Along with the rapid development of information and communication technologies, the Internet has functioned as an important news media in people’s day-to-day lives. As the centers of flows of people, goods, information, and capital, cities have been frequently appeared in the Internet news media. However, the number of reports about city in the Internet news media is not evenly distributed for every city; instead, the distribution shows huge gaps among cities and reveal the disparity among city’s importance in the Internet. By collecting and analyzing the yearly Media Index of 281 prefectural-level and above cities in Baidu, the most popular search engine website in China, this current study firstly analyzed city’s importance and its changes in the period 2011-2014. By adopting panel data regression model this study then explained how the importance of cities in the Internet is related to its characteristics in government and market perspectives. Finally, the evolution of the influence power of government and market factors was explored from the regression model results of each year. The main conclusions can be addressed as follows. 1) There are huge gaps in the amount of coverage of cities in the Internet news media, exhibiting obvious hierarchical and spatial variation of city’s importance in the Internet. However, both variations constantly and gradually dropped in the period 2011-2014. 2) The amount of coverage of cities in the Internet news media has been heavily determined by the city’s government factor (i.e., city’s status in the hierarchical administration system) and market factor including population size, economic development performance, tourism resource, and the spatial distance from the national media center. Specifically, our panel data regression model shows that provincial-level city, city with a larger population size, a larger GDP per capita, being a national-level historical and cultural city, a closer distance from Beijing (the national media center) tends to have more chances to be reported in the Internet news media. 3) Interestingly, through regression models on the impacts of the abovementioned variable of each year, results demonstrate that the impact of government factor decreased while that of market factor increased, indicating the role of Internet in promoting economic growth in government’s recent development strategy.
以环渤海16个城市的临港石化产业为研究对象,采用修正的EG指数和产业间协同集聚指数对其2003年和2013年的集聚程度进行测算,利用空间计量模型测度其集聚效益,最后通过对比集聚类型、集聚程度和集聚效益对环渤海地区临港石化产业的集聚水平进行综合评定。主要得出以下结论： 根据EG指数取值的正负与企业的规模经济水平,将集聚分为地理空间的“区域集聚”和市场空间的“规模集聚”。2003和2013年环渤海地区临港石化产业以“区域集聚”类型为主。 2003年和2013年环渤海地区临港石化产业均为低度集聚,除了一些城市的集聚程度和产业间协同集聚程度得到提高外,大部分城市都有所降低。 经过10 a的发展,环渤海地区临港石化产业的空间相关性加强,集聚效益有所提高,但集聚对产业劳动生产率不存在稳定的正向空间影响。 环渤海地区临港石化子产业集聚水平由高到低依次为石油加工、炼焦与核燃料加工业,橡胶和塑料制品业,化学纤维制造业,医药制造业,化学原料和化学制品制造业。
Agglomeration in port areas has been a significant characteristic of the petrochemical industry in recent years. Taking the 16 cities in the Bohai Sea Rim region as examples, this article uses the EG index to measure the agglomeration level of the port petrochemical industry in 2003 and 2013, and employs the Spatial Econometric Models to test the spatial effect of agglomeration on industrial efficiency. Eventually this article measures the agglomeration level of the port-petrochemical industries by comparing the agglomeration types, degrees and efficiency. The main conclusions are as follows: 1) According to the positive and negative of the EG index and the scale of the enterprise's economies of scale, the agglomeration is divided into two types: the "regional agglomeration" and the "scale agglomeration". In 2003 and 2013, most of the petrochemical industries in the area around the Bohai Sea belong to the type of "regional agglomeration". 2) In 2003 and 2013, the degrees of the petrochemical industries in the area around the Bohai Sea are low. Overall, in 2013, the degrees of agglomeration and co-agglomeration were lower than that in 2003. But there are still some cities and sub industries’ degrees are higher or improved. 3) After the development of 10 years, the spatial correlation of the petrochemical industry is strengthened. Agglomeration has no steadily positive effect on the labor productivity of the petrochemical industries. But generally speaking, in 2013, the agglomeration efficiency was improved compared to 2003. 4) The petrochemical industry in the Bohai Sea Rim region has advantages in the manufacture of rubber and plastics products and manufacture of raw chemical materials and chemical products industries.
Cultural trade is a complex man-land relationship which is a deep combination from multiple perspectives and wide angle of views. Intensive studies on its influence factors from the geography perspective have great significance in theory and practice. Nowadays, the development of international culture trade speeds up, and quickly becomes a new driving wheel of global economic growth, at the same time, culture trade research becomes a hot spot in academic research as well. This article, based on the main export countries, regional value of trade and the main social and economic statistical data of China’s core cultural products, using multiple linear regression analysis model, examines the determinants of Chinese culture export trade. The study has found that the culture of China export trade is influenced by trade scale, industrial structure, economic scale, land area, the size of the market and other factors.
采用第五、第六次全国人口普查数据,基于流出、流入“双向”视角解析人口迁移格局及演变过程;采用空间计量模型,阐释综合城镇化及各城镇化分量值对省际人口迁移影响的空间效应。研究结果表明：① 2000~2010年省际人口迁移量成倍增长,人口迁出区域空间不断扩散,迁入区域空间虽无明显变化,但内部差异性变化明显;② 省际人口迁移存在明显的空间依赖性特征,省际人口净迁入率变化明显受周边地区的正向影响;③ 综合城镇化率变化对省际人口迁入有着重要作用。④ 人口、经济和土地城镇化率变化对人口净迁入率变化具有显著影响,且经济城镇化仍为影响省际人口迁移变化的主导因素;社会城镇化率的影响并不明显。
The migration will bring a major change in population spatial distribution in the process of rapid urbanization. Based on the fifth and sixth national population census data, it analyzes flow direction and quantity of provincial population migration from “two-way” aspects in order to explain the spatial pattern and evolution of interprovincial population migration; Furthermore, on the basis of spatial autocorrelation analysis, it build spatial econometric model to analyze the effect of comprehensive urbanization and population urbanization, economic urbanization, land urbanization and social urbanization on interprovincial population migration. The results show that: 1) In the process of rapid development of urbanization in China,the quantity of interprovincial population migration visibly increase from 2000 to 2010; Emigration region tend to be scattered, while there is no significant change of ingoing region; 2) Interprovincial population migration has obvious characteristics of spatial dependence, and net immigration rate change is under the positive influence of surrounding areas; 3) Through the analysis of the spatial association between urbanization changes and interprovincial population migration changes, it verified comprehensive urbanization included the factors of population, economy, land and social play an important role on interprovincial population immigration; 4) The changes of population, economy and land urbanization has significant effects on population immigration, however social urbanization is not obvious. In the multi-dimensional component of urbanization, economy urbanization is still dominant factors that affect the change of interprovincial population migration.
In recent years, urban expansion is grim with rapid urbanization in China. Border recognition for urban and rural space is the technical prerequisite of urban sprawl control. Existing urban-rural boundary identification methods could accurately extract the city boundaries in theory, but also has some difficulties including data acquisition, poor real-time and heavy workload. Therefore, we proposed an approach based road networks segmentation applied to quickly identify urban border in regional scale. The method was based on strong coupling link between road network and urban spatial structure. Rural patches and urban patches were generated with a geographic division of the road network. By calculating optimal solution of the evaluation accuracy with land use map, rural patches and urban patches were used to identify urban and rural space. Taking Jing-Jin-Ji as an example, the space of urban and rural area was extracted and the related accuracy was verified. Then this article analyzed the spatial pattern of urban and rural, characteristics of road network and economic efficiency of urban land. Results indicated that: 1) The extraction accuracy by this method is high, and it can be used for low-cost, fast and efficient identification for urban-rural space on regional scale; 2) Urban spatial distribution of Jing-Jin-Ji presented a significant differences of “bigger Beijing and Tianjin, smaller Hebei”, and characteristics of road network density presented three remarkable high-density region in Beijing, Tianjin and Shijiazhuang, exhibiting high coupling with urban spatial distribution; 3) The economic efficiency of urban land in Jing-Jin-Ji was generally good in 2015 and overall efficiency value in Shijiazhuang, Baoding and Chengde was poor and needed to further improve the efficiency of land use. In total, spatial identification for urban and rural based on road network data have an advantage from real-time data and relatively high computational efficiency, furtherly enriching the existing urban-rural boundary extraction methods.
通过梳理历代文学作品尤其是诗词中的玉门关、阳关、嘉峪关,探析这些地理界标在当时人空间认知中的指代;并确定同期中原与西域间的地理界标;比较界标和界标意象,解读两者之间的关系,探讨界标变动的推动因素。分析发现：① 地理界标缘于疆域的变动和边防经略的调整,其规模、位置等自然之形随着丝绸之路路线变迁而改变;② 中原与西域两大空间的界标与国家疆域时而背离、时而重合;③ 当中原王朝管控能力强时,界标与界标意象重合,反之,界标与意象出现背离。借助文学作品来阐释它们的变迁历程,是深入开展边疆史地研究的一次尝试,为历史地理学研究提供新的视角。
By combing the Yumen Pass, Yangguan and Jiayuguan in the literary works especially poems all previous dynasties, the present article attempts to explore the reference of the image on geographic landmark in people’s spatial cognition, determine the geographic landmark between the Central Plains and the Western Regions during the same period,and compare the relationship between the landmarks and the image of landmark, and explore the driving factors of the change on geographic landmarks. The analysis showed: 1) Natural shape such as size and position on geographical landmark is changed with the route of the silk road, due to the change of the territory and the adjustment of border control. 2) The landmarks of the two great Spaces between the Central Plains and the Western Regions sometimes are deviate from the state boarders and sometimes overlap. When the control ability of zhongyuan dynasty is strong, the relation should be synchronized between the geographic landmark and the image of the landmark, otherwise asynchronous.
在RS和GIS的支持下集成多源数据,重建了建三江垦区下辖农场1990年、2000年、2010年和2015年4个时期的城镇用地格局。应用动态度模型等探讨了建三江垦区城镇用地扩张的时空特征及区域差异,分析了其驱动因素。结果表明：① 1990~2015年,建三江垦区城镇用地面积增加了3 237.5 hm2,平均扩张速率为130 hm2/a,扩张速率最显著的阶段是2000~2010年。② 垦区下辖农场城镇用地扩张时空差异明显,建三江管局所在城镇扩张面积最大;浓江农场扩张相对比例最大;动态度模型分析发现二道河农场扩张速度最快,勤得利农场的城镇用地扩张速率最慢,扩张面积最小。③ 建三江垦区以农场为城镇单元的建设用地扩张模式主要为线性轴状扩张。④ 城镇人口数量、经济水平的不断提升、产业结构的优化与区域政策极大地促进了垦区城镇用地的扩张,交通条件是城镇扩张速率和模式的重要影响因素。
Under the background of rapid increase in urban population and economic development, study on the urban expansion and its driving forces is critical to urban planning and achievement of the Chinese new urbanization. The urban system taking farm as basic unit and modern agriculture as mainstay industry suggests the unique urbanization characteristics in reclamation area. By means of RS and GIS and integrating multiple datasets, this study reconstructed the urban patterns of Jiansanjiang reclamation area in 1990, 2000, 2010, and 2015. Spatio-temporal characteristics of urban expansion were investigated by employing the dynamic index, and its driving forces were analyzed in this article. Results showed that: 1) Urban area in Jiansanjiang expanded 3 237.5 hm2 during 1990-2015, with a mean expansion rate of 130 hm2/a, when the significant expansion was observed in the period of 2000-2010. 2) Urban expansion differed spatially and temporally among these farms managed by Jiansanjiang. The town located by Jiansanjiang authority have the largest urban expansion area, when the Nongjiang farm have the largest expansion percentage. Analyzes of dynamic index reveal that the most rapid urban expansion was observed in Erdaohe farm, while the smallest in Qindeli farm. 3) The dominate urban expansion mode is linear-axis expansion for the farms of Jiansanjiang. 4) Increases of urban population number and social economic level, improvement of industrial structure, and regional policy notably promote the expansion of urban area. Traffic condition is the dominate factor affecting the rate and mode of urban expansion. Study on the spatio-temporal characteristics of urban expansion and its driving forces taking Jiansanjiang as an example could contribute to understand the trend of urban expansion and driving mechanism of reclamation districts in Heilongjiang, and also play an important role in guiding the construction of new urbanization in China.
Angel investment is a particular investing behavior with risks, which has its own generating soil and diffusion process. This article constructs a space spillover model for China angel investment behavior by using knowledge spillover theory, to analyze diffusion and interplay of China angel investment. It is discovered by empirical analysis that angel investment behavior has a space diffusion process and a multi-level spillover circle structure is formed. There are two core spillover circles in China, Beijing and the Yangtze River Delta; they are dual-engine for development of China angel investment. Beijing Circle is the biggest spillover ring, and a 3-level comprehensive interaction structure with Beijing as its center, Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei as the core region, and Shanxi, Inner Mongolia, Henan as the peripheral region. Extensive interaction spillovers are formed between Beijing and other areas of the country, which play extensive and important roles in promoting China angel investing. Spillover circle of Yangtze River delta is the fastest developing region for China angel investment; they are mainly outwards strong one-way spillover, which have strong promotion to China angel investment. There are mainly three subprime spillover circles in China: Northeast China, Southwest China and Northwest China, subprime spillover circles rely on core spillover circle and are affected by core circle. Northeast and Southwest spillover rings are relatively steady, while Northwest spillover circle is weal. There are better spillover interactions with subprime spillover circle, but its external influence is weak, and it is more influenced by spillover of other area. Internal relations of central region are extremely complex, there are potentials but spillover circles are not formed. It has extensive correlation with each region of the country and plays a linking role in the development of China angel investment . Guangdong is one of the several regions with largest development scale of China angel investment , but it develops individually, thus its influence is limited. Other region of the country is less developed areas for development of angel investment, they have weak correlations with the outside world. So, core promoting effect of two core spillover circle, as well as the pivotal role of the central region should be played positively, to promote development of subprime spillover circle and driven the development of other areas of the country layer by layer, leading the benign development of angel investment in areas of the whole country.
Rurality is an important geographical concept that represents territorial type in rural areas. The result of rurality evaluation could identify effectively the type of rural region, and also is an indispensable basis for revealing the current situation of rural development and guiding rural transformation development and smart management. First, this paper systematically sorted out the viewpoints of the studies of rurality evaluation at home and abroad in the past half a century, and then the analytical results indicated that rurality evaluation was impacted deeply by regional scale, and showing a significant trend of microcosmic and applied research in recent years. Second, this paper explored the method of rurality evaluation at village scale, built the evaluation index system of rurality, and further evaluated and graded the indexes of land use, population and settlement, industrial structure, urban-rural linkage and comprehensive rurality, using the well-developed Jintan city located in the south of Jiangsu province as a case. Third, the result showed that the indexes of comprehensive rurality ranged from 0.16 to 0.76, and rurality indexes of most villages were below 0.50, which indicating rural urbanization phenomenon had become more and more obvious in Jintan city. Then the spatial differentiation characters of rurality of each spatial unit had been identified in Jintan city. More specifically, several conclusions were followed: 1) The rurality indexes of land use were high in the north-central and south-central Jintan city, low in the areas around the city and townships. 2) The rurality indexes of population and settlements were high in Xuebu town, low in the middle and east of Jintan city. 3) Primary industry-oriented areas were mainly distributed in the central regions, such as Zhixi town, Zhulin town, Zhiqian town; and the eastern areas showed the opposite trend. 4) The rurality indexes of urban-rural relation were high in the western remote areas, low in the regions with convenient communications and vantage points. 5) The comprehensive rurality indexes showed the significant features of spatial agglomeration, and the spatial agglomeration degrees were high in the west, low in the eastern part of Jintan city. Fourth, the logical relationship between rurality and rural development had been further identified, in short, rurality was the important representation of rural development, and rural development was the ontology of rurality mapping. Under the guidance of this logic, this paper summed up three rural development models: 1) The main driving force of rural development came from the exchange of urban-rural elements in some region, that was, trading agricultural products for urban goods and services; 2) Some villages had advantages on local characteristic resources, and those were helpful to rural prosperity; 3)There were close connections between the city and the villages in some region, where rural development would benefit from the urban economic diffusion. Then this article further proposed several development strategies corresponding to those models. In conclusion, this paper provided a scientific reference for identifying rural development situation, improving policy measures of spatial development control, and promoting rural sustainable development; meanwhile, it was a meaningful supplement for the quantitative evaluation on rurality at village scale in China.
通过构建乡村功能评价的指标体系及测度模型,以长株潭地区23个县市区为地域单元,对研究区乡村经济发展、粮食生产、社会保障与生态旅游功能的地域分异特征与规律进行研究。结果表明：① 长株潭城市群的经济发展功能、粮食生产功能、社会保障功能和生态旅游功能指数普遍较低,但各功能之间发展较为均衡;② 长株潭城市群的乡村功能地域分异特征较为明显,经济功能一级区主要分布在长株潭城市群的核心区,以长沙市6个区及国家级经济技术开发区所在地长沙县为主,粮食生产功能一级区主要分布在芦淞区、浏阳市、湘潭县、宁乡县,社会保障功能呈现出由中心城市向外围地域逐渐减弱的特征,且距离中心城市越远,其功能越弱,生态旅游功能强势区主要分布在茶陵县、芙蓉区、岳麓区、韶山市、炎陵县、宁乡县、浏阳市、雨花区等山区丘陵地带。
The village is an important inheritance of urban function diffusion and transfer, and has unique functions such as ecological landscape function, agricultural economic function, social emotional function, cultural aesthetics and so on. In the process of urbanization in China, the development concept of ‘focusing on city, ignoring rural’ has sacrificed the interests of the countryside for a long time. The development path of economic efficiency has neglected the protection of rural multi-value functions such as ecology, society and culture, and how to understand the characteristics and laws of the regional differentiation of rural functions in the new period, how to integrate the population, industry, infrastructure and ecological environment between urban and rural areas, and how to solve the problem of regional differentiation and functions. Constructing the functional structure system of organic coordination between urban and rural, so that the promotion of rural functions not only can become an important fulcrum to crack the "urban disease" and "rural disease", but also gradually develop the village into an unique charm and competitively happy home, and it has become an important issue to be solved in the theoretical research, urban and rural integrated development and beautiful rural construction practice. Based on the index system and measure model of rural function evaluation, this study takes the 23 counties and districts of Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan urban agglomeration area as the regional unit, and analyzes the regional differentiation characteristics of rural economic development, grain production, social security and eco-tourism in the study area. The results show that: the economic development function, grain production function, social security function and eco-tourism function of Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan urban agglomeration are generally low, but the development of each function is more balanced; the regional characteristics of rural function of Chang-Zhu-Tan urban agglomeration is obvious, the economic-oriented function areas are mainly distributed in the core area of Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan urban agglomeration, mainly in 6 districts of Changsha City and Changsha County, the seat of the National Economic and Technological Development Zones, and the grain production-oriented function areas are mainly distributed in Lusong District, Liuyang City, Xiangtan County, Ningxiang County, the social security function shows a gradual decrease from the central city to the periphery, and the farther away from the central city, the weaker the function, the strong distributions of eco-tourism functions are mainly in mountain and hilly areas of Chaling County , Furong District, Yuelu District, Shaoshan City, Yanling County, Ningxiang County, Liuyang City, Yuhua District and so on .
With the rapid urbanization development, China is facing the realistic demand of urban disaster prevention and mitigation presently. Strengthening the research on the urban social vulnerability to disaster and promoting the sound and safety development of urban has an important academic and practical significance. Based on the domestic and foreign research of urban social vulnerability to disaster, this article tries to make a deep review and summary, which focuses on some hot issues on urban social vulnerability to disasters. The study finds that: Presently, the social vulnerability has become an important research paradigm for urban vulnerability to disaster. However, scholars have obvious controversy on definition of the comprehensive dimension of social vulnerability to urban disaster, construction of vulnerability assessment method, interpretation of the relationship between social vulnerability and natural hazards, and the selection of the study scale etc. This article attempts to make an in-depth discussion on these disputes, and puts forward future research direction for the urban social vulnerability to disaster research, which will provide some scientific basis for the future work of urban disaster prevention and mitigation of China.
以黑龙江省巴彦县为研究区,基于研究区DEM数据,运用土地利用类型的分布指数、土地利用结构的信息熵、均衡度和优势度,明确研究区土地利用空间格局的地形梯度特征及地形因子对土地利用空间格局的影响。结果表明：① 研究区土地利用空间格局在地形因子的作用下存在明显的梯度特征,旱地、水田、草地、水域、建设用地及其他用地主要分布在较低地形级别区,林地主要分布在较高地形级别区。② 除林地以外,其他土地利用类型分布的优势地形位均位于较低地形级别区,林地分布的优势地形位位于较高地形级别区,各土地利用类型分布的优势区域不尽相同。③ 研究区土地利用结构的信息熵及均衡度变化趋势相同,优势度的变化趋势与信息熵、均衡度的变化趋势相反,土地利用空间格局与地形因子具有显著的相关性。
The purpose of this article is to explore the relationship between spatial distribution of land use and topographic factors and provide new ideas for regional land use planning. The study area of this study is Bayan County, Heilongjiang Province, in Northeast China. Three kind of topographic factors are extracted, which are elevation, slope and aspect, based on the DEM data of research area by the utilizing of GIS. The distribution characteristics of different kind of land use type among different topographic factors are identified after the classification of the three topographic factors which were extracted. Based on that, distribution index of land use type among different topographic factors are calculated, including the information entropy, equilibrium degree, dominance degree of land use structure and the correlation coefficient between different land use style and topographic factors. So that, the relationship between spatial distribution of land use and topographic factors could be identified. The results show that: 1) The spatial distribution of land use in research area shows gradient feature due to the impact of topographic factors. There are more dry land, paddy field, grassland, water area, construction land and other land in the region of low level of terrain, but more forest land in the region of high level of terrain. 2) Except forest land, the dominant landforms of other land use types are located at lower levels, and the predominant terrain of forest land distributed in the area of high level of topographic factors. The dominance regions of different land use types are different. The dominant region of dry land is the central and northwest region of the study area, the dominant region of paddy field is the southern edge of the study area, the dominant area of forest land is the northeast and southeast of the study area, the dominant region of construction land is the south of the study area, the dominant area of grassland is the northwest and the southern edge of the study area, the dominant region of water area is the southern edge of the study area and the dominant area of other land is in the south of the study area. 3) The degree of order, equilibrium and dominance of land use structure in the study area have a certain gradient under the function of topographic factors. The information entropy and equilibrium degree of the land use structure show the same changing trend, the values of information entropy and equilibrium degree of the land use structure are larger in the area of low level of elevation and slope. The trend of dominance is opposite to the information entropy and equilibrium, the dominance value of single land use type is higher in the area of high level of elevation and slope. Thus, the distribution of land use types are significantly correlated with topographic factors.
利用法国国家气象研究中心气候模型（Centre National de Recherches Météorologiques Climate Model, CNRM）典型代表性浓度路径（Representative Concentration Pathway, RCP）情景资料和可变下渗容量模型（Variable Infiltration Capacity Model,VIC）,分析了淮河流域未来气温、降水、水资源及可能洪水的变化趋势。结果表明,淮河流域未来气温将持续升高,RCP2.6、RCP4.5和RCP8.5情景下未来2021~2050年较基准期（1961~1990年）升幅分别约为1.13℃、1.10℃和1.35℃;流域降水可能呈现略微增加趋势,3种排放情景下2021~2050年降水较基准期将分别增加5.81%、8.26%和6.94%;VIC模型在淮河流域具有较好的适用性,能较好地模拟淮河流域的水文过程,在率定期和检验期,模型对王家坝站和蚌埠站模拟的水量相对误差都在5%以内,日径流过程的Nash-Sutcliffe模型效率系数（NSE）在0.70以上,月径流过程的NSE达到0.85以上。气候变化将导致淮河流域水文循环强度增加,流域水资源总体将可能呈增加趋势,王家坝站和蚌埠站断面洪水事件的发生可能性将增大。
Climate change has been to be hot topic and hot spot in recent years. Hydrologic precess has been impact by climate change significantly. Nowdays climate change scenariois a very important and useful tool in the study of climate change. Based on the data of Centre National de Recherches Météorologiques Climate Model (CNRM) under Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) emission scenarios and Variable Infiltration Capacity model(VIC model), temperature, precipitation, water resources and flood events in future over the Huaihe River Basin were analyzed. The results show that the temperature keeps on significant rising trend in 2021-2050, with rising of 1.13℃,1.10℃ and 1.35℃ under RCP2.6, RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios compared with baseline(1961-1990) respectively. Precipitations under the three RCP scenarios were projected to increase by 5.81%, 8.26% and 6.94% during 2021-2050 compared with baseline in 1961-1990. The VIC model hasgood ability to simulate the hydrological process over the Huaihe River Basin. The VIC model can effectively simulate the daily andmonthly discharge procedure, water balance errors between simulated and recorded discharge for two hydrometric stations which are Wangjiaba and Bengbu are less than 5%, while Nash-Sutcliffe coefficients of daily and monthly discharge simulation are both beyond 0.70 and 0.85 respectively both of calibration and validation．So we can use the VIC model to assess the hydrologicalprocess change effectively. Water Resources in the future over the Huaihe River Basin may take a slight increasing trend, but the extremeflood events would be more severe and the floodrisk would be further expanded in the future under the changing climate. In order to adapt and mitigate the impact of climate change, the plan and strategy about sustainable flood management should be proposed as soon as possible.
采煤沉陷湖由采煤地表沉陷经常年积水而形成,把采煤沉陷湖改造为人工湿地是近年来中国尝试的一种生态修复途径。由于采煤沉陷湖人工湿地对区域微观环境改良作用明显,从而对周边土地价格产生溢出效应。以平原高潜水位地区采煤沉陷湖人工湿地——九里湖湿地为研究案例,以商业和住宅用地为研究对象,分别采集九里湖湿地生态修复前后相同评估基准日的区域地价样点数据,通过Kriging空间插值生成价格曲面,以地统计和GIS栅格计算的方法测度了九里湖湿地对周边土地价格的溢出效应。研究表明,越接近九里湖湿地,土地价格涨幅越高,且明显高于九里湖湿地所在区域土地价格的平均涨幅,显示出九里湖湿地对周边土地价格产生了明显的溢出效应。经进一步测算得出,九里湖湿地对周边商业、住宅用地价格的溢出效应影响范围分别为21.07 km2和20.76 km2,影响强度分别为135.76元/m2、182.39元/m2。把溢出效应影响范围和城市规划用地进行套合,通过栅格计算得出,研究期间九里湖湿地对周边商业、住宅用地价格的溢出效应价值分别为20 225.64万元、20 507.09万元,其溢出效应的价值总量（ΔSE）为40 732.73万元。
A coal mining subsidence lake is formed by coal mining subsidence which is ponded by years. Transforming the coal mining subsidence lake into an artificial wetland is an approach to ecological restoration in recent years in China. As the artificial wetland in the coal mining lake has obvious effect on improvement of regional micro environment, spillover effect on surrounding land price of the artificial wetland in the coal mining lake is therefor emerged. This paper took Jiuli Lake wetland in Xuzhou City which is an artificial wetland in Plain area with high groundwater level, as study case, selected commercial and residential lands in the study area as a research object, collected data of land price samples on the same valuation date in 2007 and 2013 which are correspond to years before and after ecological restoration of Jiuli Lake wetland respectively, generated data of land price samples into land price surfaces by a way of Kriging spatial interpolation to estimate spillover effect of Jiuli Lake wetland on surrounding land price by a method of Geostatistics and GIS grid computing. The results show that the closer the land to the empirical study area is, the higher the land price increases, and significantly higher than the average price of the land in the region where the empirical study is located. It shows that Jiuli Lake wetland has obvious spillover effect on surrounding land price. After further calculation, impact ranges of spillover effect of Jiuli Lake wetland on surrounding commercial and residential land prices are 21.07 km2 and 20.76 km2 respectively, and impact intensities are 135.76 yuan/m2 and 182.39 yuan/m2 respectively. Combining the impact ranges with Xuzhou City lands planning, The values of the impacted land areas were ascertained. Through GIS grid calculation, values of the spillover effect of Jiuli Lake wetland on surrounding commercial and residential land prices are 202.26 million yuan and 205.07 million yuan respectively, the total is 407.33 million yuan.
依据2014年第10号强台风“麦德姆”登陆前后福建平潭岛典型海岸沙席的形态观测与近表层沉积物粒度数据,综合分析了海岸沙席对台风的响应特征。结果表明：① 海岸沙席形态对“麦德姆”的响应明显,主要表现为沙席前缘高程降低（最大侵蚀深度为0.40 m）,中部变化较小（-0.06~0.09 m）,后缘明显升高（最大堆积厚度为1.62 m）,沙席体积增大2.02%。② 海岸沙席近表层沉积物粒度受“麦德姆”影响较小,其粒度参数在台风前后并无质的等级性变化。③ 海岸沙席的台风响应特征主要因台风过程中大风的非选择性侵蚀和搬运及海岸沙席与海滩沙粒度的相近性所造成的,同时也受到周边地势及植被等的影响。
Field investigations, including morphology and grain size of the near surface sediment over coastal sand sheet, was conducted at Pingtan Island of Fujian Province before and after the tenth Typhoon “Matmo”landed in 2014. In this article, we analyzed the characteristics of the morphology and grain size of coastal sand sheet responses to typhoon. The results indicated that: 1) The sediment volumes of coastal sand sheet increased 2.02% than before the typhoon “Matmo” landed. Spatially, the main variation of response to typhoon was discovered in the coastal sand sheet. The elevation of beach and frontal coastal sand sheet decreased with the maximum of erosion depth of 0.40 m, few variations of elevation at the middle sites of coastal sand sheet (-0.06 - 0.09 m), and the increase of elevation was found with the maximum accretion of 1.62 m at trailing edge of coastal sand sheet. 2) The grain size parameters have no magnitude variations and the grain size has no significant features of response to Typhoon “Matmo” in the nearsurface sediment of the study area. 3) In the process of the typhoon, the principal factors which influence coastal sand sheet responses to typhoon “Matmo” are the erosion nonselective of strong wind and similarity of grain size of coastal, and the terrain and vegetation around coastal sand sheet also play a role.
Fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method is widely used in the comprehensive evaluation of seawater quality. But its model calculation is more complicated, and the model is difficult to self adjustment and self validation.This paper will introducethe unity of opposites and variable quality Exchange Theorem of fuzzy evaluation, and bulid a variable fuzzy recognition model of seawater environmental quality. Firstly, the principle and method of variable fuzzy evaluation method is analyzed, and then a variable fuzzy comprehensive evaluation model of seawater environment based on multi source raster data is established, based on the unique advantages of GIS raster data, geographic information system spatial overlay analysis, spatial modeling of geographic information system and so on. In the expression of spatial information, the spatial distribution of seawater environment in Laizhou Bay from 2004 to 2010 was obtained. It is proved that the model is feasible in the comprehensive evaluation of seawater quality, and provides a new method for the comprehensive evaluation and decision of multi objective in the field of marine environment. The monitoring results of many years show that the water quality of Laizhou Bay is poor as a whole, the comprehensive evaluation grade value is between 1.60~3.32, the content of dissolved inorganic nitrogen is generally higher, the evaluation grade is decreasing from west and southwest to the northeast, and is fanning out. There is a small range in the central area of the Laizhou Bay estuary, the spatial distribution maps showed obvious protrusions.
基于河南1960~2014年18个气象台站逐日最高温、最低温、平均气温实测数据,采用线性趋势、相关分析等方法,根据选取的16个极端气温指数,分析了河南省极端气温变化趋势和空间差异,探讨了极端气温指数的影响因素以及与该区气候变化的关系。结果表明：① 河南近55 a来日最高气温的极小值、最低气温的极大/小值、暖昼/夜日数、夏季日数、热夜日数、暖持续日数、生物生长季呈现增大/加趋势;日最高气温的极大值、冷昼/夜日数、冰/霜冻日数、冷持续日数和气温日较差呈现减小/少趋势。② 极端最低气温的变暖主要发生在黄淮海平原区、豫西南南阳盆地以及豫南桐柏山-大别山山地丘陵区;而极端最高气温的变暖则主要发生在豫西山地丘陵区。③ 与中国其他地区相比,河南极端气温近55 a的变化速率较慢,低温出现的日数显著减少;但近20 a来大部分极端气温指数的变化速率均提高了2倍多,表明该区极端气温进入了加速变化阶段。④ 相关分析表明河南极端气温指数变化可以指示该区气候变化,且地形条件是该区极端气温空间变化的控制因素。
Based on the daily temperature (average, maximum and minimum) data of 18 meteorological stations from 1960 to 2014 in Henan province, the variation trends and spatial differences of 16 extreme temperature indices are analyzed by using the linear regression and correlation analysis methods. Besides, the influence factors of the extreme temperature indices and the relationship between extreme temperature indices and climate change are also discussed. The results are as follows: 1) In the last 55 years, coldest day (TXn), warmest night (TNx), coldest night (TNn), warm days (TX90P), warm nights (TN90P), summer days (SU25), tropical nights (TR20), warm spell duration days (WSDI) and growing season length (GSL) indicate statistically significant increasing trends. Whereas, warmest day (TXx), cool days (TX10P), cool nights (TN10P), ice days (ID0), frost days (FD0), cold spell duration days (CSDI) and diurnal temperature range (DTR) have significantly decreasing trends. 2) In terms of spatial variations, the extreme cold temperature increase in the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain, Nanyang Basin and the hilly area of Tongbai-Dabie mountainous area. Meanwhile, the increase of extreme warm temperature has mainly occurred in the western mountainous and hilly region of Henan Province. 3) Compared to other areas of China, the change rate of extreme temperature in Henan is slowly, in last 55 a, the cold days have significantly decreased. However, the change rate of extreme temperature of last 20 a has increased more than two times than last 55 a, this shows that the change rate of extreme temperature in Henan is accelerating. 4) Based on the correlation results, the variation of extreme temperature in Henan could indicate the climate change in this area. Besides, the topographic condition is the dominant factor for the spatial variations of the extreme temperature in Henan.
This study proposes a new rule-based method to locate soil erosion under moderate-to high-density forest canopy using remote sensing techniques. Five factors that are closely related to the soil erosion in forest are specially selected and used as discriminators to develop the discrimination rules. The selected five factors include fractional vegetation coverage, nitrogen reflectance index, yellow leaf index, bare soil index, and slope degree. The selection of these five factors aims to detect vegetation density, vegetation health status, soil exposure degree, and terrain steepness. These five factors can all be derived from remote sensing imagery based on related thematic indices or algorithms. The proposed method was applied to the forest areas in Changting County of Fujian Province, southern China. The Hetian town of the county is one of the most typical soil loss areas in the red soil regions in southern China. A Landsat 8 OLI image acquired on October 15, 2014, in-situ measured spectral data, and nutrient data from soil samples have been used as data sources for the study. The result reveals a total area of 311.66 km2 of soil erosion in forest of the county. Of them, 13.35% is in moderate erosion intensity and the rest is in light erosion intensity. The accuracy assessment against ground truth indicates that the method can achieve an overall accuracy of 88.45%, with a Kappa coefficient of 0.731. The revealed locations of soil erosion in forest provide very useful information for Changting County to develop land management plans to further reduce soil loss in forest.
Essentially, the evolution of globalization is a process of the game between global forces, which is represented by capital, and local forces. Previous studies pay more attention to the dualistic power relationship in the Fourth World, thus ignoring the possibility of constructing a compatible mechanism of power negotiation between capital and place in developed areas. On the base of discussing the landscape changes of Matsu Cultural Tourism Festival, this article uses local festivals as a measurable indicator and takes the cause, process and operation of Xunliao Matsu Council, which is a power rely organization, as the main line to show the interaction and negotiation between capital and place during the ritual stages and display the power mechanism behind the local festival. It is argued that the council is the production of interaction and negotiation between capital and place, its establishment takes the festival into a new chapter. The paper shows the operation process of power relationships through the special performance of operation process hosted by council, further reveals the discourse power and strategies taken by different groups. Research finding shows that the outcome of game between capital and place is not limited to the reconstruction of the festival itself, but also gives birth to a new power subject. It is both dependent and resistant to the capital, also both strong and democratic to local communities. Its special motivation, semi-official attribution and complex internal relationship make it the backbones during the changes of festival. It is argued that the interaction and negotiation among capital consortium, which is from top to down, council, which is a regulated rely station, and local communities, which is from down to top, promotes local festival transform from production ceremony, which originally takes developing Matsu culture as the main function, to the attribution of a power practice, which highlights the commercial value of culture and takes local culture heritage into consideration. This new power organization, which is generated by the relationship between capital and place and promotes the changes of festival with capital and place, enriches microscopic power mechanism research of changes of local festival in the context of globalization.