在以“空间流”为逻辑的区域空间组织下,借由城际交通与信息网络的全面发展改变着社会经济空间结构的深度与广度,由此产生的“时空压缩”效应大幅度增强城市信息联系,促使现代城市在“空间流”的作用下不断扩展城市网络空间。针对中国在城镇化发展过程中出现的沿海三大城市群：长三角、京津冀以及珠三角城市群,对其进行城市空间网络分析,结果表明：① 公路运输、普通列车、高速列车、信息网络在一定程度上把相互连接的城市转变成为城市空间对外拓展的网络节点,拉近节点城市与周边城市的时空距离,带动城市群区域信息“网络化”结构的形成;② 长三角城市群城市空间网络主要以上海（沪）、南京（宁）核心节点城市构成,北翼网络化程度较高于南翼线性联系程度,其区域联系密度以“沪-宁”“沪-杭”沿线向两侧递减;其城市群城市网络拓展流向主要是以上海→湖州、上海→宁波、上海→泰州、南京→扬州、南京→镇江、南京→无锡、南京→苏州、南京→上海、杭州→宁波等城市流向,呈现典型多中心结构;③ 京津冀城市群城市空间网络主要以北京、天津为核心向外辐射,形成了以廊坊、沧州、承德、张家口等次级城市网络连线。其城市群城市间网络的拓展流向主要是以北京→天津、北京→石家庄、北京→秦皇岛、北京→廊坊、天津→秦皇岛、天津→石家庄等城市流向,呈现典型的双核心结构,这些城市彼此之间呈现复杂网状联系特征,其中,北京-天津-石家庄围成度中心网络的核心圈层,度中心值较低的其他10个城市节点组成外围低密度圈层;④ 珠三角城市群城市空间网络主要以广州、深圳、珠海为核心向外辐射,形成了以佛山、惠州、江门等次级城市网络连线。其城市群城市网络拓展方向主要以广州→深圳、广州→肇庆、广州→东莞、深圳→广州、深圳→东莞、珠海→东莞等城市流向。其中,广东、深圳处于网络的绝对中心位置,广东-深圳-东莞-佛山围成度中心网络的核心圈层,度中心值较低的其他5个城市节点组成外围低密度圈层,多核心网络结构特征显著。
In the regional spatial organization established based on the logic of spatial flow, the development of intercity transportation and information network is changing the depth and extent of the social economic spatial structure. Therefore, time-space compression leads to the considerable consolidation of informational linkage among cities and further facilitates the constant expansion of the network space of modern cities under the effect of spatial flow. This study analyzes the spatial expansion of urban information for the three coastal agglomerations that emerged during the urbanization of China, namely, the Yangtze River Delta, Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei, and the Pearl River Delta Urban agglomerations. The findings are provided as follows: 1) Highway, ordinary train, high-speed train, and information network have transformed interconnecting cities to functional network nodes for the external expansion of urban information, shortened the temporal and spatial distance between the nodes and the surrounding cities, and driven the formation of a networking structure of information for urban agglomerations; 2) The spatial expansion of the urban information on the Yangtze River Delta Urban agglomerations is mainly composed of key node cities, including Shanghai and Nanjing. The networking degree of the northern area is higher than the linear connection degree of the southern area, and the regional linkage density declines sideward from the Shanghai-Nanjing and Shagnhai-Hangzhou lines; the spatial direction of urban network is Shanghai→Huzhou, Shanghai→Ningbo, Shanghai→Taizhou, Nanjing→Yangzhou, Nanjing→Zhenjiang, Nanjing→Wuxi, Nanjing→Suzhou, Nanjing→Shanghai, Hangzhou→Ningbo; 3) The urban information of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Urban agglomeration mainly diverges from Beijing and Tianjin to form a network connection with secondary cities, including Langfang, Cangzhou, Chengde, and Zhangjiakou, the spatial direction of urban network is Beijing→Tianjin, Beijing→Shijiazhuang, Beijing→Qinhuangdao, Beijing→Langfang, Tianjin→Qinhuangdao, Tianjin→Shijiazhuang, among others. Beijing, Tianjin, and Shijiazhuang form the core circle layer of the degree centrality network, whereas the other 10 low-degree centrality urban nodes form the periphery low-density circle layer; 4) The urban information of the Pearl River Delta Urban agglomerations diverges from Guangzhou, Shenzhen, and Zhuhai to form a network connection with secondary cities, the spatial direction of urban network is Guangzhou→Shenzhen, Guangzhou→Zhaoqing, Guangzhou→Dongguan, Shenzhen→Guangzhou, Shenzhen→Dongguan, Zhuhai→Dongguan, including Foshan, Huizhou, and Jiangmen. Guangzhou and Shenzhen are located as the absolute center of the network. Guangzhou, Shenzhen, Dongguan, and Foshan form the core circle layer of the degree centrality network, and other 7 low-degree centrality urban nodes form the periphery low-density circle layer. The network features a recognizable ‘core-periphery’ structure.
Highlighting the significance of ‘humanity’ in understanding of ‘human-land relations’, the humanist thinking has a great impact upon the current research in the field of human geography. Taking the sub-field of geopolitics as an example, the current geopolitical research has focused too much on the element of humanity for the production of geopolitical knowledge, which is majorly related to the study of ‘critical geopolitics’. However, the most recent studies in human geography have begun to re-emphasize on the importance of ‘materiality’ under the theoretical framework of posthumanism, discussing how the materiality subverts the subjectivity of the humanity. On this basis, this article draws on the case study of People’s Daily and Sina Weibo and adopts the methods of NVivo and comparative study to explore how topic of the US war on terror is discussed in these two various media spaces, from the lens of posthumanism which, to a great extent, can be read as an extension of critical geopolitics. Specifically, this article explores whether and (if so) to what extent the humanity and their understanding of geopolitics are under the impact of the ‘materiality’ (which is embodied as Internet technology in this article), and whether the dominance of humanity in the understanding of human-land relationship is and will be challenged. The NVivo analysis and the comparative study shows that, the Internet technology to a significant extent impacts Chinese people’s subjectivity and their geo-understandings, for the reason of its revolutionary influence upon political communications. To be exactly, the feature of the multi-intervention and exponential ways of communication in the Internet based communities has finally resulted in the multivariate media landscape in this space. Moreover, the Internet technology has urged the contemporary media to pursue ‘fast’ and ‘new’, and thus abandoned the authority, authencity and logic that are underlined in the traditional media. Such technology-based media behavior to a certain extent leads to the emotional and affectual geopolitical expressions in the Internet space. On this basis, this article has contributed to the renewal of theories, methodologies and philosophies in the recent studies of human geography, paying attention to whether ‘material’ elements have impact upon people’s understandings of human-land relationship. In so doing, this article has contributed to the development of posthumanist geography in geographical studies. From an empirical and practical perspective, this article warns the danger of that, the Internet technology and related equipment are becoming extensions and parts of human bodies and so that are gradually eroding the humanity’s biological characteristics.
Industrial green development driven by supply-side reform had played an important role in regional sustainable development in China. And the level of industrial green development was measured by entropy method. Drawing on the “five-dimensional integration” framework of new supply economics based on traditional theory economics, institutional economics, transition economics, development economics, information and behavioral economics, the article systematically combed the green supply-sidedriving forces in China. Supply-side reform driving industry green development was quantitatively analyzed by system GMM estimation method of dynamic panel from 2000 to 2015. Conclusions were as follows. Firstly, the pressure of resources and environment was becoming more important, whereas the degree of industrial green growth was becoming less important in industrial green development. And the importance of the capacity of industrial green development was relatively stable in industrial green development. Secondly, in terms of time dimension, the level of industrial green development in China was increasing year by year, but the degree of industrial green growth and the capacity of industrial green development needed to be further improved and strengthened. From the spatial dimension, the descending successively spatial evolution pattern from east to west was becoming more and more obvious. High-level areas of industrial green development were concentrated mainly in the eastern; Low-level areas of industrial green development were concentrated mainly in the central and western. Thirdly, the green supply-side driving powers, such as population quality, green capital, clean energy, green technology, green industry and environmental regulation, had shown active development trend, and also revealed obvious spatial heterogeneity. Lastly, green capital and industrial green development in China showed “U” shape relationship, and population quality, clean energy, green technology, green industry and environmental regulation had promoted the industry green development in China. Population quality, green industry and environmental regulation promoted the industry green development of the eastern region where the level of industrial green development was relatively higher. Energy structure and technological progress promoted the industrial green development of the central and western region where the level of industrial green development was relatively lower. Moreover, the eastern, central and western regions needed to increase investment in green capital. Overall, these results will provide guidance and reference for regional sustainable development.
基于腾讯研究院公布的数字经济指数,运用插值模拟、Zipf位序-规模法则及地理探测器等方法,对2016年中国数字经济发展的空间分异特征进行分析,并对其影响因素进行探测比较。结果表明：① 中国数字经济发展空间分异明显,省域尺度呈现出自东向西梯度递减的特征,但川、渝成为创新发展新极点;城市尺度,城市群地区是数字经济发展高地。② 数字经济各分维度发展的协同性与差异性特征并存,但差异性更为显著。③ 国家层面,政府对科学技术方面的投入对数字经济的发展起重要作用;东部地区影响因素相对多样;信息化基础与潜力方面因素对中部地区起主导作用,且各因素交互后作用力显著加强;西部地区受多种因素的综合作用,不存在具有决定性的影响因素;东北地区的影响因素则相对单一。
Digital economy is a new form of economic and social development after agricultural economy and industrial economy, and it is becoming a new momentum of global economic development. Therefore, it is of great significance to study the digital economy. Based on the digital economy indices of China’s 31 provinces and 351 cities published by the “Internet plus” digital economy index platform of Tencent Research Institute, this article analyzes the spatial differentiation characteristics of Chinese digital economy and its foundation, industry, innovation and entrepreneurship, and the wisdom of the people’s livelihood in 2016 by using the methods of interpolation simulation and rank-size rule, and then we use correlation analysis and geographical detector model to detect and compare the influencing factors of digital economic development in China and its inner regions. The main conclusions are as follows. 1) The spatial differentiation of Chinese digital economic development is obvious. The development level of digital economy and its four dimensions is decreasing from east to west at the provincial level, at the same time, there are new poles of innovation and development in Sichuan, Chongqing and so on. At the urban scale, national urban agglomeration area is the absolute height of the development of digital economy, such as Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Urban Agglomeration, the Yangtze River Delta Urban Agglomeration, the Pearl River Delta Urban Agglomeration. 2) There are both coordinated development and differentiation among the various dimensions of the digital economy, and the differences between the four plates of the East, Middle, West and Northeast China and their interior are obvious, especially between the eastern region and the other three regions. 3) The dominant factors influencing the development of digital economy at different spatial scales are different. At the national level, the government’s commitment to science and technology plays an important role. However, the factors influencing the development of the digital economy in the eastern region are quited, and all the factors are independent. And the influence of informatization foundation and potential factors plays a leading role in the development of digital economy in Central China, and the interaction force of each factor is obviously strengthened. However, there is no decisive factor in the western region, which is affected by many factors. The factors influencing the development of digital economy in Northeast China are relatively single. Through the analysis of research conclusions, we can find that the development of digital economy has provided new opportunities and challenges for areas with weak economic foundation, it is expected to drive the national economy through the digital economic development and realize “overtaking by turns”.
In the context of the national efforts to promote the equalization of medical and health services, to get a correct understanding of the status quo of equalization of medical and health resources and a scientific evaluation of the country to promote the equalization of medical and health services, this article discusses spatial equilibrium of medical and health resources and its time evolution, using the data of 338 cities in China as the research sample, using the medical resources supply level as a measure index of the health service. Based on the methods of kernel density estimation, Gini coefficient and its decomposition and LISA time path analysis, the spatial equilibrium analysis framework of state-region-city domain is constructed, and the spatial equilibrium state of medical and health resources and its temporal evolution are quantitatively described. The results show that: the spatial distribution of medical and health resources is moving towards equilibrium, and the crossed level of medical and health resources is higher between three regions. The high concentration area is mainly maintained in western Xinjiang, Tibet and Sichuan Region, the low and low agglomeration areas are scattered in the provinces such as Henan Province, Jiangxi Province and Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. In particular, there is a concentrated distribution area in the transitional zone between the eastern coast and the central region, the level of medical and health resources supply exists “Beijing-Shantou low belt”, which is an underdeveloped area between two developed areas in Chinese eastern costal and Beijing-Guangzhou railway, and located in “Beijing-Kowloon line”(Beijing to Jiujiang) and the south extension of the “Jiu Shan line” (Jiujiang to Shantou) along the railway. Compared to economic developmentof “Beijing-Shantou low belt”, the medical and health resourcesin “Beijing-Shantou low belt” have a small span between the north and south, and a small east-west span. At the same time, the spatial and temporal path analysis of medical and health resources supply level indicates that the spatial pattern shows a strong stability. The relative length of the time route in the central and eastern regions is relatively small, and the supply level of medical and health resources is relatively slow. In particular, the “Beijing-Shantou Troughs” are basically in the areas with the lowest relative length. Time course curvature is generally small, indicating that the development of medical and health resources supply level has a relatively stable spatial dependence and spatial change direction, that is, strong spatial locking effect. The degree of equalization of medical and health resources has been significantly improved on the national scale, while the supply level of medical and health resources in the region begins to appear. This requires the government to change the support of medical and health services to achieve the full coverage from the basic public health support to the health care services behind the focus of support; at the same time, perfecting the transfer payment system, improving the ability of backward areas to provide medical and health services, and achieve health care resources reasonable allocation in the regions, which is also the connotation of “everyone enjoys basic medical and health services”.
基于中国第五、六次人口普查数据,分析中国省域人口老龄化的程度、速度、社会经济影响、空间差异及其驱动机制。结果表明：① 2000~2010年中国人口老龄化处于初级老龄化阶段且不断加深,区域差异缩小,东部地区低速增长,中西部地区老龄化与养老负担快速增加。老年人口密度属较低密度区,从东向西呈梯度降低。② 中国省域人口老龄化程度及空间布局是人口自然增长、人口机械增长、经济水平等因素相互调节与空间分异的综合结果。③ 各机制系数空间异质性的综合作用促使老龄化大致由南北向分异转变为东西向分异的空间格局。省际人口迁移从根本上制约如今的中国人口老龄化空间格局。
Aging population has been more and more complex as well as one of new normal and core issues which the social development must face in China. Based on the population census data in 2000 and 2010, this study explores the regional differences of Chinese ageing population in terms of the degree, pace, social economic impact, and analyzes its driving mechanism using the Geographical Weighed Regression Model (GWR). The results show as follows: 1) During 2000-2010, Chinese population as a whole has entered the stage of ageing, and most of regions stay at the early stage. 2) Except for Shanghai, all other regions are experiencing the acceleration of ageing, and the regional disparity in the degree of ageing is decreasing. 3) The demand for the elder support has increased rapidly. 4) The overall density of aged population remains at the low level, but the local density increases from the west to the east, with the high density zones cluster in a few eastern municipalities. 5) The degree of population aging and spatial layout in China province are the comprehensive results of population natural growth, population growth, mechanical growth and economic level and so on. Among them, the primary leading factor has changed from GDP per capita to emigration rate. In the early stage of economic development, per capita GDP plays a decisive role in promoting. With the development of economy, the influence of per capita GDP on the aging population has decreased. The phenomenon of “not getting rich before getting old” appears, what’s more the phenomenon of “decoupling” between GDP per capita and aging appears in some areas. The rate of population emigration is positively related to population aging, which promoting the degree and speed of population aging as well as increasing the burden on the elderly in the central and western regions. 6) The comprehensive effects of spatial heterogeneity of the mechanism coefficients has promoted the population aging roughly divided the spatial pattern from North-South (with the Yangtze River Basin as the boundary) to East-West differentiation (with the central region as the boundary) in China. The provincial population migration fundamentally restricts the current spatial pattern of China’s population aging. The comprehensive effects of various factors on the central and western regions are slightly stronger than those in the east. 7) The largest population emigration areas are still in the Central and Western Regions, which leading to faster growth rate in the Central and Western Region than in the east and increasing the burden on the elderly rapidly and greater than that in the east. However, the eastern region is the largest population immigration area in china. Natural growth rate has become the main mechanism to curb the rapid development of population aging in the eastern region.
As the focal point of developing poverty alleviation, industry poverty alleviation has remarkable effect on changing the plight of poverty-stricken areas. Industry poverty alleviation focuses on the development of industries, promote poverty reduction and development simultaneously. However, the driving force of industrial development comes from the comparative advantages of the composition of regional production factors, such as natural resources, ecological environment, land, labor force and capital, which is closely related to the geographical environment, synthesized by a series of indicators with geographical attributes. There is a significant comparative disadvantage in poor areas determined by geographical environment. From the perspective of industrial poverty alleviation, this article introduces the concept of “spatial Poverty Traps”, chooses Hunan Province, Xiangxi Tujia and Miao Autonomous Prefecture, Baojing County as the research case area, constructs the spatial poverty trap measure index system for the industry poverty alleviation in 5 dimensions: natural environment, geographical location, economic foundation, human capital and social undertakings, identifies and measures the spatial density of the spatial poverty trap using the kernel density analysis method, and puts forward the corresponding development strategy to provide scientific basis for precise poverty alleviation. The results indicate that the plight of industrial poverty alleviation in Baojing county. Most administrative villages are affected by one or more dimensions of the spatial poverty trap, characterized by mountainous areas, reservoir areas, inconvenient transportation and economic and social development backward. The strategies of industrial poverty alleviation is developing village economy focus on small-scale farmers, constructing “point-axis” rural logistics and distribution system, increasing industrial financial service support, strengthening rural human capital accumulation, mining the industrial properties of social undertakings. The study also found that poverty-stricken areas face long-term constraints of space poverty traps. In the future, we should carry out long-term dynamic monitoring to the poor areas, adjust the measures to solve the problem of poverty alleviation and resource allocation, and to improve the poverty alleviation effect of the poverty alleviation industry.
Urban land development and space extension, to some extent, are the direct and important measures of urbanization. The research theme has become one kernel study in urban geography and rural and urban planning. The urban land, as the most frequent and concentrated areas of human activity, has the dynamic characteristics of continuous evolution which reflect the dynamic nature, laws and contradictions of urbanization process and urban space expansion. Changchun, as one of the city of Northeast China’s old industrial base, has the historical inheritance characteristics under the planned economy system background in terms of its spatial expansion. The characteristic mainly manifest as large state-owned enterprises are the driving force and carrier of urban space expansion, urban space expansion equip with heavy and high-tech industrial directivity, the expansion mode of concentric circles is determined by urban planning. In recent years, the rapid expansion of Changchun city has led to the problems of traffic congestion, the lack of public service facilities and public space in the central area, the coexistence of lagging behind of infrastructure construction at urban fringe and the low utilization rate. Therefore, it is a meaningful question to study on the reasonable and orderly urban expansion by means of the analysis of land use efficiency. This article, based on the essential data of volume ratio and building density, from the microscopic perspective of land development intensity, aiming at the reality of the built-up area rapidly developing with "ring-layer" model in Changchun, analyses the distribution characteristics of 1 460 parcels which are of difference land development intensity in the downtown area of Changchun by applying the substitution principle and the bid-rent theory. In addition, the inefficient parcels and super-efficient parcels are estimated with the Kernel Density Estimation method in the course of city expansion to summarize the different features and reasons. The main results obtained in this article can be summarized as follows. Firstly, the distribution of the strength of land development in Changchun is inconformity with the principle of substitution. Especially, the distribution of volume ratio is generally characterized by "high-low-high" circular distribution. Secondly, the urban special structure of Changchun, as a whole, is in accordance with the bid rent theory. Besides, public service facilities have a great impact on traditional bid rent functions and their spatial structure patterns. Then, in the process of urban spatial extension of Changchun, inefficient and super-efficient parcels are coexisting. Finally, commercial land and residential land are the main types of land for inefficient and superefficient parcels. Perhaps, the construction of urban complex with coexisting of commercial, residential, entertainment, leisure and office, to some extent, will alleviate the contradiction.
There are abundant agricultural resource and various kinds of distinctive agricultural products in Jilin Province which is a key commodity grain base in China. While Jilin Province is not competitive but a large-scale production in agriculture because of the contradiction between “small farmers and big markets”. From 2015, agricultural product e-commerce has been a rapid development in China, which brings new opportunities for the development of agriculture in Jilin Province. But the pattern of FROM TOP TO BOTTOM leads to the lack of the endogenous power for deepening the development of the agricultural product e-commerce in Jilin Province. So the construction of the agricultural product e-commerce ecosystem in Jilin Province is imperative. At first, connecting the specific situation in Jilin Province, this article analyzes the present geographical distribution of the agricultural product e-commerce of Jilin Province. Secondly, based on the Business Ecosystem Theory, we construct a theoretical model of agricultural product e-commerce ecosystem for Jilin Province which includes 6 species and 3 business domains. Finally, considering this theoretical framework, we give some valuable suggestions such as supporting the leader of agricultural product e-commerce platform enterprises, cultivating the entrepreneurial talent in rural, investing to build the agricultural product e-commerce industrial parks in rural and so on.
The rising frequency of marine disasters in China has brought increasing losses, seriously threatened the safety of life and property of people in coastal areas and other areas and further aggravated the contradiction between the development of marine economy and the construction of marine ecological civilization. Marine disasters affected the development of marine economy, and marine economy growth may also be one of the reasons for the outbreak of marine disasters. Therefore, it is practically significant to discuss the issue of marine disasters and marine economy combined with disaster economics researches, propose marine disaster prevention and control measures, reduce the losses of marine disasters from the perspective of economics to enhance the ability of prevention and mitigation of marine disasters, promote the construction of marine ecological civilization and the realization of marine economy sustainable development. Based on the perspective of endogenous economy growth, the economic losses of marine disasters and marine technology progress were treated as endogenous driving factors, together with marine labor and capital factors, to measure the effect of marine disasters on marine economy growth. It could enrich the research literature of the marine disaster economy to a certain extent, and provide empirical evidence for the relationship between “marine disasters” and “marine economy growth”. Empirical study showed that marine disasters had negative effects on the growth of marine economy in the past year, had a pulling effect on the 2 a marine economic growth, and had a long-term negative effect. Investigating the reasons, marine disasters affected the current marine economy growth mainly through damaging the marine economic production infrastructure, equipment and marine fishery resources; post-disaster restoration and reconstruction work was the process of updating the marine economic production capital stock and the marine economic production technology, which stimulated the marine economic growth. In the long term, the damaging function of marine disasters to marine economy production elements was greater than the updating function. Therefore, recovering the marine economic production activities, increasing the marine economic production capital investment, developing industry related to marine disasters and improving the system of marine disaster insurances should be carried out quickly after a marine disaster. The marine disasters recovery and reconstruction demand, the introduction of relevant business investment, loosening monetary policy, increasing the loans of industry affected by marine disasters, and leading the post-disaster marine science and technology innovation should be started. In the long term, to formulate a comprehensive plan for disaster prevention and mitigation of marine disaster, raise the awareness of marine disasters prevention and mitigation in the whole society, pay attention to marine ecological environment protection and restoration, and effectively improve marine disasters prevention and mitigation capacity must be put on the agenda.
The dynamic moving and spatial coupling of gravity center of county-level population distribution, economic development,and grain production in Henan Province has been researched in this article, and discussed the relationship between social development and above three factors based on the social theory, gravity center calculation and spatial coupling analysis model. The result showed that the spatial gravity centers of county-level economical development, population distribution and grain production have been moving in the north of geometric center of Henan Province. The consistency level changed sharply, and the spatial inconsistency pattern was very significant during the past 23 years. Before 2000, the spatial coupling level between county-level population distribution and grain production was high, and after 2000, the spatial coupling level changed among the gravity center of county-level economic development, population distribution and grain production. The gravity center of grain production and economic development moved oppositely in the southeast-northwest direction, and the influence of grain production to the gravity move of economic development has been decreasing, while the coupling level between the gravity centers of population distribution and economical development has been increasing during the same time. The social development in the eastern Henan shows a low-level spatial equilibrium with the coexistence of inversion phenomenon between grain production and government receipts and grain production and people’s livelihood. The social development level in rural counties obviously lags behind that in urban areas. The spatial pattern of social inequality at county level in Henan driven by the factors, such as regional economic development, social policies, spatial strategy, and path dependence, is tabbed the constitutive characteristic in the period of comprehensive socioeconomic transformation in China. Consequently, two steps on how to improve the county-level population distribution, economic development and grain production are proposed. On the one hand, based on the cognitive of China breadbasket, the farmland protection, technical support, policy tilt to grain yield should be forcefully developed to ensure the grain production scale in Henan and regional grain safe. On the another hand, some reasonable policies must be proposed to encourage the deep process of agricultural products and foster the development of township enterprise, to accept more surplus labor in rural society.
Under the background of tourism development, home inns at the tourism destination have become special production of time and space which have changed from residential houses into commercial accommodation. During this process, it always shows a pluralistic tendency of architecture style while the traditional characteristics of local building have been gradually disappearing. In view of it, this article takes the home inns in Shuanglang Town, Dali as a case study. Shuanglang was a former traditional small fishing village as the gathering place of Bai nationality. It remains a large amount of Bai traditional residential buildings which express the living ways and historic folkways of Bai people. But now it has become a popular tourism destination in the wave of commercialization with a very high density of new inns. Based on Lefebvre's theory of space production, it analyses from three aspects: the production of physical, conceptual and social space and it mainly emphasizes the necessary connection between social relations and local space. Firstly, physical space of home inns in Shuanglang can be divided into three architecture styles: authentic, modified and innovative practice. Authentic buildings refer to the home inns basically keep their original structures and the internal decorative elements of traditional Bai buildings. Modified buildings have some design modification on the basis of retaining the main traditional elements of Bai, while innovative buildings totally present their architectural elements from other regions completely different from the Bai traditional buildings. Secondly, in the aspect of conceptual space, different subjects including local residents, foreign inns-operators, the government and the tourists have different production of their own conceived space. Local residents are the early owners and dominators of local space, but their influence on space production gradually decreases with the transformation of their right to use land. Foreign inns-operators as the current important space producers and dominators increase the differences of architecture styles between home inns and local buildings out of their respect for local culture, or the longing for an ideal life and the favor of foreign culture. Then the government involvement was relatively late, it shows strong control over the space of home inns in the later stage but has no effective influence on the completed inns. Since the tourists normally have short stays at the destination, they have no direct influence on the space production but can indirectly influence through market choice. Thirdly, behind the spatial production of home inns, it is the interaction of capital and culture among local residents, foreign inns-operators, tourists and the government. The process of space production actually represents the development of new social relations.
从中观层面以东北地区41个市域为分析单元,选择东北振兴战略实施以来2004、2009和2015年截面数据,采用ESDA法分析旅游经济发展的空间关联特征,运用OLS和GWR模型分析旅游经济和旅游产业因子、消费因子、投资因子之间的关系,以此挖掘旅游经济影响因素的时空结构信息。结果表明：① 旅游经济发展呈显著空间正相关,相关性逐渐增大;② OLS回归结果表明,旅游产业因子对旅游经济发展的影响强度最大,在旅游产业发展中始终起基础性决定作用,其次为消费因子和投资因子,后两者差别不大;③ GWR回归结果显示,模型3 a拟合优度均比OLS有所提高,回归系数均为正值,但分布规律不同;旅游产业因子回归系数高值区经历了西南部-中南部-东北部转移,向外围圈层递减;消费因子回归系数高值区由东北部向东南部转移,向外围逐渐递减;投资因子回归系数高值区则由东北部-中南部-东北部转移,向外围逐渐递减。
Taking cities of Northeastern China as the study object from micro level and selecting 2004, 2009 and 2015 section data since carrying out strategy of rejuvenating in Northeast China, this article analysis spatial correlation characteristics of tourism economic development by ways of ESDA, and the relationship between tourism economy and tourism industry factor, consumer factor, investment factor using OLS and GWR model, for the sake of excavating space and time structure information of tourism economy influence factors. The result shows that: 1) Development of tourism economy shows positive spatial autocorrelation significantly, and the correlation increased gradually. 2) OLS regression result shows that: the influence strength of tourism industry factor on the development of tourism economic is the largest, which always played a basic decision role in the development of the tourism industry, followed by consumer factor and investment factor, the latter two had little difference. 3) GWR regression results show that: GWR goodness of fit has improved and regression coefficients are all positive but the distribution is different. Tourism industry factor high value area of regression coefficient experienced moving from southwest to south-central, then to northeast, and diminishing to the outer circularly. Consumption factors shifted from northeast to the southeast, and diminished to peripheral gradually. Investment factors transferred from northeast to south-central, then to northeast, and diminished to peripheral gradually, too.
The widely existing cliffs is the basic morphological feature of Danxia landform. The typical Danxia landform are usually surrounded by steep cliffs, and due to the surrounded cliffs ravines are formed between mountain blocks. Special landforms have created many special habitats and special vegetation differentiation. In this paper, by reviewing previous studies on the ecological and vegetation diversity of Danxia landform, we found that the differences of small scale vegetation in Danxia landform area was not given enough attentions. To this end, this article makes a preliminary discussion on the most individualized natural differentiation and essence of the small scale vegetation differentiation in Danxia landform area, and the main conclusions are as follows: the small scale natural ecology differentiation of the Danxia landform area is not in conformity with the general sense of natural law, with its basic reason of differentiation habitat differences are caused by its special landscape; The peak effect and ravine effect of Danxia landform area are essentially the "dry island" effect and "hot island + wet island" effect, respectively; An ecological structure "mutated belt" is formed on the edge of the isolated mountaintop, which makes the mountain top an isolated "circular ecological ring". The vegetation differentiation of Danxia landform was caused by the habitat differences caused by geomorphic differences. It is expected to provide knowledge for the study of mountain science, small scale natural differentiation and environmental change.
以苏南太湖流域为例,利用核密度分析法对分行业污染密集型制造业的空间集聚及与水环境污染之间的空间耦合关系进行研究,结果显示：① 污染密集型企业主要集中在无锡市的惠山区、江阴市的东部、常州市与武进区相邻部分区域、昆山市等地区,常州市整体上污染密集型企业分布较少;② 将制造业集聚与水环境污染空间耦合关系分为高集聚-高污染、低集聚-高污染、低集聚-低污染、高集聚-低污染4种类型,4种类型区面积分别为781.25、2 993.75、12 187.50、1 187.50 km2,分别占研究区总面积的4.56%,17.46%,71.06%,6.92%,两者间正向耦合效应明显,说明制造业在空间上的集聚是造成水环境污染的重要原因之一。
This article uses the Kernel Density Distribution method to analyze the industrial agglomeration of sub-industries, and evaluates the discharging intensity of industrial waste water, COD and NH3-N in each township taking the case study of Suzhou, Wuxi and Changzhou district. Based on this, the article chooses textile industry and manufactures of chemical materials and products whose contribution of output value and contaminants are relatively high to study the coupling relationship between industrial agglomeration and water environment pollution, and also analysis the coupling relationship of all enterprises. Results show that: 1) The pollution-intensive manufacturing industries centralized mainly in Huishan district of Wuxi City, the eastern part of Jiangyin city, adjacent parts of Changzhou and Wujin District, and Kunshan City, and generally there are less in Changzhou City. 2) The spatial distribution of discharging intensity of COD and NH3-N have some comparability, and the emission intensity decreased compared with the year of 2006, the emission intensity of industrial point sources in Changzhou City and the surrounding towns reduced significantly, and trend to transfer to surrounding suburbs. 3) Based on the special-correlation between industrial agglomeration and pollution distribution, the study area was divided into four categories: high-agglomeration and high-pollution area, low-agglomeration and high-pollution area, low-agglomeration and low-pollution area, high-agglomeration and low-pollution area. The acreage is 781.25 km2, 2 993.75 km2, 12 187.50 km2, 1 187.50 km2 and account for 4.56%, 17.46%, 71.06%, 6.92% of the total area respectively, the coupling effect between industrial agglomeration and pollution distribution is obvious, and about 75% (high-agglomeration and high-pollution, low-agglomeration and low-pollution) of the area have positive spatial coupling effects. It illustrates that the agglomeration of manufacturing industry has important effects on water environment. The low-agglomeration and low-pollution and high-agglomeration and low-pollution area increased apparently compared with before. It demonstrates that industrial pollution construction has a remarkable effects, the water environment pollution tends to reduce. This article analysis the coupling relationship between industrial agglomeration and water environment pollution which provides scientific basis for rational distribution of industry.
从海岸线空间资源监测和综合管理出发,对高潮线、湿地线、海堤线、堤坝线、植被线、水边线等典型海岸线指标类型和特征进行了探讨,并以江苏中部海岸为例,利用遥感技术提取2014年海岸线指标,并采用基线法和统计方法对海岸线指标空间分布及海岸演变特征进行了分析。结果显示：① 江苏中部射阳河口与梁垛河口之间岸段海岸线指标总体呈西北东南走向,自陆向海依次为湿地线、海堤线、堤坝线、高潮线、植被线和水边线,湿地线与水边线之间的湿地总面积达1 178.94 km2;② 海滨湿地总体呈宽通道分布态势,总体纵深北高南低,其中湿地线-海堤线间平均纵深3 704 m,海堤线-堤坝线间平均纵深3 418 m,堤坝线-平均大潮高潮线间平均纵深447 m,高潮线-植被线间平均纵深984 m,植被线-水边线间平均纵深1 836 m;③ 海岸潮滩围垦长期活跃,尚未开发的潮上带区域仅分布在2个保护区岸段,潮间带盐沼在各个岸段均有分布,潮间带光滩保持了海岸总体冲淤态势,自北向南纵深逐步增大。
As the relying carrier of sea development activities, the scientific management of the sea coastline is of great importance for the rational allocation of marine resources, guidance of sea industrial layout, and promotion of the coastal ecological civilization construction. From the view of monitoring and integrated management of the shoreline space resource, this article discussed the shoreline types and characteristics of typical shoreline indicators such as the high tide line, wet land line, seawall line, embankment line, vegetation lines, waterlines, etc. Taking the central coast in Jiangsu Province as research area, this study used remote sensing technology to extract the typical shoreline indicators based on two images- ETM/Landsat-7 and OLI/Landsat-8 in 2014, and analyzed the spatial distribution of the coastline indicators and coastal evolution characteristics using the baseline and statistical methods. The spatial characteristics of the coastline index are closely related to the coastal topography, land-sea interaction, coastal development and protection activities. The statistical analysis of the spatial attributes of the coastline indicators in the study area indicated that the unused tidal zone was only distributed in the two protected areas, and other coastal tidal zone had been fully developed, among which the red-crowned crane protected areas larger. The intertidal salt marshes were distributed in every shore, and the two protection areas were more prominent, and the salt marsh of other shore section is not more than 600 m. The intertidal zone kept the overall scouring and silting situation of ??the study area, and it increased from north to south in depth, with the deepest distance in the north side of Liangduo estuary. The natural types of coasts in our country are complex and diversified, and human development activities are also constantly changing the coast shape. The characteristics of coastlines at different times are different due to the combined effects of man and nature factors, so it is difficult to fully reflect the characteristics of the coastline based only on the average tide high tide line. As an important space for the coastal development activities, the scientific management of the coastline is important for the rational allocation of marine resources, the layout guidance of marine industries, and the promotion of coastal ecological civilization. Different types of shoreline indicators have their own particularity. It is important to comprehensively analyze the types and characteristics of typical coastline indicators based on the monitoring and comprehensive management of coastline resources. This is important to comprehensively understand the development and evolution of coastline and grasp the characteristics and development status of coastline spatial resources, and thus conducive to promoting the scientific management of the coastline protection and utilization. The research results can provide a reference for the integrated management research and practice of the shoreline space resources.
为了在保持对目标检测和分类分析所需信息的同时,降低高光谱影像的维度,提出了一种混合优化策略的特征选择方法。该方法将遗传算法和二进制粒子群优化算法融合成一种新的混合优化策略（GANBPSO）,自动选择最优波段组合,同时优化分类器支持向量机（RBF-SVM）的参数,以提高分类器的分类性能。为了说明所提出方法的有效性,采用了在高光谱分类中广泛使用的Indian Pines（AVIRIS 92AV3C）数据集进行测试。结果表明所提出方法（GANBPSO-SVM）能够自动选择包含最多信息的特征子集以保证分类精度,而不需要预先设置所需要的特征子集数量,本方法与传统方法相比具有更好的分类效果。
Rich spectral information from hyperspectral images can aid in the classification and recognition of the ground objects. Currently, hyperspectral images classification has already been applied successfully in various fields. However, the high dimensions of hyperspectral images cause redundancy in information and bring some troubles while classifying precisely ground truth. Hence, this paper proposes a hybrid feature selection strategy based on the Genetic Algorithm and the Novel Binary Particle Swarm Optimization (GANBPSO) to reduce the dimensionality of hyperspectral data while preserving the desired information for target detection and classification analysis. The proposed feature selection approach automatically chooses the most informative features combination. The parameters used in support vector machine (SVM) simultaneously are optimized, aiming at improving the performance of SVM. To show the validity of the proposal, Indian Pines(AVIRIS 92AV3C) data set which is widely used to test the performance of feature selection techniques is chosen to feed the proposed method. The obtained results clearly confirm that the new approach is able to automatically select the most informative features in terms of classification accuracy without requiring the number of desired features to be set a priori by users. Experimental results show that the proposed method can achieve higher classification accuracy than traditional methods.
Biodiversity is the material foundation and the environment guarantee that people are taken for their survival and development, and has four levels: molecular, species, ecosystem and landscape. The identification and understanding of the spatiotemporal variation of biodiversity in the landscape level are not just an important part of regional biodiversity monitoring and assessment, but also the first step in the formulation and implementation of the protection scheme. The Bailong River Watershed of the Gansu Province (BRWGP), one of the most abundant biodiversity regions in China, locating in the transitional ecotone along the Tibetan Plateau, Loess Plateau, and Qinba Mountains. The BRWGP served as a case to analyze the spatiotemporal heterogeneity of biodiversity. Based on the data integration analysis platforms of RS, GIS technology and InVEST 2.5.6, a comprehensive index system of biodiversity spatial patterns constructed with the incorporation of habitat quality, vegetation net primary productivity, and landscape state index by considering the difference of three assessment indicators intensity and influence degree. Meanwhile, AHP was used to determine the weights of index and GIS spatial technology apply to analyze the spatial distribution and differentiation of biodiversity under the landscape geography perspective. Our goal went to revise the biodiversity evaluation module of the InVEST model and demonstrate biodiversity spatial patterns on a grid cell. The results indicated that biodiversity was high and had obvious spatial pattern variations in the BRWGP. Areas with higher biodiversity mainly distribute in the national nature reserve and forest, while the relatively poor biodiversity areas distribute in the valleys of the BRWGP between Zhouqu-Wudu-Wenxian, the valley of Minjiang in Tanchang County, alpine mountain snow regions, and bare rock zones. Moderate biodiversity areas appeared in agroforestry ecosystem, shrub and grassland, which a vegetation cover, species richness and habitat quality were general. In 1990-2010, biodiversity was high and increasing, the area proportion of higher biodiversity (critical areas) increased from 16.74% to 26.02%. Meanwhile, the high growth area of biodiversity change was concentrated in the ecological engineering zone and forest districts (Such as these forest districts of Duoer, Axia, the Minshan Mountain, Baishuijiang Nature Reserve), while biodiversity reduction area locates in the region of human activities intensively and frequently, such as cultivated area, urban and rural areas.
Based on the sporopollen analysis of the Late Pleistocene-Holocene lacustrine strata in multiple lake basin of the southern Qiangtang region, using A/C value and ephedra, chenopodiaceae, Artemisia’s amount change trend, this article presents the vegetation and climate change of the aera and summarized the variation of dry humidity in three boreholes and basins: the south of Zha Cang Cha Ka basin and Da La bu Cuo Basin were Needle broadleaf mixed forest grassland vegetation and the climate was warm and moist. The west of bie ruo ze cuo basin was Needle broadleaf mixed forest vegetation and the climate was cold and dry. The dry degreeis gradually increased from west to east and provide demonstration for climate change. The results obtained from this article have an important significance for the study of the climate change trend in southern Qiangtang Basin.