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ISSN 1000-0690
CN 22-1124/P
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  • 地理科学
      2010年, 第30卷, 第4期 刊出日期:2010-07-20 上一期    下一期
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    论文
    中国商品交易市场发展时空差异及其形成机理探析
    张旭亮, 宁越敏
    地理科学. 2010, 30 (4): 481-488.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.04.481
    摘要   PDF (704KB)
    区域内实体经济的发展差异是最终导致并形成中国区域经济的总体发展差异的原因,研究区域协调发展势必要对诸多实体经济差异进行深入分析。利用2000~2009年间的相关统计数据,借鉴并融合不同学科的经典研究方法,对中国总体及省际层面的商品交易市场发展差异进行了测度。结果表明,中国商品交易市场相对差异先增大后稍收敛,但总体呈增大的趋势;省际发展空间分布呈似"胡焕庸线"弱带,即呈东西两头较强的哑铃状。并着重从核心因素、主要因素和助推因素等三大方面7个影响因素对产生差异的机理进行了深入地分析。
    The Chinese total regional economic difference may attribute to the development differences of special economic fields, which must be worthy of deeply studying for coordinate the development of regional economic in China. Related statistical data were used from 2000 to 2009, such as Statistical Yearbook of China Commodity Market and China Statistical Yearbook, and some classic research methods of different disciplines were also integrated for analysis the underlying factors, such as index of coefficient of variation,location quotient and Moran I and so on. The paper analyzed the spatial and temporal difference of Chinese commodity trading market (CTM) from the two different perspectives of the entire country and provinces. The results showed as follows: the firstly, the total relative difference of CTM in China increased before 2005, and then declined. However, total relative difference of CTM in China is trending to increase. Secondly, the spatial distribution of provinces regions has presented a characteristic of "HU Huan-yong line", which has a feeble development route of CTM than other regions in China. There are three major formation factors of dynamic mechanisms of causing the difference of spatial distribution about CTM in China. The first core elements include economic factor, institutional factors and location and foreign trade factors. The second major elements include history civilization factor and spatial interaction factor. The third secondary factors include industry and market interacting factor and market type factor.
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    中国航空货运发展及其空间格局研究
    张兵, 胡华清, 张莉, 钟山
    地理科学. 2010, 30 (4): 489-495.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.04.489
    摘要   PDF (880KB)
    航空货运是航空运输的重要内容,航空货运发展及空间关系是航空运输研究的重要方向。通过对20多年来中国国内航空货运发展的研究,得到中国航空货运空间分布格局及其演变特征。研究结果表明,中国航空货流网络体现出明显的空间分异特征,符合空间距离衰减规律,85%的航空货运发生在1 000~2 000 km的范围内;初步形成由北京、上海、广州3个全国性枢纽和昆明、成都、乌鲁木齐3个区域性枢纽为主导的初级枢纽轮辐式网络结构;超大城市控制航空货运网络,航空货流进一步向东西部少数城市集聚,合理组织航空货运网络具有深远意义。
    The relationship between air cargo transportation development and the spatial structure in urban system is an important research field in air transportation. Based on the data of the airport cargo transportation and the airline network from 1980 to 2008, the air cargo spatial pattern is illustrated. Due to the improvement in aviation service and the expansion of air transport network, the linkages between domestic cities were gradually enhanced. According to the research, the air cargo flow was changing the spatial interaction. First, the air cargo flow attenuated with the inter-city distance. About 85% of the domestic air cargo flow took place between the cities where the inter-city distance ranged from 1000 km to 2000 km. Second, the "Hub-and-Spoke" network was found shaped basically. In the domestic cargo network, Beijing, Guangzhou and Shanghai were the three large national hubs, and Kunming, Chongqing and Urumqi were three large local hubs. Last, the mega cities controlled the air cargo network, which made the cargo flow agglomerate into a few cities. Therefore it is important to design airline network as a "Hub-and-Spoke" structure, which should conform to the social and economic development of the regions. The hubs should be located in the central and west China, and the linkages should be strengthened between the west air cargo hub and the west medium and small airports. A rational air cargo transport network should be adapted to the city system in China as well to guide the local economy’s continuous growth in both quantity and quality.
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    市场转轨时期中国城市绅士化现象的机制与效应研究
    何深静, 刘玉亭
    地理科学. 2010, 30 (4): 496-502.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.04.496
    摘要   PDF (350KB)
    基于对绅士化现象演变的回顾,对市场转轨时期中国城市绅士化现象的机制和效应进行分析探讨。通过对中国绅士化发生的政治经济背景与动力进行分析,指出政府强有力的干预在3个方面推动着中国城市的绅士化进程:首先,政府通过推行一系列的土地和住房改革,刺激并引导了对中高档住房的需求;第二,政府通过提供优惠政策和对环境和基础设施的投资创造良好的房地产投资环境;第三,政府通过调动土地和房屋等资源克服产权破碎化的问题,以实现大规模的绅士化。在市场转轨时期,中国城市的绅士化现象与西方绅士化现象近期的演变相对应。其特征在于两点:一是政府处于主导地位; 二是低收入人群的利益被忽视,这种政府主导的绅士化往往是以追求经济增长和城市的发展为目的,以对低收入阶层的住房进行大规模的替代为代价;最后对中国绅士化现象带来的负面社会空间效应及可能采取的应对措施进行了探讨。
    Based on a review of the mutation of gentrification in the west, this paper examines the mechanism and consequences of China’s emerging gentrification under the background of market transition. Prawing on a detailed anlaysis of China’s political economic transformation in the post-reform era, this study shows that strong state intervention plays an important role in promoting China’s gentrification. This can be seen from three aspects. First, the state stimulates and accommodates the consumption demands of the emerging middle class through launching land and housing reforms. Second, to create optimal conditions for capital circulation, the state makes policy interventions and invests heavily in environment beautification and infrastructure construction. Third, the state mobilizes the most important resources, e.g. land and resettlement housing, to tackle the problem of fragmented property rights and to facilitate gentrification. Under market transition, China’s gentrification resembles its western counterparts, and shows two distinctive characteristics: the state plays a predominant role throughout the gentrification process; the social interests of low-income groups have been overwhelmed by the economic interests of local government and real estate developers. This particular form of state-sponsored gentrification in China is motivated by the pursuit of economic growth and urban development, at the cost of large-scale residential displacement. At the end of this paper, the authors elaborate the negative effects of gentrification in Chinese cities, and discuss possible solutions to overcome these adverse consequences.
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    中国三大都市圈核心城市职能分工及互补性的比较研究
    李佳洺, 孙铁山, 李国平
    地理科学. 2010, 30 (4): 503-509.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.04.503
    摘要   PDF (360KB)
    围绕核心城市组织的合理的区域分工体系是都市圈功能整合、和谐运作,发挥其空间组织优势的关键,而良好的区域分工往往以城市间职能的互补性为基础。采用对应分析方法,应用SPSS生成点聚图并计算反映职能互补性的统计量——总惯性,对1997年和2007年京津冀、长三角、珠三角三大都市圈核心城市的职能分工体系特征、格局以及职能互补性进行比较研究。结果显示,10 a间各都市圈以服务业职能为主的一般化职能开始分化,高端服务业职能逐步由一般化职能转变为专业化职能,并且向都市圈的中心城市集中。工业制造业职能在京津冀和长三角都市圈由一般化职能转变为专业化职能,在珠三角都市圈刚好相反。同时,工业制造业职能的分工格局在三大都市圈表现出不同的变化趋势。分工体系特征反映出三大都市圈不同的分工格局,京津冀、珠三角表现出双中心结构的分工格局,而长三角则是单中心结构的分工格局。对核心城市职能互补性的分析显示,京津冀潜在的职能互补性在三大都市圈中是最高的,但是由于产业梯度过大、区域协调机制不够完善等原因,互补性优势并未得到很好的发挥。
    Appropriate territorial division of labor established around core cities is the key for integrating function, operating harmoniously and promoting the advantage of stronger interaction between neighboring cities. Complementary urban functions among cities within the metropolitan region are regarded as the basis to such a well-operated division system. In this paper, the correspondence analysis is used to gain some graphs and a single statistic (this statistic is called total inertial which can reflect the complementarity of urban functions) to analyze the differentiation and change of urban functions. The study investigates the features and patterns of the territorial division of labor in three major metropolitan regions of China, as well as their changes over time from 1997 to 2007, through these graphs and statistical data. The functional complementarity among cities of China’s three major metropolitan regions is also analyzed. The results show that the generalized functions of the three metropolitan regions are service functions which were differentiating, and high-end service functions were becoming specialized and concentrated into central cities over time. Manufacturing functions in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region and the Yangzi River Delta region were becoming specialized. By contrast, these functions were generalized. At the same time, Changes in manufacturing functions in each metropolitan region are different, reflected by different spatial trends of manufacturing redistributions too. Different patterns of the territorial division of labor in each metropolitan region are found. The Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region and the Pearl River Delta region are characterized by the two-center pattern, while the Yangzi River Delta region is characterized by the monocentric pattern. The analysis of the total inertia of core cities shows that the potential complementarity of urban functions among cities in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region is the best in three major metropolitan regions of China. However, such advantages are not fully taken mainly due to huge industry gap and the lack of a well-functioned regional coordination system.
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    城市-区域竞争力建设的实践评析——以江苏省沿江开发为例
    赵志凌, 罗小龙
    地理科学. 2010, 30 (4): 510-515.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.04.510
    摘要   PDF (320KB)
    经济全球化时代下,地方政府热衷于通过实施空间规划来提升城市-区域的竞争力。在区域规划与区域竞争力建设的理论框架下,对江苏省沿江开发区域政策进行了评估和分析。研究发现,江苏省沿江开发战略是一个区域竞争力建设的规划,配套支撑政策对区域规划的实施至关重要。经过6 a的开发建设,沿江地区经济社会发展、基础设施和宜居环境建设等取得了明显成效,同时,沿江开发在空间开发秩序、联动机制、发展方式等方面出现了一些问题,需要通过完善发展规划、加强规划实施、加快体制机制创新等途径完善区域竞争力体系。
    In the age of economic globalization, local governments have engaged in building their urban-regional competitiveness by making spatial planning. Based on the theoritcal framework of regional planning and regional competitiveness building, these paper appraisals and reviews the regional policy of development along Yangtze River in Jiangsu. It proposes that the Jiangsu Provincial Plan for development along Yangtze River is a project of constructing regional competitiveness. In addition, related policies are of vital importance to implement regional planning. For 6-year development, there has been marked progress in social and economic development, infrastructure and living environment in the area along Yangtze River. However, some new problems, such as disordered development, mechanism and mode, have arisen. It is needed to enhance regional competitiveness by means of improving plans, accelerating renovation, and so on.
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    地铁城市人口分布演变规律研究——以日本福冈市为例
    王纯彬, 外尾一则
    地理科学. 2010, 30 (4): 516-520.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.04.516
    摘要   PDF (489KB)
    发展以地铁为骨干的城市公共交通系统,有利于引导城市人口的空间重构,为优化城市形态和结构提供可能。利用1980~2007年的人口统计数据,对日本福冈市的人口分布重心偏移、城区间人口份额转移和地铁沿线区块人口分布均匀程度等方面展开定量分析,发现福冈市地铁发展的关键时间点、线路的覆盖区域和发展次序对城市人口分布演变有着深刻影响。通过对地铁发展与城市人口分布演变之间的内在联系研究,为当前正处于快速城市化阶段的中国城市寻求合理的发展模式,提供借鉴。
    Developing the metro as the backbone of urban public transport system, can guide the spatial restructuring of urban population and improve the urban structural pattern. Based on the population statistical data of Fukuoka city during 1980 to 2007, the paper uses quantitative methods to analyze the relationship between the development of metro system and the changing pattern of urban population distribution. First, the analysis of shift routes of urban population gravity indicates that different development order of metro projects has a significant impact on urban population distribution. Specifically, the population gravity considerably shifted during the five years that Kuko line and Hakozaki line were under construction, and it experienced another round of dramatic shift in the following five years after the two lines opened. Second, the shift-share analysis of population illustrates the dispersion trend of urban population resembles centrifugation process of urban development. Since the first metro line opened in 1981, the urban population rapidly diffused from traditional central district (Hakata district and Chuo district) to suburban areas including western district and eastern district. Third, the Gini coefficient and Concentration index of areas along three metro lines show that the coverage areas of different metro lines considerably influence the population even degree in the areas. In conclusion, the changing pattern of population distribution in Fukuoka is fundamentally influenced by the critical time, coverage areas, and the development order of metro system.
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    江苏省民用机场可达性及其服务能力评价
    姜海宁, 谷人旭, 陆玉麒, 靳诚
    地理科学. 2010, 30 (4): 521-528.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.04.521
    摘要   PDF (1028KB)
    为了定量地研究江苏省民用机场的可达性及其服务能力,首先基于江苏省的公路路网结构和最短时间路径选择算法,运用ArcGIS的Spatial Analyst模块功能对江苏省民用机场可达性进行实证研究,对"7+2"民用机场形成前后的可达性进行分析。结果表明,江苏省7个民用机场整体可达性较好,在地域分布上呈现以民用机场为中心的圈层空间结构。目前88.5%的区域的机场可达性在1.5 h之内,但其内部差异比较明显,苏南地区民用机场可达性较好,而苏北地区由于内陆腹地机场尚属空白,其可达性较差,且服务范围呈现南大北小的规律;"7+2"民用机场极大地改善了苏北内陆腹地的机场可达性,服务范围也均发生不同程度的缩小,而可达性较好的区域比例明显增加,较差的区域比例均趋于下降;最后近似测算"7+2"民用机场的服务能力并进行分级,并从经济和可达性两方面对不同等级服务能力的机场存在的问题和不足进行分析,并提出相应的优化措施。
    There have been seven civil airports distributed in Nanjing, Wuxi, Changzhou, Nantong, Xuzhou and Lianyungang in Jiangsu Province, which was called "'7’civil airport" layout.With the rapid development of transport capacity, the scale and quantity of civil airports is being improved. Based on this background, construction of two new civil airports in Huaian and Yangzhou, both of which located in Jiangsu Province had been carried out. Therefore, the layout of "‘7+2’civil airport "would be come into being in Jiangsu Province. In order to make a quantitative study about civil airports and service capability in Jiangsu Province, this paper firstly mainly used the Spatial analyst module functions of AarGIS to do a empirical research about accessibility of civil airport in Jiangsu Province based on the highway network structure and calculations of optimal road routes and time to civil airports of Jiangsu Province, which generated accessibility diffusion graph and service area map before and after the formation of the "‘7+2’civil airport". Then a comparison and analysis of the graph and chart was made and analyzed, and the result showed that the overall accessibility of existing civil airports in Jiangsu Province was fairly good basically. However, as to the regional distribution, the accessibility diffusion graph took on a laver structure taking civil airports as the center. Currently the accessibility time of 88.5% of Jiangsu Province area was within 1.5 h, but the internal difference was also obvious. The accessibility of civil airports in southern Jiangsu was much better, while it was still much worse in the inland area of northern Jiangsu, because there was no civil airport. The size of service area of civil airport in Jiangsu Province was large in the north and small in the south. When the layout of "‘7+2’ civil airport" were formed, it would greatly improve the accessibility of civil airport in the inland area of north Jiangsu, and the size of service areas was reduced with different degree, and the proportion of better accessibility area was higher obviously, while the proportion of worse accessibility area tended to go down. And then,an approximate calculation about the potential service capability of civil airports which were classified as three grades was made combined with some related factors, such as population, GDP, per capita GDP, per capita disposable income and civil airport grade. The service capability of Nanjing civil airport which belonged to the first class had absolute priority in the layout of "‘7+2’ civil airport "in Jiangsu Province, and the civil airports of Wuxi,Changzhou and Xuzhou belonged to the second class, and the rest of civil airports belonged to the third class. Finally, the problems and shortage existing in the civil airports in the different grades combined with economy and accessibility were analyzed, and some corresponding optimization measures were brought forward. Furthermore, it would provide theoretical basis for the distribution, efficiency improvement and balanced development of civil airport, which would have great theoretical and practical significance.
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    物联网发展对城市空间结构影响初探——以长春市为例
    陈曦, 翟国方
    地理科学. 2010, 30 (4): 529-535.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.04.529
    摘要   PDF (410KB)
    在全球化进程中,"物联网"作为信息产业发展的新方向,近年来受到广泛关注。基于对"物联网"概念、特点及应用的分析,从理论和实证两个层面对"物联网"的发展将会对城市空间结构所产生的影响进行了初步分析和探讨。在城市内部,"物联网"的发展会进一步强化集聚趋势和扩散趋势,使城市空间结构呈现集聚趋势与扩散趋势并存的空间发展非均衡态势,并弱化城市功能分区,加强城市内部各区域的相互融合;在区域层面上,"物联网"的发展会使城镇体系格局由原有的等级结构逐步向平面化的网络体系结构迈进,并形成新的极化和"核心—边缘"空间结构。在理论分析基础上,以长春市为例,将"物联网"发展对城市空间结构的影响具体化,从城市内部空间结构优化、城市外部空间结构重塑和城市发展3个方面进行了分析预测及展望。
    As a new development of information technology in recent years, the "internet of things" has received worldwide concern. This paper preliminarily discussed how the urban spatial structure would be influenced by the development of "internet of things". "Internet of things" will strengthen both the trends of gathering and spreading in the further. This can lead to an urban spatial structure of non-equilibrium situation, with both trends developing. It will also weaken urban functional division, and strengthen urban internal and inter-regional integration. At the regional level, the pattern of the urban system will gradually move toward the flat network system from hierarchy under the influence of "internet of things". And the new polarization will promote a new space structure of "core-periphery". Above all the theories, this paper took Changchun as an example and discussed the influences of "internet of things" on Changchun’s urban spatial structure from three aspects: the internal urban spatial structure, the external urban spatial structure, and the development of the city.
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    新疆县域经济分异特征、原因及对策探讨
    张锦宗, 梁进社, 朱瑜馨
    地理科学. 2010, 30 (4): 536-543.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.04.536
    摘要   PDF (611KB)
    在对新疆县域经济发展评价基础上,分析了新疆县域经济分异的特征,探讨了经济分异的原因,提出了解决对策。新疆县域经济差异的空间分异、民族分异在很大程度上叠加为民族经济发展水平的空间分异。新疆县域经济分异与国家安全形势长期面临威胁时的经济建设投入差异、各民族就业人员比例差异、各民族人口的就业行业差异及各民族人口空间分布有关。应当增加对新疆特别是疆内落后县域的固定资产投资,并努力使经济增长与就业增长协调起来;增加基础教育投资,同时加大职业技术教育;鼓励实行少数民族人口一对夫妇生育两个子女的政策,以减轻家庭负担,提高学生入学比例,才能大力迅速提升少数民族人口素质。只有这样,才能协调好各民族、各县域经济的发展,有利于国家稳定发展。
    After the evaluation of economic development, the paper analyzed the characters of the counties’ economic division in Xinjiang. The spatial distribution of economic development level of Xinjiang in 2006 is unbalanced and it forms a high level area which circled Urumqi City and stretches to Changji Autonomous Prefecture, Shihezi City, the east part of Ili Prefecture, the north part of Altay Administrative Offices, along the south and east to the parts of Turpan Administrative Offices and Hami Administrative Offices. It also forms a low level area which circled Hotan Administrative Offices and stretches north-ward’s to Kashgar Administrative Offices and Aksu Administrative Offices. The spatial distribution of economic development level of Xinjiang formed one core zone, two circle zones and one remote zone. The core zone includes Urumqi City, Changji City and Shihezi City. The inner circle is near to the core zone and the outer circle is near to the inner circle. The numerical values of per Capita GDP decrease from the core zone to the remote zone. Most of the developed counties are distributed in north part of Xinjiang, the level of economic development of inner Xinjiang is higher than the outer Xinjiang, the level of economic development of North Xinjiang is higher than the South Xinjiang, and the status of Xinjiang county’s economic is characterized by unbalanced growth, by the difference between inner and outer, between North and South. There is widely difference between Han nationality and Minority too. There also is widely difference in nationalities of Minority. Manchu, Russion, Hui, Tatar are the highest level group of Minority; Kirgiz, Uygur, Tajik are the lowest level group of Minority; Xibo, Uzbek, Mongo, Daur, Kazak are the middle level group of Minority. The main residence of every nationality is different from others and most of Minority residential area distribute in remote frontier. So, the counties’ economic division includes spatial division, nationality division, and the two divisions formed the nationality economic spatial division. Today’s nationality economic spatial division is the result from a cautious decision which was compelled after a long period nation safety. The difference of investment in the fixed assets, difference of employment Proportion, occupation structure difference and the distribution difference in different nationalities lead the nationality economic spatial division. To harmonize the nationality economic spatial distribution, it must increase investment in the fixed assets in under-developing areas, and to harmonize the economic development and employment increase. Make hard to develop education and to train rural able-bodied persons; to decrease growth rate of numerous national minorities’ population and to improve their quality. While these things are done, all nationalities an all counties in Xinjiang can coordinate together and it’s helpful for nation’s stabilization and development.
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    典型风景名胜城市土地利用动态变化及其影响机制研究——以广西壮族自治区阳朔县为例
    陈志钢, 保继刚
    地理科学. 2010, 30 (4): 544-550.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.04.544
    摘要   PDF (588KB)
    以风景名胜城市广西壮族自治区阳朔县为例,在分析遥多期感影像的基础上,利用相关指标测度土地利用的动态变化,在此基础上分析了土地利用变化的特征与其影响机制。研究结果表明,1993年以来,阳朔县域建设用地是相对变化最大的土地利用类型。旅游业的发展加大了阳朔县旅游基础设施用地、旅游服务设施用地的需求,其增量均从林地、耕地转化而来。阳朔县域土地利用变化具有明显的阶段性,以1999年为界点,1999年以前属于自然状态下的蔓延式扩展阶段,1999年以后则为旅游影响下的飞地式扩展阶段;在农业发展减弱反馈、工业发展减弱反馈以及旅游业发展加强反馈的影响之下呈现农业用地、工业用地向旅游业用地转化的过程。由于阳朔县域绝大部分面积是桂林漓江国家风景名胜区的重要组成部分,在国家有关法律法规的控制之下,阳朔建设用地面积虽呈增加状态,但增加的面积与幅度较小。在国家刚性土地政策的控制之下,阳朔县土地建设用地呈现慢速增长状态。最后认为建立单独的旅游土地分类标准是测度旅游发展对土地利用影响的基础,也是进一步研究的方向。
    Based on the analysis of remotely sensed photographs taken at three different points in time: 5th Feb., 1993, 5th Jan., 1999, and 5th Nov., 2005, this study measured the dynamic changes of land uses and its determining mechanism in Yangshuo County. The findings are as follows. ① Among all land use types, urban construction land had undergone the most dramatic change since 1993. The further development of tourism industry need more related infrastructure and, as a result, more land supply, which had to come from former forest land and agricultural land. ② Different stages are readily observable in the land use change process, with 1999 as the tipping point. Before1999, the development had been characterized by urban sprawl under a noninterventionist traditional economy; after that, it has been characterized by an enclave-type of expansion propelled by the tourism industry. Tourism land use had been increasing at the expense of agricultural land and forest land. ③Because the majority of the land area of Yangshuo County is a constituent part of the Guilin-Lijiang National Scenic Area, there is no much room for Yangshuo County to increase the supply of land for construction according to relevant state laws and regulations. Thus its construction land expands at a slow pace. The article concludes that it is essential to establish a system of indices for the classification of tourist land uses, which can then serve as a foundation for assessing the impacts of tourism on land use.
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    城市化与城市土地利用结构关系的协整检验与因果分析——以重庆市为例
    鲁春阳, 杨庆媛, 文枫
    地理科学. 2010, 30 (4): 551-557.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.04.551
    摘要   PDF (394KB)
    采用协整检验和Granger因果关系分析法研究重庆市城市化发展和城市土地利用结构变化间的关系,结果表明,城市化和居住用地比例、工业用地比例、公共服务用地比例和绿地比例的时间序列是非平稳的,而其二阶差分具有平稳性;城市化对居住用地比例、工业用地比例、公共服务用地比例和绿地比例的OLS方程残差拒绝单位根,说明城市化和居住用地比例、工业用地比例、公共服务用地比例和绿地比例间存在均衡关系;城市化是居住用地比例、绿地比例变化的Granger原因;工业用地比例是城市化的Granger原因;城市化与公共服务用地比例之间Granger因果关系不明显。
    Using the methods of Cointegration test and Granger causality test, this paper analyses the relationship between urbanization and urban land use structure—taking Chongqing as an example.The results showed :①The temporal variables of urbanization,residential proportion、industrial proportion、commercial service proportion and green space proportion are non-balanced,but the second order difference of these indices are balanced;②Cointegration relationship exists between urbanization and residential proportion、industrial proportion、commercial service proportion and green space proportion;③Urbanization is the cause of Granger causality of residential proportion and green space proportion; ④Industrial proportion is the cause of Granger causality of urbanization and there isn’t Granger causality between urbanization and commercial service proportion.
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    泥石流风险区划方法及其应用——以四川西部地区为例
    刘希林, 陈宜娟
    地理科学. 2010, 30 (4): 558-565.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.04.558
    摘要   PDF (795KB)
    以川西地区60个县(市、区)为基本评价单元,在自然灾害风险评估基本框架下,基于国内现有区域泥石流危险度和易损度评价方法,结合研究区实际,对区域泥石流危险度8项评价指标中的3项进行了调整,用年平均降雨量取代洪灾发生频率,用流域相对高差取代≥25°坡地面积百分比,在多雨地区雅安市所属的8个评价单元中用年平均暴雨日数取代大雨日数。通过采集研究区15 a来自然、经济、人口和土地利用的基础数据,运用ArcGIS 9.0的成图技术,得出川西地区泥石流危险度、易损度和风险区划系列图。研究表明,川西地区泥石流高风险区共24个县(市、区),是四川省泥石流风险的重点防范区。
    Taking 60 counties and districts of west Sichuan as the basic assessment units, under the international outline of risk assessment for natural hazards, based on the existed assessment method of debris flow hazard and vulnerability, incorporated with the surroundings of study area, this paper alters 3 assessing factors of the original 8 factors, i.e. using the mean annual precipitation to replace the occurrence frequency of floods, substituting the regional relief for the percentage of slope land >25?, using the days of mean annual rainstorm with 50 mm to replace the days of mean annual rainfall with 25 mm. By collecting a number of data related natural, economic and population of the study area during recent 15 years, as well as the data processing and analyses with the mapping technique of ArcGIS 9.0, this paper has obtained respectively the zonation maps of debris flow hazard, vulnerability and risk. Studies indicate that there are totally 24 counties with high risk, accounting for 40% of the total, and occupied land area of 65 714 km2, accounting for 20.58% of the total. The moderate risk counties are 33 with land area of 241 747 km2, separately, counting for 55% and 75.71%. Obviously, the west of Sichuan is the vast area with moderate and high risk of debris flow, is also the main area for debris flow risk mitigation in Sichuan.
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    北川地震重灾区泥石流特征与减灾对策
    胡凯衡, 游勇, 庄建琦, 陈晓清
    地理科学. 2010, 30 (4): 566-570.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.04.566
    摘要   PDF (393KB)
    汶川大地震的同震次生灾害以滑坡、崩塌居多,泥石流相对较少。但地震导致滑坡、崩塌为震后泥石流提供了极为丰富的物质来源,使得地震灾区在一年多的时间里已经多次暴发了大面积的泥石流。以北川地震重灾区的苏宝河和魏家沟流域为研究区域,通过野外实地考察、遥感图像分析、历史资料对比等方法,概括总结出受地震强烈影响区域的泥石流具有成因多样、时间同步、颗粒粗大、多灾种复合、空间近似对称和小沟大灾等特征。并提出了"面上监控为主、点上工程为主、分类防治和开展风险评估"的减灾对策。
    Coseismic geologic hazards of the Ms 8.0 Wenchuan Earthquake included a great amount of landslides, rockfalls and avalanches, but few debris flows. However, numerous mass movements such as landslides and avalanches are becoming a plentiful mass source for the formation of debris flows, and many debris-flow events have occurred widely since the earthquake, especially in the meizoseismal area. In this paper, debris-flow ravines at Subaohe and Weijiagou rivers in Beichuan’s Meizoseismal area, southwestern China are studied by field investigation, remote sensing image interpretation and historical data analysis. It is summarized that the formation of these debris flows in the study area can be mainly divided into three classes, viz. direct mobilization from landslide, erosion of unstable slope, and outburst of blocked flood. Other disasters such as flood, landslide, and avalanche were accompanied with the debris flows. The distribution of grains in the debris deposits concentrates on sand, cobble and boulder. The events were closely synchronous because they were triggered by the rainstorms on September, 23~24, and the locations of the ravines show some kind of space symmetry. Another notable feature is that the magnitude of debris flows is large even for those ravines with small catchment area. Finally, four countermeasures mitigating debris flows are proposed against the debris-flow hazards, which can be practically applied to debris-flow prevention.
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    1951~2005年中国大陆冬季温度变化过程的区域差异
    方修琦, 张学珍, 戴玉娟, 李蓓蓓, 侯光良
    地理科学. 2010, 30 (4): 571-576.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.04.571
    摘要   PDF (505KB)
    利用中国大陆160个地面站和寒潮关键区9个站点气象数据,采用聚类分析、相关分析、突变检验方法,分析1951~2005年中国大陆冬季温度变化过程的区域差异。结果表明,中国大陆冬季温度变化可分5个大区,共11个亚区(基本区域单元),各区分界线多与大地貌单元的界线相一致;除川黔桂区外,其余10个亚区均表现出显著升温趋势,升温率0.15~0.54℃/10 a;自北向南,升温速率逐渐减小,开始升温时间推迟。中国大陆冬季温度变化过程的空间差异与各区域受北方冷空气影响程度的不同密切相关,是冬季风环流与大地貌格局共同作用的结果。
    Based on the instrumental temperature data from 160 stations in China mainland and 9 stations in the Mongolia Cold Wave (MCW) key area, this papaer analyzed the regionalization of winter temperature change in China mainland during 1951-2005, using the statistical methods including cluster analysis, correlate analysis and Mann-Kendall test. It is found that China mainland could be divided into 5 regions consisting of 11 subregions and the spatial pattern was featured by consisting with spatial pattern of macro landforms over China. And 10 of the 11 subregions, excepting for the Sichuan-Guizhou subregion, had statistically significant warming trend during 1951-2005. From the north to the south, the abrupt warming year started gradually later. The North abruptly warmed since the 1970s, while the middle since the 1980s and the south since the 1990s. Besides, the warming rates were gradually slower from the north to the south with the maximum of 0.53℃/10yr in the north and minimum of 0.15℃/10yr in the south. In addition, 146 of 160 stations in China mainland were significantly positively correlated with the temperature change of the MCW key area. The spatial distribution of the correlation coefficients is consistent with the spatial pattern of regional differences of temperate change. This consistency suggests that regional differences of temperate change are strongly impacted by the spatial heterogeneity of MCW’s effects on regional temperature through the interaction of both the winter monsoon circulation and the macro surface landform. They are dominant factors inducing regional differences of winter temperature change in China mainland.
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    特枯2006年长江中下游径流特征及江湖库径流调节过程
    戴志军, 李九发, 赵军凯, 蒋陈娟, 张小玲
    地理科学. 2010, 30 (4): 577-581.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.04.577
    摘要   PDF (316KB)
    利用1978特枯年、2000~2006年长江中下游宜昌、汉口、大通、城陵矶及湖口等水文实测资料,对2006年长江中下游出现特大枯水水情条件下的径流变化和江、湖与水库的调节过程进行分析。结果表明:长江中下游径流变化出现洪季不洪、枯季不枯特征,洪季来水量不到平常年的60%~70%,枯季基本维持平常年的来水量;其中长江上游来水量急剧减少是造成长江中下游洪季不洪的主要因素,三峡在枯水期间的调蓄对维持长江中下游干流的水量有一定的贡献,洞庭湖与鄱阳湖两大湖泊在枯季因干流水位显著降低形成的胁迫效应是长江中下游枯季不枯的重要因素。
    Lakes are important water supplies to the discharge of the mid-lower reaches of the Changjiang (Yangtze) River (MLRCR), which take vital function of adjuster in maintaining constant runoff of the mainstream in the Changjiang River. Based on the measured hydrological data, during 1978 extreme drought year and 2000-2006, of the gauge stations including Yichang, Datong, Hukou and Chenglingji, the change of runoff along the MLRCR and water adjustment processes among of river, lake and reservoir in response to abnormal historical record of the 2006 extreme drought year were analyzed. The results showed that it could be characterized as "no flood in the flood season, no drought in the dry year" for the changes of runoff along the MLRCR. During the period of 2006 year, there was usual water flux in the dry season along the MLRCR in comparison with those of normal years, and the water flux in the flood season was only 60%-70% of normal years. "No flood in the flood season" results from rapid decreases in runoff of the upper reaches of the Changjiang River. In addition, it was benefit to the increased water flux to some degree in the MLRCR due to the adjustment of the Three Gorge Reservoir. However, supplies and adjusted function from Dongting and Poyang lakes resulted from constraint effects by obvious decrease in water level in the stream was an important part to the MLRCR in maintaining the runoff characteristics of "no drought in dry season".
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    人类活动对磨刀门水道河床地形和潮汐动力的影响
    韩志远, 田向平, 欧素英
    地理科学. 2010, 30 (4): 582-587.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.04.582
    摘要   PDF (720KB)
    基于实测地形和水文资料,探讨人类活动对近期磨刀门水道河床地形和枯季潮汐动力变化的影响。研究结果表明:(1) 磨刀门上游河段大规模河床挖沙引起河床高程显著降低,水深增大,河槽容积增加,底坡降减小;口门围垦整治导致磨刀门口门区水域面积变小,入海口门向海延伸,入海水道增深。(2) 磨刀门水道河床地形变化引起枯季潮汐动力发生变化:上游河段低潮位降低,潮差增大,进潮量增加,潮汐动力明显增强;口门区潮差减小,横洲水道潮能汇聚,水位壅高;水面坡降减小,潮波传播速度增加,咸水界上移。
    Modaomen estuary is one of the main outlets of the Zhujiang (Pearl) River. Since the 1980s, large-scale human activities such as riverbed sand dredging and estuary regulation, had lead to some changes of channel topography and hydrodynamic. Based on field data such as topographic data and water data from different years, this paper provide some primarily conclusions as follows: (1)large-scale sand dredging at Modaomen waterway resulted in riverbed deepening and channels volume increasing. Due to estuary regulation, the shallow sea at Modaomen estuary turned into two waterways regulated by artificial banks. As a result, water area and channel volume were reduced. Riverbed of the waterway became deepening. (2) During dry season in recent years, Topographic change in Modaomen waterway lead to tidal dynamic enhancing apparently at Zhuyin station, the upper reaches of Modaomem estuary, with low water level dropping, tidal range increasing and tidal influx increasing. As well, at Dahengqin station, near the outlet of Modaomen estuary, water level rise with tidal assembly and tidal range decreasing. Phase difference between Dahengqin and Zhuyin reduced, and tidal wave propagation velocity increased with saline water intruding frequently.
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    丽江市大气环境特征分析
    李宗省, 何元庆, 张宁宁, 和献中, 张蔚, 曹伟宏
    地理科学. 2010, 30 (4): 588-593.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.04.588
    摘要   PDF (1211KB)
    丽江市1990~2003年SO2、NOx和TSP的平均浓度为0.018、0.013和0.112 mg/m3,SO2和NOx浓度在1998之前为上升阶段,1998年之后为下降阶段。1989~2006年期间降水中年均pH值为6.08,高于酸雨标准值,EC均值为14.2 US/cm;pH值自1994年以来一直处于缓慢上升状态,EC也呈现出缓慢上升趋势。1989~2006年降水中SO42-、NO3-、Cl-、NH4+、Ca2+、Mg2+、Na+、K+、平均浓度值依次为1.57、0.41、0.20、1.14、0.09、0.06、0.13 mg/L。研究证实大气环境状况、气候特征和产业结构转型对丽江降水中离子浓度有重要影响。
    The mean concentrations of SO2, NOx and TSP are 0.018 mg/m3, 0.013 mg/m3 and 0.112 mg/m3 during 1990-2003 in Lijiang City. The average pH value is 6.08 during 1989-2006, which is lower than the standard of acid rain. The average EC value is 6.08 during 1989-2006, and the increase of EC value accelerated in 1998. The average concentrations of SO42-, NO3-, Cl-, NH4+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+ and K+ are 1.57 mg/L, 0.16 mg/L, 0.41 mg/L, 0.20 mg/L, 1.14 mg/L, 0.09 mg/L, 0.06 mg/L and 0.13 mg/L in Lijiang City. The mean concentrations of SO2, NOx and TSP in Lijiang City are lower than those in many cities of China because of the successful transformation of the industrial structure from conventional industries to tourism, characteristically bringing higher economic benefit and less environmental pollution. The variations of SO2 and NOx between 1990 and 2003 reflected this change. Concentrations of anions and cations are out of balance: the mean total anion concentration exceeds the mean total cation concentration. TSP concentrations have been low because Lijiang City is far from the source region of wind-borne sand. A slow increasing trend of pH values between 1990 and 2002 reflected the decline or relocation of primary manufacturing industries, a source of air pollution, as the tourist trade developed rapidly. A decrease of pH values from 2003 probably was a consequence of the sharp increase of coal-burning heating plants and motor vehicles needed to meet the requirements of tourism. Increases of EC and total cation concentrations have accelerated since 1998 as precipitation has decreased. The data from Lijiang City demonstrate the necessity of developing tertiary industry and promoting a better industrial structure in order to improve the quality of the urban atmosphere and to control air pollution in China's cities.
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    盐城滨海湿地资源保护与开发情景设计与评价
    欧维新, 孙小祥, 龚佳莹, 叶丽芳
    地理科学. 2010, 30 (4): 594-599.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.04.594
    摘要   PDF (608KB)
    采用"Bottom-up"方法和景观适宜性评价模型,从景观适宜性评价、湿地保护与开发的历史特点、物种栖息地保护的要求、有利于保护的生境转变方式等方面综合考虑,设计并模拟了盐城滨海湿地开发与保护的三种情景方案,从生态经济价值、成本效益分析、湿地保护与开发意愿等方面探讨协调保护与开发的湿地资源利用情景方案评价与比较。研究结果表明,以综合效益指标为情景方案比较标准时,保护情景方案为最优选择,但只实现了保护目标;以湿地保护与开发意愿指数为标准时,均衡情景方案为最优选择,且能较好地协调湿地开发与保护矛盾。
    Scenario research method, as an assistant decision-making instrument, is often used in practice for coordinating conservation and development, and also for regional and environmental management and planning on the goal of sustainable development. This opinion was also proved by the applications of scenario analysis method on land use, landscape, wetland, etc. The Yancheng coastal wetland, where the wetland ecological and biodiversity conservation are of global significance, and the conflict between wetland conservation and development is of prominent, was taken as a case study. In this paper, with comprehensively considering the landscape suitability, the evolution character of wetland development and conservation, the qualification of wetland development for agriculture, the request for wetland protection, and the habitat change way helping for conservation,the scenario analysis method of "bottom up", and Landscape Suitability Evaluation Model, and GIS & RS technique were employed to design and model three scenarios (conservation scenario, agricultural development scenario and balance mode scenario) for the wetland development and conservation of Yancheng coastal wetland. How to assess and compare the scenario schemes of coordinating conservation and development purpose for wetland resources use, was discussed in the case study by the method and indicators of the cost benefit analysis (CBA), ecological-economic value, willingness to pay for wetland conservation(WTP) and willingness to accept for wetland development(WTA). And the results proved that the conservation scenario was the optimal choice when considering the net-benefit factor, but it only achieved the protection objectives; the balance scenario was the optimal choice when considering factors of WTP & WTA, which was better to achieve the both sides of protection and development. It’s implied that a suitable scheme for balancing the wetland conservation and development will be possible by the scenario analysis method. And the scenario method can provide an alternative approach and pathway for wetland wise use and ecological-environmental protection.
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    郑州市2001~2007年城市扩张过程中城市用地景观特征分析
    杨振山, 蔡建明, 文辉
    地理科学. 2010, 30 (4): 600-605.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.04.600
    摘要   PDF (408KB)
    城市用地景观对理解城市扩张过程中土地利用的内部特征及其动态变化具有重要意义。利用2001年Landsat7和2007年Spot4影像,采用人工神经网络方法,提取郑州市土地覆被变化信息;并利用景观指数中的平均斑块面积指数、景观形状指数、平均分维指数和平均连接度指数对土地利用景观沿主要方向进行梯度分析。揭示了城市扩张与土地利用的景观变化是一个过程的两个方面;主要经济发展区已成为城市空间扩张的推动力,在提高平均地块面积和地块连通性方面起到一定积极作用,在距市中心10 km范围内紧凑度提高,整体上松散式和紧凑式扩张并存。
    Rapid urbanization, especially the speed and scale of the current Chinese urbanization, requires detailed understanding of spatial characteristics of the changing of urban landscape. This has a significant implication for rational and effective urban land use. The purpose of this paper is to derive the information of the landscape change during the spatial expansion of Zhengzhou City during 2001-2007. We detected the change of land cover avail of the remote sensed imageries of Landsat7 ETM and Spot 4. Further, we calculated the landscape matrices of mean patch size, landscape shape index, landscape fragment index, and contiguity index to measure the size of land plots, compactness of the developing, shape and connectivity respectively. In order to show the heterogeneous character of the spatial expansion, the gradient analysis was conducted in the range of 20 km radius centered the place nearby the city center, Erqi Square. The change of detection of land cover illustrated that, during that period, urban land use increased 70.6 km2 at the average annual rate of 4%, and the east, northeast and southeast were the main urban land use directions of urban expansion. The speed of expanding of the east part was nearly as two times as that of west part. The landscape matrix analysis showed that the size of land parcels increased in general, yet with a great variation. Generally, the change of landscape and urban expansion are correlated. The areas with economic-spatial driver such as the Zhengdong Xinqu and Economic Zone become a lead in the urban expansion. In the process, the size of plots and connectivity increase. Within the 10 km radius to the center, the urban land of the city became more compact, especially in the rapid urbanizing directions. But beyond that distance, the developmental pattern could be compact or loose. By comparing, landscape is slightly changed along the corridor with less economic drivers. These results call for particular attentions of planners to optimizing urban spatial structure.
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    近50年乌鲁木齐河流域垂直气候带的异同变化特征
    陈霞, 魏文寿, 刘明哲
    地理科学. 2010, 30 (4): 606-612.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.04.606
    摘要   PDF (505KB)
    依据乌鲁木齐河流域各站点近50 a的观测数据,分析垂直带内气候变化的异同特征。结果表明,年增温趋势最强的是低山带0.554℃/10 a,贡献最大是冬季温度。温度距平变化幅度除中山带为进入21世纪最大外,其他均为1990 s最大。显著增温突变年际尺度(2 a)上,低海拔带响应早于中、高山带;年代际尺度(16~23 a)上高山带最早,中山带最晚。年增湿趋势最显著是高山带20.8 mm/10 a,贡献最大是夏季降水。降水距平幅度除高山带1990 s振幅最大外,其他均为1980 s最大。降水突变特征为随着海拔高度的增加突变的响应时间依次推后。
    Based on the meteorologic data during last 50 years, this paper analyzes the characteristics of climate change in the altitudinal belts with linear tendency rate, Mann-Kendall and Wavelet of Mexican Hat. The results indicate that annual temperature increased significantly in the low mountain zone with the tendency rate of 0.554℃/10yr, contributed by winter warming, differing from middle mountain zone and alpine zone which were dominated by autumn warming. Besides amplitude of annual temperature departures changed most significantly in the 21th century in middle mountain zone, in other zones the annual temperature fluctuated greatest in the 1990s. Response of annual temperature jump transition in the lower zones is earlier than the middle mountain and alpine zone in the generational scale (2 yr), whereas alpine zone responded earliest in the decadal scale (16-23 yr). Annual precipitation in the alpine zone increased the most at a tendency rate of 20.8 mm/10 yr, attributed to summer rainfall. Amplitude of annual precipitation departures fluctuated greatest in the 1980s in other zones except the alpine zone, the highest amplitude of which was in the 1990s. Response to the annual precipitation jump transition was lagged with the increase of altitude.
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    新疆伊犁河谷晚全新世风沙沉积粒度旋回与气候变化
    李志忠, 凌智永, 陈秀玲, 王少朴, 曹相东
    地理科学. 2010, 30 (4): 613-619.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.04.613
    摘要   PDF (441KB)
    对新疆伊犁河谷可克达拉剖面(TKP)晚全新世沉积粒度参数及其气候意义分析结果表明:总体为植被较好、输沙势较弱的沉积环境。可以划分为5个气候变化阶段:3.71~3.06 ka B.P.风力由强到弱,气候暖由干到凉湿;3.06~2.78 ka B.P.风力很强、气候暖干;2.78~2.10 ka B.P.风力较弱,气候湿润;2.10~0.5 ka B.P.前期风力振荡频繁,气候较湿润;后期风力减弱、气候冷湿、成壤作用较强;0.50 ka B.P.以来,以相对冷湿为主,最近100 a来风力加强、气候趋于暖干。各阶段起止与全球气候变化基本一致,但受西风环流传递北高纬大西洋区域气候变化的影响,各气候期水热组合呈现典型西风带模式特征。
    This paper discussed the climatic significance of grain-size parameters such as Mz, σ1, SK1, Kg, D/SC, the coarse fraction(>63μm) and the clay fraction (<2μm) of 72 samples, which collected from Kekdala section (TKP) in the heart of Takelmukul desert in Yili Valley, Xinjiang. Based on parameters and OSL date data of TKP, five climate evolution stages can be divided since the late Holocene. First stage, from 3.71 kyr BP to 3.06 kyr BP, wind changed from strong to weak, and climate changed from warm-dry to cool-wet. Second stage, from 3.06 kyr BP to 2.78 kyr BP, the grain-size was very coarse, wind was very strong and the climate was warm and dry. Third stage, from 2.78 kyr BP to 2.10 kyr BP, wind was weak, vague soil formed, the climate was wet and little fluctuation. Fourth stage, from 2.10 kyr BP to 0.5 kyr BP, climate was wet, wind was strong-weak alternation and changed frequently in earlier stage; then the wind became weak and climate was cold-wet, and pedogenesis was strong. Last stage, from 0.50 kyr BP to today, the climate was relatively wet as a whole, but wind became stronger and climate was warm-dry in the latest 100 yr. The climate change agreed well with that of global change. Since the late Holocene, due to climatic change of north Atlantic in high latitude, the climate change model of Takelmukul desert has typical westerly characteristics.
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    基于热力重心的广州城市热环境时空变化分析
    孙芹芹, 吴志峰, 谭建军
    地理科学. 2010, 30 (4): 620-623.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.04.620
    摘要   PDF (275KB)
    城市热环境及其变化与城市发展关系密切,热力环境的时空变化在一定程度上反映了城市发展的空间变化格局。通过构建热力重心转移距离、热力重心转移角度以及热力重心转移贡献率3个指数,计算3个不阶段广州市城市热环境的时空变化格局。结果表明,广州市1990~2005年高温地区的热力重心一直向南迁移。城市热力重心的转移路径与城市内部各地区在不同时期的发展及扩张具有一定的关系。
    The distribution and evolution of urban thermal environment are influenced by urban development. In this study, the concept of "thermal centroid" was given to describe the distribution of urban thermal environment in Guangzhou, and three indices about it were created, including thermal diversion distance, thermal diversion direction as well as thermal diversion contribution. It was showed that, the high-temperature thermal centroid transferred to the south of Guanghzou from 1990 to 2005. During 1990-2000, Panyu District made the greatest negative contribution to the transfer, but the positive contribution was made by Panyu District during 2000-2005.
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    福州城市扩展对闽江下游水质影响的遥感分析
    温小乐, 徐涵秋
    地理科学. 2010, 30 (4): 624-629.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.04.624
    摘要   PDF (736KB)
    利用同步的影像和实测水质数据,建立悬浮物定量遥感模型,揭示2001~2006年闽江福州段悬浮物浓度的时空变化趋势,进而查明福州城市扩展对闽江水环境的影响。研究结果表明,闽江福州段悬浮物浓度在空间上呈现西低东高的分布特征,主城区沿线水质未受到城市扩展的影响,但快安-马尾河段悬浮物浓度增加显著,局部水质呈恶化趋势,这与周边大量新开发用地造成的水土流失有关。总的来看,所研究河段悬浮物浓度增加的水域面积仅占到总面积的9.4%,而浓度不变和下降的水域面积合计占到90.6%,说明整体水质日趋改善。
    The models for estimating suspended sediment concentration (SSC) of the lower Minjiang River have been established and applied to reveal the SSC distribution and dynamics of the river from 2001 to 2006. It has been found that the expansion model of the city, which was planned to expand eastward and southward, has no significant impact on the SSC of the lower Minjiang River. The increase in SSC has only been found in the river portion between Kuaian and Mawei. In general, the area of increased SSC accounts for only 9.44% of the study water area during the period. On the other hand, the area of constant SSC and decreed SSC adds up to 90.6%. These indicate that the water quality of the studied river portion was generally improved. The river passing through the main urban area of Fuzhou was not notably affected by the urban expansion. The decline of the water quality between Kuaian and Mawei was due largely to intense soil erosion caused by the building up of several new industrial estates by the river shore areas.
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    河北省平山县水帘洞遗址地质地貌环境初探
    黄华芳, 李智广, 王健, 许清海
    地理科学. 2010, 30 (4): 630-635.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.04.630
    摘要   PDF (591KB)
    水帘洞遗址位于河北省平山县西南部沕沕水生态风景区九天沐雨瀑布之后的水帘洞内。在古人类活动留下的灰烬层中发现了大量动物骨头化石和石器。根据地貌发展阶段、动物骨骼化石和石器特征,初步推测古人类生存的时代为30 ka B.P.左右的旧石器时代晚期。孢粉分析结果反映古人类生存时期的气候条件比较温和。沕沕水地区地质地貌调查和洞穴发育研究表明,水帘洞形成于中晚更新世构造稳定期,为古人类生存活动提供了良好场所,早全新世受构造活动影响,洞穴遭到破坏,古人类迁徙它处。
    A paleoanthropological site was discovered in the Shuilian cave which is behind the Jiutianmuyu waterfall of Huhushui ecological spot, Southwest Pingshan County, Hebei Province. A lot of animal bone fossils and stone implements were dug out in ash layers which were the vestiges of the ancients. Study on geological-geomorphological evolution, fossils, stones and pollen analysis indicated roughlly that the ancients were lived in the period of the late Palaeolithic Age about 30 kyr B.P. probably. Pollen analysis reflected further that the climate was mildness in the period of the ancients living. The investigation in and around the cave showed that Shuilian cave was formed in tectonic quiet periods during the Middle and Late Pleistocene, which provided a good place for ancients to exist and live in. It was probably that the ancients lived in this area from the late Pleistocene and migrated to other place while the caves broken during the early Holocene.
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    SCI、SSCI收录人文地理学期刊介绍及投稿建议
    王丹
    地理科学. 2010, 30 (4): 636-642.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.04.636
    摘要   PDF (402KB)
    在对SCI、SSCI收录期刊进行分析整理的基础上,检索出62种人文地理学相关期刊,其中SCI收录期刊4种,SSCI收录期刊60种,2种期刊同时被SCI、SSCI收录。并按照研究内容将SSCI收录的60种期刊分成9类,列出影响因子较高的期刊与发表中国作者论文数量较多的期刊,同时对这些期刊的内容、侧重点、特征、影响因子加以分析;对4种SCI期刊着重分析了特征。并就目前国内人文地理学者发表SCI、SSCI文章的现状进行分析总结,认为目前发文量低的原因主要有过分重视SCI,相对轻视SSCI,SSCI收录国内期刊少,对SSCI期刊缺乏了解3个方面。针对SSCI论文写作和投稿提出了4点建议。
    Based on an analysis on SCI and SSCI journals, 62 journals related to Human Geography is found, including 4 SCI journals and 60 SSCI journals, 2 journals that are indexed both by SCI and SSCI. Features of 4 SCI journals are then introduced and 60 SSCI journals are classified into 9 categories. Journals with high impact factor and those that have accepted more Chinese authors’ papers are especially listed where the content, emphasis, impact factor are described. Summarization is made regarding the status of Chinese human geographers publishing SCI, SSCI papers. The reasons why small quantity of Chinese human geography papers were published in SCI and SSCI journals are over-emphasizing SCI and neglecting SSCI, few Chinese journals indexed by SSCI, and lack of knowledge on SSCI journals. Finally 4 pieces of suggestion are put forward on paper writing and submission.
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