution and the waste of water front resources. Further solution must be worked out.
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    利用日雨量计算降雨侵蚀力的方法研究
    章文波, 谢云, 刘宝元
    地理科学. 2002, 22 (6): 705-711.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.06.705
    摘要   PDF (2695KB)
    降雨侵蚀力反映由降雨引起的土壤侵蚀的潜在能力,是建立通用土壤流失方程的最基本因子之一。由于以降雨侵蚀力指标计算侵蚀力的方法很难获得所需资料,利用全国71个代表性气象站资料,建立了利用日雨量估算降雨侵蚀力的简易算法模型,并进一步提出了模型的参数估计方法。结果表明日雨量侵蚀力模型完全能够用于估算多年平均降雨侵蚀力及其季节分布,并且模型计算侵蚀力的精度与所在区域降雨特征有关。在降雨量较丰富地区模型表现相对更好,且对于短历时、高强度降雨产生的侵蚀,模型估算的侵蚀力可能会有一定程度偏低。
    Rainfall erosivity shows the potential ability of the soil loss caused by rainfall and it is very important for predicting soil loss quantitatively. A rainfall erosivity model using daily rainfall amounts to estimate half-month rainfall erosivity directly was established from data of 71 weather stations in China. The average coefficient of determination for all stations was 0.718 and the average relative error estimating the annual average rainfall erosivity was 4.2%. Both parameters of α and β in the model were different in different regions. The parameter α was high correlative with parameter β and parameter β was related to rainfall characteristics, so both parameters could be estimated by using rainfall indexes. With the set of parameter values estimated by using rainfall indexs,the average coefficient of determination decreased to 0.697 and the average relative error estimating the annual average rainfall erosivity increased to 17.3%. The model worked very well in the regions where the rainfall was abundant and the result was on the low side when extreme storm erosivty was estimated. The daily rainfall erosivity model could be used to estimate the annual average rainfall erosivity and its seasonal distribution.
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    GIS在河流洪泛区灾害监测中应用研究
    刘权
    地理科学. 2002, 22 (6): 712-716.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.06.712
    摘要   PDF (2562KB)
    以灾前、灾中、灾后为三条主线,应用"3S"技术、卫星通信技术及防洪决策支持系统等多种高新技术建立的一个复杂和难度大的业务运行系统,及时、准确地监测和评估辽河下游地区洪灾及其损失,为决策部门提供现势、客观数据与决策辅助方案。
    It is a new subject to assist the decision making on the management of planning and exploiting in floodplain by remote sensing and GIS technology. In this project 3S, satellitic communication technique and decision making supporting system of flooding control are used to setup an operation system of complexity and difficulty.Three dominated factors of timing (before,within,and after disasters) are used to monitor and evaluate the disaster and lose caused by flooding on time and accurately in the downstream area of the Liao River. It can provide the decision making department with present and objective data and assisting scheme of policy-making.
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    沈阳市城市景观结构分析
    李团胜, 肖笃宁
    地理科学. 2002, 22 (6): 717-723.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.06.717
    摘要   PDF (617KB)
    景观结构是景观生态学研究的主要内容之一,景观结构指数多是针对农业景观和林业景观提出来的。应用GIS技术,对沈阳市城市景观结构进行了分析,结果是:景观多样性指数2.847,优势度指数1.059,聚集度指数0.803,均匀度指数58.2%,斑块密度3.7个/km2,一环内斑块密度8.825个/km2,道路密度5.52km/km2,水系密度0.198km/km2。结论是:目前常用的景观指数适于城市景观。沈阳市城市景观结构不合理,工业用地过多,市政设施用地和商业服务用地严重不足。在空间布局上,工业用地占据区位条件好的市中心地带,所以,用地结构必须调整。
    Landscape structure analysis is one of the main contents in research of landscape ecology. Most of landscape structure indices are developed for agriculture and forest landscapes, and their applications are also in agriculture and forest ones. But their application in urban landscape is seldom reported. One of the purposes of this paper is to test the suitability of these indices for urban landscape. This paper analyses the structure from landscape components, diversity, dominance, evenness and patch fragmentation.In Shenyang City, the patch number of residential landscape is the most. The patch number of industrial landscape is the second, and the patch number of express way, the least. The area of suburban agriculture landscape is biggest, about 193.352 km2. The area of residential landscape is the second. And the area of industrial landscape is the third. The area of commercial landscape and greenland is little. The diversity of each landscape type and the diversity of the whole landscape are calculated. The diversity of the residential landscape is maximum, being 7.818. the second is the diversity of industrial landscape, its value is 7.133, and the one of the expression way is minimum, being 0, because of its being a patch. The diversity of the whole landscape based on patch is 8.695, and the one on the landscape type is 2.847. From diversity we can also conclude the residential and industrial landscapes are dominant in Shenyang City. Dominance index is 1.059, evenness index 58.2%, contagion index 0.803, patch density 3.7 patches/km2. Patch density within the 1st ring road is 8.825 patches/km2, road density 5.52 km/km2, water density 0.198 km/km2.It is concluded that the landscape indices such as diversity index, dominant index, evenness index and contagion index, are suitable for urban landscape. In addition patch density and corridor density are the most useful for measuring landscape fragmentation, because of easily calculated and explicit meaning. But they never be paid attention to before. For urban landscape, roads are the important factors to cut the landscape apart.The structure of Shenyang City is not rational, with too many industrial lands, too little municipal lands and business and service lands, and in spatial, industry landscape in the center of the city. So, the structure of Shenyang City landscape must be adjusted.
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    昆明城市气候水平空间分布特征
    何云玲, 张一平, 刘玉洪, 马友鑫, 李佑荣, 窦军霞, 郭萍
    地理科学. 2002, 22 (6): 724-729.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.06.724
    摘要   PDF (724KB)
    以昆明城市为研究对象,对城市西南-东北剖线的实测资料比较研究,从气温、水汽压、相对湿度、风速、风向等方面分析了昆明城市气候特征、变化规律及城市热岛效应。研究表明:在昆明存在热岛效应,以夜间最为明显,其最强效应可达5.0℃,出现时刻(3时)与国内外多数研究结果(傍晚)有所不同;昆明城市昼间呈现明显的干岛效应。所得结论可为探讨昆明城市气候特征和形成机制,城市环境污染防治及建筑规划、设计等提供依据。
    The characteristics and variations of meteorological elements such as air temperature, water vapour pressure, relative humidity, wind speed, and wind direction in both the urban area and suburbs are studied with the observational data in Kunming, a city in low latitude and high altitude. The main results indicate that the air temperatures in the urban area are higher than that in the suburbs at most times. At night the differences are larger, and the maximum is 5.0℃ (at 03:00 hours). On the other hand, in the Kunming City, the humidity is less than that in the suburbs, and the dry island in the daytime is marked. These results would provide scientific basis for the city planning, architectural design, and prevention and control of the environmental pollution. Meantime, they could supply references for studying the urban climate in other regions.
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    广东省各地市耕地面积统计偏差分析
    匡耀求, 黄宁生, 胡振宇
    地理科学. 2002, 22 (6): 730-735.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.06.730
    摘要   PDF (557KB)
    深入分析耕地面积详查数据与统计数据的来源和计量单位口径以及数据覆盖范围,建立了详查口径耕地面积与统计口径耕地面积的关系方程。根据1996年详查耕地面积计算了广东省21个地市实际的统计口径耕地面积,并与各地上报的1996年统计耕地面积比较。结果表明,人为夸大或虚报耕地面积情况主要出现在珠江三角洲经济区内,大多数山区地市这一迹象并不明显。
    A formula relating the farm land area estimate derived from detailed land survey with that reported in official statistics has been deduced through incentive analysis of the metering caliber and the coverage of the data in both kinds of estimation. It reveals that the difference of the two kinds of farmland area estimates was mainly caused by the difference in the caliber of their measurement units and the difference in the coverage of the data applied in both kinds of estimation. Moreover, the ratio between the farmland area estimate derived from detailed land survey and that reported in statistics increases with the increasing proportion of the area converted to non-agricultural uses and decreases with the growing proportion of the newly reclaimed farm land. The difference of the two kinds of farmland area estimates in 1994 can mostly be interpreted by the difference in the caliber of their measurement unit, the so-called "accustomed mu", which is different from city to city, and the difference in the coverage of the data used in both kinds of estimation, when artificial omitting or exaggeration of farm land area exists only in very few cities. The estimates of farmland area reported in statistics in 1994 and those derived from detailed land survey can be matched with each other for most of the cities after unification of their measuring caliber and data coverage. According to the farm land area estimates for 1996 derived from the detailed land survey, the actual statistically calibrated area of farm land of the 21 cities in Guangdong Province was calculated and the deviation of the estimates reported in statistics in 1996 was obtained through comparison with them. It is considered that the errors of farm-land area estimates reported in statistics for the 21 prefecture-grade cities was comparatively small in 1994, and the phenomenon of overestimating or exaggerating farmland area in statistics existed only in very few cities before 1994. However, some fast-developed cities intentionally exaggerated their farmland area in statistics so as to conceal their rapid rates of farmland conversion to non-agricultural uses, knowing that the farmland area estimates derived from detailed land survey were generally much more than the estimates reported in statistics when the preliminary result of the detailed land survey was obtained, which artificially added some error to the farmland area estimate in statistics of those cities in 1996. Even though, the deviation of farmland area estimate in statistics is still less than 5% for 10 of the total 21 prefecture-grade cities, and 2 of them less than 0.3%. It can be concluded that the man-made exaggeration or overestimation of farm land area in statistics do exist, but such phenomenon generally appeared in the Pearl River Delta Economic Zone where the economy developed comparatively fast, and is not apparent in the cities in mountainous region. In order to protect the farmland resources effectively, and stop the cities from exaggerating farmland area in statistics, it is suggested to monitor the farmland change for the 21 cities with the means of remote sensing and the land use be controlled based on the in-situ verified remote sensing monitoring data.
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    自然疫源性疾病的风险评价——以黄鼠鼠疫为例
    王五一, 李海蓉, 杨林生, 谭见安
    地理科学. 2002, 22 (6): 736-740.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.06.736
    摘要   PDF (510KB)
    以内蒙古自治区赤峰市为黄鼠鼠疫疫源地典型地区,选择12个自然与 人文指标,分析该地区环境变化的趋势和对鼠疫流行的影响。经聚类分析和矩阵运算,得出该地区环境-健康风险指数。在此基础上对不同环境-健康类型区的风险性进行综合评价。结果表明,城市化的地区,或者植被覆盖增大的地区,环境-健康风险均较低,发生鼠疫流行的可能性小;环境基本保持原自然状态的地区,环境-健康风险性较高,环境恶化的地区,环境-健康风险性最高,再次流行鼠疫的可能性大。这提示我们,改善生态环境,是降低鼠疫疫源地环境-健康风险,预防鼠疫流行的根本途径。
    Plague, a natural focus-based disease closely related to the geographic environment or landscape,is one of the deadly infectious diseases being most harmful to human beings. It is very important to study the geographical epidemic law of plague and distribution of plague nature foci, and analyse their environment-health risk for more effective control of its outbreaks and epidemics. In this paper, 12 natural and social indicators were selected for the purpose of analysing the trend of environmental change and its impacts on plague prevalence, the threshold value of environment-health risk was educed through the clustering analysis and matrix operation of 12 indexes, and 4 different types of environment-health risk area were classified according to the threshold value. The character of low risk area mainly manifested higher rate of forest cover or well developed urbanization where it was unsuitable for dauricus survival anymore. Consequently, the risk of plague prevalence changed into very low possibility. On the contrary, the original surroundings in the very high risky area became deteriorating seriously, and it posed higher probability of plague prevalence. These imply that restoring the environment status in plague foci is the essential way to improve the environment-health risk and control plague prevalence effectively.
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    海滨旅游地居民对旅游影响的感知——海南省海口市及三亚市实证研究
    宣国富, 陆林, 章锦河, 杨效忠
    地理科学. 2002, 22 (6): 741-746.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.06.741
    摘要   PDF (584KB)
    旅游影响研究是旅游地理的重要研究内容,旅游地居民对旅游影响的感知是研究旅游影响性质及程度的重要途径。以海南省海口市和三亚市为例,在实地调研的基础上,分析了海滨旅游地居民对旅游的经济、社会文化、环境影响的感知程度及其对旅游业的态度,比较了不同人口学特征及与旅游业关系密切程度不同的居民对旅游影响的感知和对旅游业态度的差异。
    Research into tourism impacts is an important part of tourism geography.To investigate residents' perception is a good method to study the character and degree of tourism impacts. This paper takes two tropical coast resorts, Haikou and Sanya cities as examples, on the basis of on-the-spot survey, studies residents' perception of the economic, socio-cultural, environmental impacts of tourism and residents' attitudes to tourism development. The results indicate that the residents are more aware of positive tourism impacts than negative impacts, and they support tourism development with some reasonable attitudes. By comparative study, some differences of residents' perception and attitudes are found. There are some different opinions on tourism negative environmental impacts among the residents with different ages. Residents with different cultural levels have different perceptions of tourism impacts. The gender has no significant influence on residents perception of tourism impacts. The tourism-related residents have stronger perception of tourism impacts than the non-tourism-related residents with the exception of some negative sociocultural impacts,and the tourism-related residents have more enthusiasm to support tourism development than the non-tourism-related residents.
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    教学研究
    国内外GIS课程内容的对比与启示
    刘妙龙, 黄佩蓓
    地理科学. 2002, 22 (6): 747-752.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.06.747
    摘要   PDF (528KB)
    介绍了作为全球性GIS教材范本的美国国家地理信息与分析中心(NCGIA)研究生用"地理信息科学核心教程"的内容体系和结构,介绍了被誉为GIS经典的《地理信息系统原理,技术,管理与应用》一书的内容体系,作为对比,介绍了我国最新出版的被誉为"迎接新世纪空间时代与信息社会的好教材"的《地理信息系统-原理,方法与应用》一书的主要内容;对比国内外教材,分析探讨了我国GIS教育、教材与人才培养中的成功与不足;针对当前GIS学科发展迅速、人才培养中教材体系庞杂的特点,提出了适应研究生教育的教材体系框架,旨在为我国跨世纪GIS教育与人才培养提供一些借鉴。
    This paper introduces the content system and structure of NCGIA GIS Curriculum in detail, which now is accepted as a popular model for GIS teaching material in the world; introduces the content system of the works of "GIS: Principle, Technology, Management and Application", which now is praised as a classical works of GIS in academic and educational circles. As a comparison, the paper also introduces the major content of the works of "GIS—principle, Methodology and Application" published in 2001, which is eulogized as "a good teaching material for meeting a spatial era and information society in an new century". By the comparison of the teaching materials between home and abroad, the success and insufficiency reflected in GIS education, teaching materials and talent training in our country have been explored and discussed. Facing upon fast development of GIS science and numerous and jumbled teaching materials for GIS talent training, a framework of teaching material system suitable for education of Master Degree of Science has been put forward. The authors suggested that the teaching material system should consist of : ①outline of geographical information science (geographical information; geographical conception; digital geo-information technology; geographical information science); ②GIS spatial data (data quality; adjustment model and accuracy analysis; un-determinacy model; quality control of digital products; meta-data for spatial data); ③temporal-spatial data model (temporal GIS; 3-D data model; temporal and spatial data model; supermap 4-D spatial data model); ④network GIS (network technology; distributed GIS; interoperating GIS; web-GIS structure, principal and key technology); ⑤visualization and virtual reality (geo-visualization; virtual geographical environment; cyberspace and virtual geography); ⑥outline of geocomputation (high-performance computing; parallel computing program; a framework of geocomputation; application of geocomputation);⑦ geo-models and modeling (an un-determinacy of spatial change in GIS and GRW model; urban dynamic micro-modeling; fractal, cellular automata and urban morphology; temporal-spatial geographical modeling system; geo-application of neural network and genetic program); ⑧3-S integration (definition; some theoretical problems and key technologies; applied integrated models; complex integration). The aim of the paper is to draw some lessons from the research for trans-century GIS education and talents training.
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    研究报道
    乾宁古冰帽的发现及意义
    孙广友
    地理科学. 2002, 22 (6): 753-756.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.06.753
    摘要   PDF (2744KB)
    乾宁古冰帽于1982年被作者发现,发育于大雪山顶部的夷平面上,海拔高度为4300~4400m,地理坐标为101°14'~101°30'E,30°20'~30°38'N,是青藏高原位置最东、海拔最低的一个更新世古冰帽,生成环境独特。它还具有中心区缺少冰蚀过程遗迹的独特性质,其机理在于冰帽中心区冰层太薄、动能低、冰体侵蚀力弱,而边缘带冰层增厚,侵蚀力也增强。它的发现对进一步探讨青藏高原第四纪冰川问题具有重要意义。
    The Qianning Ancient Ice Cap was discovered in 1982 by author. It was formed on the peneplain of Daxueshan Mountain, which belonged to the second ice epoch counted backwards in the Pleistocene. The ice cap is located in the eastest and lowest part of Qinghai-Xizhang Plateau. The height is only 4300-4400 meters above sea-level and the geography coordinate is 101?14'-101?30E and 30?20'-30?38'N. Therefore, this is a special enveronment in the whole plateau. It has the special feature that there is short of ice erosion remains in the central region of the ice cap and there are lot of the landforms of erosion and deposition in outside of the ice cap, for example the glacial valleies and glacial lakes. Way? Because the ice layer of the center of the ice cap was too thin so that there was no enough power to erosion, and where was thick in the outside and the erosion power was strong. Therefore, it is a new type of ice cap in the Qinghai-Xizhang Plateau or in the world even. It's discovery has an important value to study Quaternary glacier of the Qinghai-Xizhang Plateau.
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    书法景观的文化地理浅释
    吴慧平, 司徒尚纪
    地理科学. 2002, 22 (6): 757-762.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.06.757
    摘要   PDF (589KB)
    书法地理学作为一门新兴的文化地理学的分支,它的基本理论研究对象之一便是书法景观。从文化地理学的角度出发,探讨了书法景观的概念,书法景观的分类。指出其构成除了自然因素以外,还应包括人文景观中的可视性因素、可悟性因素和氛围。书法景观是自然景观人文景观的统一体。
    A new branch of cultural geography, calligraphy geography is a new science which studies the possible phenomena related with geography and calligraphy on the surface. Generally, there is much identifiable subject matter that belongs to calligraphy geography, in which calligraphy landscape is one of the most important landscapes. The paper discusses the definition of calligraphy landscape, which refers to a special cultural form on the surface due to the interaction between the calligraphy and geography that is created by calligraphic action. At this point an attempt can be made to classify calligraphy landscapes. It is a complex of natural and human landscapes, which is consisted of the seeable element, perceptible element and atmosphere in it. In this point, the seeable element refers to those materials being seen such as colors and shapes, for example, calligraphy stele, stone tablets, couplets written etc., they can be touched while we appreciate the calligraphy art. Perceptible element refers to those non-materials that can't be touched such as the ideology, custom, morality etc, it is also called "atmosphere".
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    吉林省西部草地土壤的化学元素含量及其特征研究
    王冬艳, 许文良, 冯宏, 刘兆顺
    地理科学. 2002, 22 (6): 763-768.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2002.06.763
    摘要   PDF (2750KB)
    对吉林省西部草地土壤化学元素含量研究表明,吉林省西部草地土壤中富钾少磷; 钙、镁含量丰富; 硼、铜、铁、锰含量在剖面上表现为向下增加; 土壤中氮、磷、钾、钙、铜含量随草地退化程度的加深而减少;土壤中硅、钠含量丰富,显示出较强的沙化、盐碱化趋势,其含量随草地退化程度的加深而增加;钴含量随草地退化程度加深而降低;钡含量随草地退化程度的加深有增加的趋势;而稀土元素总量低于土壤背景值,并随着草地退化程度的加深其含量有减少的趋势。
    Several results have been obtained from the study on the element abundances of the grassland soil that underwent different degree of degradation in western Jilin province. First, the soil is rich in potassium and poor in phosphorus and the elements like calcium(Ca) and magnesium(Mg),as two kinds of mediocre nutrient elements, are abundant in the soil of the area. Secondly, the contents of the trace nutrient elements such as boron(B), copper(Cu), iron(Fe) and manganese(Mn) increase with the soil deepening . Thirdly, the contents of nitrogen (N), phosphorus(P), potassium(K), calcium(Ca), and copper(Cu) in the soil decrease with the degradation of the grassland. Fourthly, high silicon(Si) and sodium(Na),sometimes barium(Ba), contents are found in the soil with intensive grassland degradation while cobalt (Co) has the opposite behavior. Fifthly, the grassland soil of the region is of rare earth element (REE) content smaller than their background value and the REE decrease in content with the grassland degradation.
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