Many islets and reefs in South China Sea are main parts of China. The nine-dotted line is China’s maritime boundary line. To study the formation and evolvement of the nine-dotted line is not only a matter of maritime geopolitics, but also a matter of maintain sovereignty, protection of islets and reefs and resources management. How the nine-dotted line came into being is an academic topic that has not been studied much. Map is one of the means by which a country claims its territory. Besides demonstration in words, map-reading is used in this article to study the formation and evolvement of the nine dash lines to deline the South China Sea. The whole formation process is divided into three phases, namely the initial phase, taking-shape phase, and the final phase. Time before the 1930s witnessed the appearance of the maritime boundary line in South China Sea. The boundary line took shape in the 1930s, and its evolvement came to the final stage in the 1940s-1950s. The original continuous line demarcation and the dotted line demarcation in this sea area can all be found on maps in that period. The maps clearly showes how the eleven-dotted line demarcation changes to the current nine-dotted line demarcation. With the formation and evolvement of the nine-dotted line clarified, the historical fact could be confirmed that China has sovereignty over the islets and reefs within the line. The nine-dotted line is the final maritime boundary line of China.
国际理论与实践表明高铁的建设能够推动城市郊区化的发展。现阶段中国高铁大规模建设,与快速城市化同步推进,使得这一影响更为深刻和复杂。在高铁新城形成的过程中,高铁站点发挥了一个“放大器”的功能,推动了以高铁新城为主体的城市郊区化进程。以京沪高铁为例,定性与定量相结合分析了以高铁新城为代表的郊区化模式特征：① 大城市相对主动的郊区化;② 规划建设的规模与定位偏高;③ 迅速改变城市原有空间格局等。从政府、市场和社会三者的角度,利用城市政体理论分析了高铁驱动城市郊区化的内在机制。最后指出高铁对于城市郊区化的带动效应存在着选择性和不确定性,应从区域层面对高铁沿线及周边城市的定位及关系进行协调,将高铁新城的选址、规划、开发和建设纳入到城市整体空间发展的脉络之中,同时应加强高铁新城规划的公众参与,从而更好的利用高铁驱动中国城市郊区化的可持续发展。
The international theoretical and practical studies suggest that the construction of high-speed rail (HSR) usually influences the development of suburban area. In China, the large-scale construction of HSR, together with the rapid urbanization, makes such influence more complex and profound. In the development of HSR new town, the HSR station works as an "amplifier", thus it promotes suburbanization. In the case study of Beijing-Shanghai High-speed Rail, this article takes both quantitative and qualitative approaches to explore suburbanization’s patterns in HSR new town: 1) relatively active suburbanization in major cities; 2) exorbitant scale and expectation of urban construction; 3) rapidly shifted urban forms. From the perspectives of government, market and society, this article uses urban regime theory to analyze the inter-mechanism of HSR-driven suburbanization. In conclusion, selectivity and uncertainty of HSR’s suburbanization are proposed. This article also suggests that it is important to coordinate the locations and relationships of the high-speed railway and cities along the lines at a regional level. Furthermore, the development of HSR and urban space in the new towns should be integrated, and the public participation during the planning and development of HSR new towns should be strengthened. Therefore, the goal of sustainable suburban development by HSR can be reached.
For the basic national conditions of China with a large people but small land, low economy development level and uneven space distribution, it is also staying in the accelerated urbanization development stage. Now it is a key problem that how to coordinate the relationships of spatial and temporal scale between the urban construction land input and the national economy and its development strategy and space layout, between the urban construction land input and the population urbanization, economy urbanization, infrastructure urbanization and the fixed asset investment, which should be solved urgently at the current urbanization process in China. The non-conformity of urban construction land input is also a main index that used to weigh the social justice and efficiency, regional coordinated and sustainable development. Therefore, to do the urban construction land input non-conformity research is of important theoretical and practical significance. This article, through building an urban construction land input non-conformity index model, make a comprehensive measure on urban construction land input as to urban population, GDP, fixed assets investment, local financial tax, industry & employment non-agriculture and social non-agriculture of all the provinces from 2000 to 2009, to show the degrees and its dynamic evolution process, trend and classification. And on the basis of this assessments, the article then analyzes the reasons and puts forward some regulation countermeasures and optimizing ways to coordinate China’s urban construction land input. The result shows that: China′s urban construction land put non-conformity is on the declining up and down, but the whole benefit-level should be improved; the non-conformity’s classification and evolution gives priority to the relative coordinate type and lagged type, which also shows an obviously regional characteristic. The analysis of evolution mechanism shows that the main reasons for the non-conformity include resources and elements endowment and regional difference, national macroeconomic control, institutional constraints, historical legacy and administrative division adjustment. Finally, from the institutional reform, subject function division and district-level finance transfer payment, this article proposes some suggestions to promote urbanization construction land input′s conformity of China.
促进区域协调发展是区域发展的重要目标,其基础是准确评价区域经济发展格局与空间差异。空间场能是区域中心城市借助区域联系“通道”带动外围地区发展而产生的“势能差”的抽象表达,是反映区域经济发展格局与空间差异的有效手段。基于空间场能的内涵及表征方法,从省际、市际、县际等尺度探讨了中国宏观经济、三大地带与南北经济差异的时空特征、区域经济变化的空间作用机制以及区域经济格局的类型划分。结果表明：① 2000年以来中国区域经济的不平衡性在扩大,但不同研究尺度反映的经济差异大小有所差别;② 三大地带的内部经济差异呈显著的“反自然梯度”特征,南北差异由“南北平分秋色”向“南强北弱”演变,南方与北方内部经济发展差异均呈扩大趋势;③ 中国区域经济增长存在显著的空间极化现象,经济增长局部聚集模式呈现分异性与规律性;④ 中国区域经济发展水平的空间格局可划分为5大类型区23个亚单元,不同类型区未来应实施针对性的发展策略。
It is a fundamental work to accurately evaluate the pattern and spatial disparity of regional economic development in order to promote coordinated economic development. Spatial filed is an abstract concept to define the potential difference came from the process o f the growth pole of regional economy driving the economic development of periphery areas through transport corridors. According to the “pole-axis” system theory, regional interaction theory and energy space theory, the article characterizes the spatial field with the application of nodality index and regional accessibility. With the application of spatial field, it analyzes the spatio-temporal characteristics of macro-economic disparities, the three zones and the economic disparities in the Northern-Southern China from inter-province, inter-city, inter-county. Moreover, the article reveals the interaction mechanism of spatial variation of regional economic development, and identifies the spatial type based on the pattern of regional development in China. The results indicates that the imbalance of China’s regional economy has expanded from 2000, while the economic disparities are different at different research scales. Secondly, the internal economic disparities of the three zones showed a significant feature with “anti-natural gradient”; the differences between the Southern and Northern China evolves from “South and North are in balance” to “South is stronger than North”. Moreover, the internal economic disparities of both North and South presented a tendency to expand. Thirdly, China’s regional economic growth showed a significant spatial polarization. The local accumulation model of economic growth is differentiation and regularity. Fourthly, spatial pattern of the level of regional economic development in China could be divided into 5 zones and 23 sub-units, and different types of areas should implement a targeted development strategy in the future.
By constructing the basic mode of tourism spatial evolution, this article analyzes the evolution progress of Guilin-Lijiang River-Yangshuo tourism destination system. The evolution progress of tourism destination system is divided into 3 stages (the embryonic stage, the polarization stage and the optimization stage), which shows different characteristics (homogeneous development, polarization development, proliferation development) respectively, and tends to plate development stage. Before 1978, the tourism destination was in the stage of homogeneous development when the destination system was in the embryonic statement. The original landscape provided a good foundation for tourism development, but during this period, tourism space structure was in the low homogeneous disordered state, and the scenic spots have not been effectively developed. The following 20 years has experienced the polarization process, which can be divided into the early polarization evolution marked by the formation of the tourism growth pole of Guilin City and late polarization evolution stage marked by the formation of Guilin City-Lijiang River-Yangshuo tourism destination system. In the early polarization evolution stage, with the driving of tourism demand, Guilin City had a rapid development as the tourism growth pole, and provided a good infrastructure and service facilities for the tourism of Lijiang River. It played a role of the organization for the regional tourist development. During the late polarization evolution stage, Yangshuo County had a good development as the new growth pole, Guilin City further strengthened tourism function, Lijiang River was developed as tourism corridor. Guilin City-Lijiang River-Yangshuo tourism spatial system was formed basically. During the 11th Five-Year Plan, the tourism destination was in the proliferation stage. The tourism impact diffused at this stage and pushed the transformational development of the tourism destination. Meanwhile, the shape of regional tourism plate was initially formed. Travel city and scenic sites were increasingly interconnected, and a more coordinated Guilin City-Lijiang River-Yangshuo tourism system promoted the formation and development of a higher level of tourism spatial system, which can be called the tourism spatial system, or North Guangxi tourism board. This article analyzed the dynamic mechanism of the evolution and considered that there were varies leading dynamic mechanisms at different times. In the homogeneous development stage, the tourism resources endowment had played a decisive role. The dominating dynamic factor in the development stage of polarization was affected by circulation accumulation, and different types of demand had become the main power for construction. In the proliferation stage, the pursuit of overall efficiency has become the dominant force.
Innovation capability of regional technology is the central issue of the construction of a regional innovation system. Building an innovative region is the only way to enhance regional competitiveness and promote regional economic and social development. This article presents a measurement index system of innovation capability of regional technology. We have studied the mechanism of regional technology innovation capability and established the mathematical model. For the uncertainness of grey relation, the article does a quantitative analysis on the factors which can influence economic growth in Guangdong (GDP) using the grey relation analysis model, and describes grey correlations graph of innovation capability of regional technology in 1999-2006. The results show that the model is valid, reliable, and practical. Finally, based on the analysis, this study provides corresponding countermeasures for problem situations of the regional technological innovation capability in Guangdong. it describes a grey way of technology innovation to improve the economic performance of the Guangdong region.
Urbanization started from the industrial era, and developed in the post-industrial era. During this period, urban community planning method changed gradually. Smart Growth, New Urbanism and Green Building Movements has provided the basis for sustainable urbanism theory and practice, which shares with the values of economics, sociology and environmental science. Scholars integrated the urban environmental movements mentioned above as a practical guide of sustainable development. New Urbanism, in response to the concept of sustainable urbanism, has been the mainstream of urban planning in Europe and the United States. The core of sustainable New Urbanism, according to some foreign scholars, is spatial justice, a reflection of social justice, which also helps accomplish the spatial functional values of reasonable community layout and the planning of spatial justice values. In many foreign countries, this theory has already come into effect. However, in China, most relevant theoretical studies are general introductions and reviews and practical ones focus on instructions to urban planning in material aspect, with the absence of written version of values of New Urbanism community planning. Therefore, from the perspective of values, studying New Urbanism has instructions on community planning. Studies, in the aspects of spatial justice, values and dignity, focus on values of New Urbanism community planning, illustrating its guiding concepts and planning principles. New Urbanism, under the guidance of the concept of sustainable urbanism, aims at transforming the urban space and creating local-socialization space to meet the daily needs of people nowadays. The New Urbanism community planning, in this article, should follow the compactness principle, the diversity principle, the walk-first principle, the environment importance principle and the high-quality principle. Based on the above analysis, the connotation of social values and spatial values of New Urbanism community planning has been clarified. Social values cover human nature, spatial diversity, community equality and coordination of social surroundings. Correspondingly, spatial values are a reflection of valuing equal accessibility of different classes to public places, improving the livability of social space inhabited by people of different classes, as well as bettering the social equality by compelling livable standard. New Urbanism successfully combined traditional values standard with environmental coordination, spatial diversity, social sense of community and behavior scale of humanism of urban spatial construction, and put the modern 'good community' idea into practice. Finally, by critically looking at the theory and practicability of values of New Urbanism community planning, we try to put forward some measures to solve the general spatial injustice in practice.
陕西省铜川矿区王石凹矿的资源丰富,但环境问题严重。通过实地调查和490份有效问卷的统计,利用秩和检验等方法,探讨了对居民环境问题感知的影响因素。主要结论是：① 矿区居民对居住环境普遍不满意,他们认为最严重的环境问题是水污染。产生环境问题的最主要原因是采煤。② 在居民属性与环境问题感知方面发现：性别对大气污染的感知有明显的影响。年龄和居住时间对塌陷和地裂缝的感知有显著影响。居民居住地点对矿区环境问题的感知均具有显著性差异。
Wangshiwa coal mine is one of the important mine of Tongchuan Mining Bureau in Shaanxi Province with abundant resources and convenient transportation. What’s more, environmental problem is serious and typical in this area. The aim of this paper is to examine the environmental perception of residents who lived in the Wangshiwa coal mine by interviews them and 490 valid questionnaires. The influence factors of environmental perception are analysized through rank sum test. The results are as follow: ① The majority of residents in coal mine area are not satisfied with the living environment. Residents believe that the most serious environmental problem is water pollution, then the dust pollution, the rubbish pollution ,the air pollution , the subsidence, the noise pollution, the ground fissure. The pollution is caused mainly by coal mining. ② The gender has a significant impact on air pollution. Age and residence time have a significant effect on perception of the subsidence and the ground fissures. Resident living space has a significant impact on environmental problems. In conclusion, influence factors of environmental problem perception were discussed, and some suggestions to the planning and management of environment were given
构建脱钩状态模型和响应程度模型,通过定量研究1995~2010年长春市城市拓展对资源消耗的影响程度,得到以下结论：① 长春市城市拓展与资源消耗总体呈现“双增长”特征,城市快速拓展导致的资源消耗及资源环境压力不断增大;② 长春市城市拓展与资源消耗始终处于“相对脱钩”状态,且资源消耗增长速度随着城市拓展呈先相对下降、后又相对提升的趋势。在城市拓展规模保持总体稳定增长的情况下,资源消耗变化是影响二者脱钩状态与脱钩程度演化的关键因素;③ 随着长春市城市拓展规模的不断扩大,其对资源消耗增长的影响程度持续增大,进一步说明城市拓展作为资源消耗的驱动力,其变化是导致长春市城市拓展对资源消耗影响程度增大的重要推动因素。
The rapid development of cities will inevitably lead to mass consumption of recourses, so the city development will face the problem of the severe resources and environmental pressure. With the rapid progress of urbanization in China, the social economic behaviors, like the rapid urban expansion, population agglomeration, economic growth, built-up land increase and so on, are accelerating. Those bring the mass use and excessive consumption of resources such as cultivated land, water, energy and other natural resources. Under the restriction of resources, vulnerability problems during the urban development become more serious. Therefore, it seems more important and urgent to carry out the research on the impact of urbanization and urban expansion to resources and environment in China. Urbanization and urban expansion interaction with resources and environment is always the hot issue in academia, and there have been many great achievements at present. But it is still need to further explore and discuss the quantitative measurement of the effect of urban expansion to resources consumption. The quantitative research of the influence of urban expansion on the resources consumption are done employing the decoupling state model and response degree model, based on the statistic data of Changchun in 1995-2010. The following conclusions are drawn: 1) both the urban expansion and resources consumption shows the fluctuant double growth trend, including the scale and the growth rate. That means the resources consumption and the pressure of the resources and environment keep increasing. 2) The urban expansion and resources consumption of Changchun is in a relatively decoupling state. With the rapid expansion of urban, the growth trend of resources consumption shows first a relative decline and then a growth trend. Under the circumstance of the urban expansion scale keeps stable growth in Changchun, the resources consumption is the key factor to affect both the decoupling state and the change degree of decoupling. 3) The main driving force of the resources consumption enlarging is the rapid urban expansion in Changchun which is increasing continuously. Being the driving power, urban expansion is also the most important driving factor that led to the growth of influence degree of the urban expansion on the resources consumption. In this article, the applicability of the decoupling state model and response degree model are explored and the interaction between urban expansion and resources consumption is analyzed. Meanwhile, the impact feature and trend of rapid urban expansion to resources consumption of Changchun City is revealed, which could provide a reference and theory basis of making the targeted sustainable development strategy.
The urban energy consumption carbon footprint is so important for the developing low-carbon economy. Based on the STIRPAT model and the ridge regression method, this article analyzes the trend of energy consumption carbon footprint of the metropolitan district of Changchun and Jilin during the period of 1999 to 2008. In it, the total energy consumption in the metropolitan district of Chang and Jilin is calculated, and the relationship between economic development and the energy consumption carbon footprint is analyzed. The carbon footprint per capita indicates a tendency from decline to rise, and the decoupling index reflects the state of relative decoupling between economic growth and energy consumption carbon footprint. Both are employed in this study. The results are follows. 1) The energy consumption carbon footprint has fluctances in the metropolitan district of Changchun and Jilin. The carbon footprint per capita was low from 1999 to 2002, and increased from 2002 to 2008. 2) Changchun and Jilin have different pillar industries, which has great disparities in the energy consumption. For the energy consumption structure, there is a significant positive correlation between the energy consumption carbon footprint of coal and the oil index, and both of them are notable increase. 3) The proportion of productivity and living carbon footprint increases, and the output value of ernergy consuption carbon footprint indicated a fluctuating situation in the metropolitan district of Changchun and Jilin. 3) There is significant positive correlation between energy consumption carbon footprint and economic development, progress of knowledge, and urbanization. Of all influencing facotrs, the economic development is the dominat, but the later two work less. 4) The decoupling index of economic growth and energy consumption carbon footprint fluctuates within the stats of relative decoupling and in re-coupling. According to the situatin of of energy consumption carbon footprint of the metropolitan district of Changchun and Jilin, a set of governmental countermeasures are necessary. 1) The moderate efforts should be made to revise birth control targets; 2) The civic investment should be increased to advocate a low-carbon in metropolitan district of Changchun and Jilin; 3) The energy saving technologies should be adopted in this region; 4) The strategic planning and policy making for the long-term reduction of energy consumption should consider. The article improves the understanding of the impact of urban economic development on urban energy consumption carbon footprint, and will be a support in the plan-making of ernergy consuption in the economic development of old industy base.
应用逐像元线性回归模型方法,整合应用MODIS和AVHRR NDVI数据集,构建1982~2010年覆盖东北地区的8 km 空间分辨率的NDVI数据集,进而应用CASA模型估算得到东北地区29 a NPP数据集,模拟精度在75%以上。29 a平均的东北地区植被NPP总量为6.5×108 tC/a。植被NPP的分布受植被类型、气候、地形因素的综合影响。NPP地域差异明显,山地区植被>平原区植被>高原区植被,变化最大的植被类型为草地植被。过去29 a间,植被NPP呈显著上升趋势 (P<0.01)。气候变化和土地利用变化均是影响植被时空格局的重要因素。
AVHRR NDVI at 8 km spatial resolution and MODIS NDVI at 1 km spatial resolution were integrated using per pixel linear regression model method to construct NDVI dataset from 1982 to 2010 at 8 km spatial resolution and covering Northeast China. Based on the constructed NDVI dataset and meteorological data, monthly net primary productivity in Northeast China in1982-2010 were estimated using the CASA model. Simulation accuracy of net primary productivity was above 75% and through accuracy and consistency check. Annual total vegetation net primary productivity in Northeast China is 6.5×108 t/a (carbon), and the distribution of net primary productivity varied from vegetation types, climatic and topography differences. There are obvious difference and spatial heterogeneity for NPP in Northeast China. For the vegetation in different topography areas, net primary productivity decreased in the order of mountains, plains, plateaus. For different vegetation types, net primary productivity decreased in the order of broadleaved deciduous forest and evergreen coniferous forest, mixed coniferous and broadleaved forest and deciduous coniferous forest, crop, grass. Trend analysis at pixel extent showed that the pixels with decreased trends mainly distributed in the transitional zone between typical forest zone and plain, Hulun Buir grassland and Chifeng semi-aird region. Result of spatial variation analysis showed that the NPP of grassland vegetation had the highest changes compared with other vegetation types in the past 29 years. But net primary productivity of grassland have an obvious increase at a whole, this was maybe resulted from the conservative grazing and grassland protection. Net primary productivity exhibited obviously increasing trend in 1982-2010. Consequently, vegetation carbon fixation had enhanced as a whole acquired from the decade analysis. Climatic changes for different parameters are very important affecting factors on spatial pattern and annual dynamic of NPP. Land cover changes in Northeast China during the past 29 years influenced the spatial pattern and annual dynamic for net primary productivity of different vegetation types. Economic development in this region still makes a pressure for vegetation net primary productivity, especially the forest.
基于HYDRO1K、SRTM3和ASTER GDEM三种DEM数据,利用BTOPMC地形子模型提取韩江流域河网,并作对比分析。结果表明：① SRTM3提取的河网精度最高, HYDRO1K相对最低。② DEM的垂直精度对提取的河网精度起控制作用。ASTER GDEM的水平分辨率较高,但垂直精度不如SRTM3,因而提取的河网精度不如SRTM3。③ HYDRO1K提取大尺度流域河网具有一定的精度,但在地势平坦区域的效果较差,HYDRO1K不宜用来提取小尺度流域河网。④ 由DEM提取的数字河网精度与当地的地面坡度以及处理DEM的填洼算法有关。
Based on the three DEMs of HYDRO1K, SRTM3 (version 4) and ASTER GDEM, drainage networks of Hanjiang River basin are extracted by using the terrain module of BTOPMC. The comparison shows that: ① the accuracy of drainage networks extracted from SRTM3 is the highest, then that from ASTER GDEM. The accuracy of drainage networks extracted from HYDRO1K are not so good. ② The vertical accuracy of DEM controls the accuracy of drainage network extraction. Although the horizontal resolution of ASTER GDEM is high, its vertical accuracy is not so good as SRTM3. Thus, the accuracy of drainage networks extracted from ASTER GDEM is not so good as that from SRTM3, both in whole basin and in sub-basins. ③ In large basin, drainage networks extracted from HYDRO1K are reasonable but become bad in low-relief regions. HYDRO1K is unsuitable for drainage network extraction in small-scale basins. ④ The accuracy of drainage network extraction from DEM is affected by local terrain slopes and the depression filling algorithm. Compared with Arc Hydro Tools, the terrain module of BTOPMC avoids most parallel channels. Also, the threshold contributing area used for channel sources should be identified by referring to the map scale.
利用线性倾向率、Mann-Kendall非参数检验、滑动T检验(MTT法)和小波分析等数理统计分析方法,分析昆明市近60 a气候变化趋势和气候突变特征。结果显示：近60 a昆明市气候变化呈气温升高、降水量略微减少的暖干化趋势;气温上升率0.24℃/10 a,降水量下降率3.89 mm/10 a;干季增温强于雨季,而雨季降雨量下降趋势明显;2001~2010年是近60 a来昆明气温最高、降水量最少的10 a;昆明市气温变化包含5~10、10~15 a左右周期,其降水量变化有10~15 a左右的周期变化特征。
It is noted that the climate change is not globally uniform. Regional variations can be much larger and considerable spatial and temporal variations may exist among climatically different regions. In addition, climate change in a specific region or nation is of particular interest to that region and its economic activity. Archival meteorological data of monthly air temperature and precipitation series were used to investigate climate change trends and characteristics in 1951-2010 of Kunming, which is located in the low-latitude plateau region of southwest China. The magnitude of a trend was estimated using linear regression analysis and the station significance of a trend was assessed by the M-K test and MT-test. Furthermore, the periodicity of a series was probed by Morlet wavelet transform. The results show that the climate change presents increasing air temperature and decreasing precipitation in the past 60 years in Kunming region. The annual mean temperature increased at the trend rate of 0.24℃/10 a at the significance level α= 0.01. The annual precipitation decreased at the rate of 3.89 mm/10 a. The increasing trend of air temperature is more obvious in dry season than rainy season, but decline rate of precipitation is obvious in rainy season than dry season. In the first 10 years of 21st century , Kunming experienced much more severe temperature increase and precipitation decrease than in other periods over the observation period of 60 years. In addition, annual mean temperature of Kunming exits two evident characteristic time scale with 5-10 years and 10-15 years. The periodic variations of annual precipitation time series are localized in 10-15 years.
基于MSS、TM、ETM+以及HJ-1等遥感影像,构建内蒙古锡林郭勒盟1975~2009年长时间序列生态系统宏观结数据库,分析区域生态系统空间分布格局、动态变化及驱动机制。研究表明：① 草地生态系统是锡林郭勒盟主体生态系统,草地占全区总面积比例始终在86%以上。② 锡林郭勒盟生态系统演变过程明显以2000年为界：2000年前草地生态系统持续、加速萎缩,荒漠、农田等生态系统不断扩张;2000年后草地生态系统萎缩迅速得到遏制和逆转,农田和荒漠等生态系统扩张趋势也得到遏制。③ 区域气候变化及人类土地利用活动对生态系统演变有显著加速和减速作用。
Xilingol League, located in the south-east edge of Inner Mongolia Plateau, is one of the typical ecological fragile zones belonging to the Chinese Northern Farming-Pastoral Belt. Based on the remote sensing images including the MSS, TM/ETM+ data from 1975 to 2005 and the latest HJ-1A/B CCD data in 2009, also supported by the computer aided artificially visual interpreting method, a large scale, long temporal sequences database was firstly rebuilt about the regional macro ecosystem structure and their dynamics in the region of Xilingol. Furthermore, based on the spatial-temporal information platform, the spatial pattern of regional ecosystem, the evolution characteristics and their driving mechanism were then analyzed. The results show that: 1) From the east to the west in Xilingol, the ecosystem pattern appears as "forest-meadow steppe-typical steppe-desert steppe-steppelike desert"; and from the south to the north, it appears as "agriculture-farming-pastoral-animal husbandry". Grassland ecosystem is always the dominant type in Xilingol, while the temperate grassland with medium coverage is the majority sub-type. 2) The ecosystem has been changed much since 1975s. The transformation process is divided obviously in the year of 2000. Before 2000, at the cost of continuous and accelerated extraction of grassland ecosystem, the desert, farmland, and forest ecosystem experienced a sustained and enhanced expansion process. After 2000, the tendency of grassland shrinking stopped and then revered, while the expansion trends of farmland and desert ecosystem then also turned down and back-spin. 3) The spatial pattern of ecosystem is mainly controlled by the regional tectonic, pale climate change, and human migration and land development activities. In the backgrounds of climate change since 1950s, those major land use policies have remarkable acceleration or deceleration role on the regional ecological system evolution process.
根据黄土高原地区黄河阶地的形态特征和成因分析,认为其形成主要是地面抬升所致并且在黄河达到均衡状态下形成,可以推断黄土高原的地面抬升。根据对黄土高原地区黄河0.8 Ma阶地的研究并结合相关文献资料,选取兰州段、黑山峡段、晋陕峡谷段和三门峡段作为典型研究区域,得出黄土高原0.8 Ma以来的地面抬升存在显著的时空特征,即空间特征表现为地面抬升量有西大东小的规律,时间特征表现为地面抬升速率有后期加速趋势、特别是晚更新世以来。并认为黄土高原0.8 Ma以来的地面抬升与青藏高原的构造抬升有成因上的联系。
The river terrace is one of the direct geomorphic evidences of the surface uplift. By analyzing the characteristics of the Yellow River terraces in Loess Plateau, it is presented that the terraces are mainly tectonic genesis, and formed after the Yellow River reached a quasi-equilibrium state. It is reasonable to use the Yellow River terraces for representing the surface uplift of the Loess Plateau. In the Lanzhou Basin, two fourth terraces of the Yellow River are selected as the study sections, namely the Zaoshugou terrace and the Wuyishan terrace. At the Zaoshugou terrace, the altitude of gravel stratum is 80 m higher than the river level. The top of the gravel stratum is overlain by at least 64 m eolian loess, and the paleosol S8 is at the bottom of the eolian loess. At the Wuyishan terrace, the altitude of gravel stratum is 140 m higher than the river level. The top of the gravel stratum is overlain by at least 100 m eolian loess, and the paleosol S8 is at the bottom of the eolian loess. The optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating result indicates that the age of the upper part of paleosol S1 at the Zaoshugou terrace is 70.4±7.6 ka. The results of paleomagnetic dating, optically stimulated luminescence dating and loess-paleosol sequence matching indicate that the two terraces have the same age, and both were formed at about 0.865Ma. Therefore this paper advances that there is the Yellow River terraces at 0.8Ma in the Lanzhou Basin, and the fourth terrace of the Yellow River may be a geomorphic response to the event of the surface uplift at 0.8Ma around the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. According to the research on the Yellow River terraces at 0.8Ma in the Loess Plateau and the correlative literature, this paper verifies that there was a large-scale surface uplift at about 0.8Ma in the Loess Plateau, and the surface uplift resulted in river incision and terrace formation. Lanzhou, Heishan Canyon, Shanxi-Shaanxi Canyon and Sanmenxia were also selected as the typical research areas in the Loess Plateau,and obvious spatial and temporal features of the surface uplift of the Loess Plateau since 0.8Ma was discovered, basing on the characteristic analysis of the sequences of the Yellow River terraces at this four sites. The rates of surface uplift are calculated by the rates of river incision and the amounts of surface uplift are calculated by the depth of river incision (height above river). The spatial feature is that the surface uplift of the western Loess Plateau is more intense than that of the eastern Loess Plateau, and the temporal feature is that the uplift speeds up gradually, especially since the late Pleistocene. This paper also proposes that the surface uplift of the Loess Plateau since 0.8 Ma is related to the surface uplift of the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau.
基于山西武乡太行龙洞一支石笋5个230Th年龄和190个氧同位素数据重建4 400~150 a B.P.高分辨率δ18O序列。石笋δ18O值逐渐增加,除最近约600 a外,在千年尺度长期趋势变化上与中国南部其它洞穴记录相一致,表明晚全新世亚洲夏季风强度持续减弱响应于同一驱动机制。一次显著的气候突变事件发生在2 550~2 000 a B.P.,与史料记载的干旱期大致相对应。功率谱分析揭示出106 a周期,与树轮Δ14C太阳活动周期大体一致,说明百年尺度上太阳活动与东亚季风变化有一定关联性。
The Dragon Cave (38°46´N, 113°16´E) is located at transition between semi-humid and semi-arid areas in the middle temperature zone of China. Here, mean annual temperature is 8ºC. Mean annual rainfall is 530mm and about 87% of annual precipitation falls in May-October. Dragon Cave is >600m long with an elevation of 1400m on the western slope of Taihang Mountain, near the eastern edge of Chinese Loess Plateau. Stalagmite L1 was collected 200m from the cave entrance in December 2010. It is about 200mm like a candle. A total of 5 sub-samples were measured by an inductively Multi-collection coupled plasma mass spectrometry on a Finnigan-NEPTUNE in the High-precision Mass Spectrometry and Environment Chang Laboratory, Department of Geosciences, National Taiwan University. The uncertainty of reported age is ± 2σ. A high-resolution oxygen isotope profile established with 190 oxygen isotope data, provides a continuous history of East Asian summer monsoon intensity for the period of 4400-150a B.P. (before AD1950). With a relatively stable boundary condition, we interpret the δ18O of speleothem calcite as most indicative of the amount of summer monsoon precipitation, although temperature and other factors might have some minor impact. Comparison of the record with previous published contemporaneous China stalagmite records shows that all δ18O records, characterized with increasing δ18O and declining summer monsoon precipitation trends over the late Holocene, generally follow insolation changes on millennial timescale. This long-term agreement supports that the solar insolation is the primary factor driving Asian summer monsoon. An unusual abrupt weak summer monsoon at 2550-2000a B.P. indicates a mega-drought event, supported by historic archives. The spectral analysis of δ18O time series yields a solar activity-related 106-yr periodicity. However, comparing to a weak solar activity at 2.7ka B.P., a 100-200-yr lag of the cave-inferred mega-drought event implies a complicated mechanism of short-term solar forcing on monsoon system.
基于农业区位论,采集23组土壤-小麦匹配样品,探究北京市不同圈层土壤-小麦系统中Pb的全量、形态与生物有效性。结果表明：① 频繁的交通活动与工业释放致使城区土壤呈现出Pb污染,而长期污水灌溉等农业活动导致了近郊平原局部土壤Pb污染。② 土壤中Pb主要以残余态与有机结合态形式存在,其次是铁锰氧化态,而碳酸盐结合态与离子交换态非常少。Pb的活性从中心城区到近郊平原、远郊平原逐渐下降。③ 小麦植株中Pb含量与土壤中铁锰氧化态Pb含量呈正相关;④ 麦粒中Pb的富集系数仅约为0.004 4,但仍发现城区与近郊麦粒中部分Pb含量超标。
Based on Agricultural Location Theory, 23 groups of suited soil-wheat samples from were collected in different circles of Beijing City (central city, suburban plain and exurban plain), and the accumulation, chemical forms and bioavailability of Pb in soil-wheat system were analyzed under different human activity intensities. The results showed that：① Urban soil exhibited Pb contamination with its average concentration (35.59 mg/kg) above the limit, probably due to the emission of traffic activities and industrial processes. In addition, long-term sewage irrigation and other agricultural activities led to local Pb contamination in the suburban agricultural soil.② Pb was predominantly associated with residual and organic fractions, followed by Fe/Mn oxide, and very small proportion of carbonate and exchangeable fractions. Furthermore, compared with the suburban agricultural soils, Pb in the urban agricultural soil showed higher mobility, whereas, the exurban agricultural soil presented the lowest mobility. ③ Pb contents in different parts of wheat plants were largely dependent on the Fe/Mn oxide fractions in the studied soil. ④ The average bioconcentration factor (the ratio of metal concentration in plant tissues and metal concentration in their rooted soil) of Pb in wheat seeds was 0.0044, only contained 3.42% of Pb in roots. However, part Pb concentrations in wheat seeds in the urban and suburban agricultural soil were above standard limit, which might bring potential risk to human health in the urban and suburban sites.
基于1991、2002与2008年卫星遥感资料,采用中国陆地生态系统的服务价值测算方法,分析克里雅绿洲土地利用变化对生态系统服务价值与结构的影响。研究表明：① 研究区生态服务价值从1991年的144 224.8万元降到2008年的128 716.3万元,生态服务价值损失10.8%,每年净损失生态服务价值达24.2元/hm2。生态服务总价值的减少主要是由湿地、水域总面积的减少而导致的;② 研究区各生态服务功能对区域总生态服务价值贡献率由高到低依次为：废物处理、土壤形成、生物多样性保护、水源涵养、气候调价、气体调价、食物生产、娱乐休闲和原材料;③ 研究区生态服务价值对生态服务功能指数缺乏弹性。
The effects of land use change on ecosystem services values and functions of Keriya Oasis in 1991-2008 were analyzed based on TM image data in 1991, 2002 and 2008, and using the evaluation methods of terrestrial ecosystem services value of China. Results showed that: 1) The total value of ecosystem services decreased from 1 442.248 million Yuan in 1991 to 1 287.163 million Yuan in 2008, the loss of total ecosystem service value was 10.8%, and net loss of yearly ecosystem service value was about 24.2 Yuan per hectare. The main causes of the decline of total ecosystem service value were the decrease of the total area of wetland and water body; 2) The overall rank order for each ecosystem function based on their contributions to overall value of ecosystem services was that the contribution of waste treatment function is the highest, then the soil formation, biodiversity protection, water supply, climate regulation, gas regulation, food production, the contribution of recreation and culture and raw material is the lowest; 3) The total ecosystem services value was relatively inelastic to the value coefficients, therefore, the estimation in this study area was robust in spite of uncertainties on the value coefficients.
Vulnerability analysis is one of the focuses in disaster risk research. However, so far, it is lack of common procedures and practices in China. Storm induced flooding, as one of the most devastating natural hazards in Huangpu river basin of Shanghai, causes considerable personal injury and property damage in the history. Vulnerabilities of economic loss and population were taken into consideration in this study, as the two factors were the most important flood affected areas. A land use map of Shanghai and a population distribution map of different districts of Shanghai in 2006 were generated as key inputs for vulnerability analysis. To perform vulnerability analysis of economic loss, 7 vulnerability functions of different land uses (including residential land, industrial land, traffic land, public service land, farm land, green land, and the others land uses) was constructed by combining the use of data questionnaires in a community-based field data collection campaign, and the integration of previous flood vulnerability research results. For population vulnerability analysis, Jonkman’s population vulnerability function was employed as its representativeness and very little related data was available in Shanghai and all over China. Based on our previous results of multi-scenarios hazards analysis, a case study was presented to demonstrate the proposed algorithm. Subsequent analysis using Geographical Information Systems (GIS) was employed to illustrate the spatial and temporal distribution of vulnerability areas under different scenarios. The results indicated that (1) the vulnerability for economic loss and population gradually reduced from the upstream towards the downstream; (2) the vulnerability for economic loss and population increased with the increasing return periods; (3) the vulnerability for economic loss and population declines overland as distance increase of intrusion inland. Finally, some suggestions were presented for future researches.