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  • 地理科学
      2014年, 第34卷, 第10期 刊出日期:2014-10-20 上一期    下一期
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    中国煤炭资源流源、汇地空间格局演变与内部空间差异研究
    王宜强,赵媛
    地理科学. 2014, 34 (10): 1153-1160.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2014.010.1153
    摘要   HTML   PDF (469KB)

    以各省煤炭资源输出、输入量为分析指标,将有资源输出的省份列为源地,有资源输入的省份列为汇地,分别利用重心模型和统计地图方法,从动态和静态2种视角探讨中国煤炭资源流源、汇地空间格局特征及其演化规律。同时,利用标准差和变异系数揭示源、汇地内部空间差异的变化特征,预测其未来空间格局的走向。结果表明:① 中国煤炭源地重心分布于山西省中东部境内,移动轨迹大体呈“U”字型,汇地重心分布于鲁、沪、皖三省交界处,移动轨迹呈东北-西南向“1”字型。源、汇地重心都呈现向西移动的趋势,但源地重心经历了一个由北向南再向北的转移过程,而汇地重心突出地表现出南移的趋势。② 中国煤炭资源流源、汇地空间分离趋势较为明显;源汇地整体位移方向以西北、西南、东南3个方向为主。③ 全国煤炭供应基地主要分布在北方,并形成多个较大的输出源地;煤炭汇地主要分布在内蒙古、山西、重庆、贵州四省(市、区)一线以东地区,空间结构呈现西南转移的趋势。④ 煤炭源地绝对差异的总体发展趋势为不断扩大,相对差异为不断减小;煤炭汇地绝对差异和相对差异的总体发展趋势变化不大,较为温和。⑤ 加强新疆煤炭外运通道建设以及西北与西南、华中煤炭运输通道的连接建设应成为国家煤炭运输规划的重点与当务之急。


    This article took 31 provinces in China as the objects of study, and made analysis of the current situation of the flux of coal resources flow in every province. It ruled that all provinces which have output coal were classified as source regions, and all provinces which have input coal were classified as sink regions. In analyses, this article led into the concept of gravity centre, and next identified gravity centers of coal source regions and sink regions in 1991-2010, and finally exported space tracking maps of gravity centre points by GIS. The dynamic changes and evolution laws of gravity centers of coal source regions and sink regions were elaborated in the recent 20 years from four aspects, and the study results reflected the spatial development trends and directions of coal resources flow. The first aspect was the whole trends of coal resources flow of source regions and sink regions. The second aspect was the moving trends in longitude and latitude. The third aspect was the space length between gravity center of source regions and gravity center of sink regions in the same year and the fourth aspect was the average flow direction. In addition, statistical maps were used to investigate the characteristics of the spatial structure and dynamic evolution of coal resources flow of source regions and sink regions. And this article used a double of statistical indicators called standard deviation and variation coefficient which respectively reflected absolute and relative differences to investigate the different degrees and development trends of coal flux of source regions and sink regions from temporal series. It also revealed an imbalance of coal resources flow of source regions and sink regions from space perspective. Study results showed that gravity centers of coal source regions were mainly situated in the eastern part of Shanxi Province, and their mobile trajectory were generally rendered "u" type. However, gravity centers of coal sink regions diverted from Jiangsu to Anhui and then to Shandong, and their trajectory were generally rendered northeast-southwest "1" type. Both trajectories in longitude have emerged as a trend of slowly shifting to west. In latitude, gravity centers of coal source regions went through a transfer from north to south and then to north and gravity centers of coal sink regions notably showed a trend of moving to south in fluctuation. There was a clear separation in space between coal production space and demand space. The coal supply bases of China were mainly located in the north of the country, which formed some large output source regions and formed a certain hierarchy. The coal sink regions were mainly in the east of the line of Inner Mongolia, Shanxi, Chongqing and Guizhou, and the space structure showed a trend moving toward southwest. It was obvious that coal source regions were increasingly keeping away from sink regions. The overall of source regions and sink regions was moving toward three directions composed of northwest, southwest, and southeast. The absolute difference of coal source regions was growing and their relative difference was reducing. The absolute and relative differences of coal sink regions all had no big fluctuation.

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    基于景点空间可达性的中国旅游区划
    潘竟虎,从忆波
    地理科学. 2014, 34 (10): 1161-1168.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2014.010.1161
    摘要   HTML   PDF (766KB)

    旅游区划对区域旅游业的发展具有重要的影响与意义,基于景点地理位置与交通可达性进行旅游区划,实质是对客源地与目的地空间关系的研究。以中国A级旅游景点所在地理位置和交通可达性为依据,探讨基于可达性格局的旅游区划问题和基于GIS技术的旅游区划分方法。以可达性空间表达技术为基础,运用栅格成本加权距离算法,计算所有A级旅游景点的空间可达性,并分别计算了各自的服务区范围。在此基础上通过对不同时间阀值下服务区范围变化的判断,进行旅游景点腹地范围的空间合并,并对各旅游景点空间分布格局特征进行深入分析,最终将全国分为9个一级旅游区、22个二级旅游区和177个三级旅游区,形成了中国旅游区划等级体系。


    Regionalization is the important research content in geography. Tourism regionalization is one of the foundations of the development of tourism in a country or region,and has important influence on and significance to the development of regional tourism. The research on scenic spots in the macro tourism regionalization,in essence,is the study of the relationships between tourism destinations and tourists. The A-grade scenic spot is a tourist ranking classifiable system with Chinese characteristics and is a national standard of comprehensive evaluation about scenic spot quality and grade in China. In this article,according to the geographical location and transportation accessibility of scenic spots, the tourism regionalization is studied based on pattern of accessibility. Based on matrix raster data covering the whole space,this article calculates spatial accessibility of all scenic spots in China using cost weighted distance method and ArcGIS as platforms. Service range of A -grade scenic spots is also calculated by using Cost Allocation method. Based on location of scenic spots,transportation accessibility and deep analysis of tourist districts distribution pattern,the service zones are divided by setting the control time,merging up grade by grade,9 first-grade tourist zones,22 second zones and 177 third-grade ones are divided across the country,a hierarchy of tourism division in China is formed. The results showed that the regional average accessibility of scenic spots is about 129.16 minutes,and the area where the accessibility of scenic spots is within 120 minutes reaches 60%,while the area where the accessibility is within 0.5 hour accounts for more than 26% and the longest time needs 75 hours which is located at the core of Tibetan Plateau. The tourism regionalization of the result,which break the administrative boundaries,is more scientific,objective and quantitative. It provided a guideline and basis for further research of the development and utilization of tourism resources.

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    港口腹地划分的腹地烟羽模型研究
    李振福,汤晓雯
    地理科学. 2014, 34 (10): 1169-1175.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2014.010.1169
    摘要   HTML   PDF (529KB)

    近年来中国港口不断发展,竞争日益激烈,腹地重叠现象也越来越严重。明确港口所能吸引的腹地范围,对于港口和腹地的未来发展均具有至关重要的作用。然而现有港口腹地划分方法都具有一定的局限性,无法实现港口腹地的准确细致划分,不利于港口发展方向的确定。在分析总结现有方法存在的不足的基础上,引入烟羽模型,提出了一种港口腹地划分的新方法——腹地烟羽模型,并对辽宁省各港口在东北地区的腹地范围划分进行了实例分析。计算结果表明:营口港的腹地有鞍山、辽阳、本溪、铁岭、抚顺、辽源、四平、吉林、长春,盘锦港的腹地有沈阳、通辽,锦州港的腹地有阜新、朝阳、赤峰,丹东港的腹地有通化、白山,大连港的腹地为东北地区的剩余城市。


    In recent years, with the continuous development of ports, competition is more and more fierce, and the phenomenon of hinterland overlapping becomes more serious. It is very essential for a port to clearly determine the range of hinterland it can attract. This will also be of great significance for future development of both the port and its hinterlands. However, there are some limitations in the existing port hinterland segmentation methods. These limitations lead that achieving an accurate and detailed segmentation of port hinterland become almost impossible by using these methods. And it is not conducive for the port to determine the direction of its development. Based on summarizing the weak points of existing methods, with the introduction of plume model, this article proposed a new method for partitioning port hinterlands——hinterland plume model. Then this new method was applied to dividing Northeast China into each hinterland scope of the six ports in Liaoning Province. The results show that: The hinterlands of Yingkou Port are Anshan, Liaoyang, Benxi, Tieling, Fushun, Liaoyuan, Siping, Jilin and Changchun. Shenyang and Tongliao are hinterlands of Panjin Port. The hinterlands of Jinzhou Port are Fuxin, Chaoyang and Chifeng. Tonghua and Baishan are hinterlands of Dandong Port. Finally, the remaining cities in Northeast China are hinterlands of Dalian Port.

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    基于要素分析的国家历史文化名城格局中心性研究
    胡浩
    地理科学. 2014, 34 (10): 1176-1183.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2014.010.1176
    摘要   PDF (503KB)

    基于全国119座国家历史文化名城的空间格局,在格局中心与行政归属、交通可达与空间破碎度、时间成本矩阵与最优市场选择等关键性指标和分析方法上,对行政条件、交通条件、市场条件影响下的国家历史文化名城中心性、中心职能、中心格局、服务市场范围进行解释和分析。结果发现:国家历史文化名城受制于全国范围内多中心分布和县级、地级的行政归属,其发展格局呈现大范围离散和小范围集聚版块的景观形态,地级名城格局中心向东部地区稍有偏离,县级名城格局中心向西部地区明显偏离。交通条件影响下的国家历史文化名城格局呈大范围集聚和局部离散的面状形态,格局中心虽然也因时间距离差异出现东部偏离、南部偏离的特征,但偏离的波动情况远远低于行政条件的影响水平。市场原则影响下的国家历史文化名城格局发展呈现错综复杂的网状形态和地域相关的区位特征,格局中心或区域中心性在全国不同地区表现出不同的地域特征。名城格局中心在不同要素下分布的不同特点是名城发展中区域自发集聚与行政手段管理调控、基础设施建设引导等相互博弈的结果。行政职能下降,交通职能、市场职能增长是未来的发展趋势。


    with the help of key indexes and market analysis methods, such as distribution center, administrative ownership, transport accessibility, spatial fragmentation, time cost matrix and the optimal market selections, the centrality, the center function, the distribution center and the reachable domain of service markets of national historical cities were studied based on its spatial pattern of 119 national historical cities. The results indicated that the different characteristics and central influences of national historic city existed compared with the other cities. Firstly, because of the restriction of the ownership at the county level and the prefecture level, the developing distribution of national historical cities showed discrete characteristics in large scope while gathering landscape form in small range of area. What is more, the distribution center of national historical cities at the prefecture level showed a slight deviation to the eastern China while those at the county level showed a great deviation to the western China. Secondly, though the distribution center of national historical cities showed its deviating characteristics to the eastern and southern China due to different time cost, the deviation fluctuations and influence level was much lower than the influence of the administrative conditions. Thirdly, the developing distribution of national historical cities showed a complicated mesh network and location features were highly related to the regional characteristic, and the distribution centers and the centrality showed great differences in different regions. Last but not least, the influence of the centrality of national historical cities which caused by the administration, transportation and market will change a lot in the future, the administrative function decline, and the traffic function and the marketing function escalate may be the trend of development.

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    广东省区域经济差异的多尺度与多机制研究
    王少剑,赵亚博,王洋
    地理科学. 2014, 34 (10): 1184-1192.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2014.010.1184
    摘要   HTML   PDF (523KB)

    以广东省88个县域为基本单元,基于“多尺度和多机制”框架,综合运用了总体差异指数、空间自相关、空间多水平回归等方法,分析了广东省1990~2010年区域经济差异的时空动态演变。① 总体差异指数测度表明,20世纪90年代初期以来,广东省区域经济差异在地区尺度、地级尺度、县级尺度和城乡尺度均表现出不断增大的趋势,地理尺度和空间组织对区域经济差异有很大影响。② 基于GIS应用,空间自相关检测发现广东省在经济发展过程中存在空间集聚“俱乐部趋同”现象,潜在地加深了区域经济差异。③ 空间多水平回归分析表明,全球化、简政放权、固定资产投资是促使区域经济差异加剧的主要原因,而市场化在一定程度上缓和了区域经济差异,城乡分异和地形因素也是区域经济差异的影响因素,但显著性较低。


    Regional inequality is an important issue in geographical research and regional development studies. China is the largest developing country in the world and its economy has undergone rapid and continuous expansion since the Chinese economic reform in 1978. China has achieved great success in economic development with an annual growth rate at 9.9%. However, behind the economic success in China, the country also faces serious challenges arising from imbalanced growth and intensifying social injustice. Since regional inequality may threaten national unity and social stability, it is a hot issue in research internationally and domestically. Almost all previous studies of the regional inequality have transformed static, qualitative measurement into a dynamic and quantitative evaluation. Most of the research in China has focused on lateral comparisons at a national level, only a few have addressed the provincial level. Added this above, this article analyses the regional inequality in Guangdong Province from 1990 to 2010 and follows a GIS-based multi-scale and multi-mechanism framework. Conventional global inequality indexes, spatial autocorrelation and spatial multi-level regression are utilized in the article to examine the regional inequality in Guangdong Province. Conventional global inequality indexes (including Coefficient variance, Gini coefficient, Theil index) analysis reveal that since the early 1990s, the regional inequalities at county level, municipality level, regional level and urban-rural level are experiencing increasing tends and fluctuated change. Geographical scale and spatial organization play an important effect on regional inequality. Based on GIS, spatial autocorrelation finds that spatial agglomeration-"convergence club" exists in the process of economic growth of Guangdong, which is attributing to intensity the regional inequality. The spatial multi-level regression analysis reveals that globalization, decentralization and investment are the three important mechanisms for understanding the regional inequality in Guangdong Province, and marketization has remitted the regional inequality effectively. What′s more, urban-rural and geomorphology are also the elements of the regional inequality, but the impact is not significant.

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    知识密集型服务业空间关联特征及其动力机制分析——基于广东省21个地级市的实证
    方远平,毕斗斗,谢蔓,林彰平
    地理科学. 2014, 34 (10): 1193-1201.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2014.010.1193
    摘要   HTML   PDF (516KB)

    以转型中的经济大省广东为例,运用探索性空间数据分析法和空间常系数模型,分析广东省知识密集型服务业(KIBS)发展水平的地区差异、空间关联特征及其动力机制,研究结论表明:① 广东省各地级市KIBS产出总体上以珠三角城市最高,但各行业存在空间差异;② 广东省地级市KIBS呈空间正相关特点,但空间结构极不平衡,呈“总体分散、局部集中”分布格局,珠三角内诸城市属于KIBS热点区域,是高值集聚区,粤东西北的大部分城市是位于冷点区域,4 a间没有突破低值集聚的现状,也揭示了珠三角地区内相邻城市的KIBS具有竞争性,尚未形成有效的扩散-协同的发展格局;③ 广东省KIBS空间格局的动力因子分析表明:城市化、工业化、信息化、经济外向度和交通通达性均对KIBS发展有促进作用,而市场需求对KIBS发展产生负向影响。


    This article explored the exploratory spatial data analysis(ESDA) and spatial econometric model to check the spatial distribution of KIBS as well as its spatial dynamics factors across Guangdong Province . There are four main findings. First, it is described that the spatial distribution of KIBS which shows that cities in the Pearl River Delta(PRD) have the highest level across Guangdong Province, though there are discrepancy among different sectors in KIBS.Second, there is a spatial positive correlation relationship and spatial uneven distribution of KIBS among cities of Guangdong Province, which has a location of general dispersion and local concentration across this region. Third, most cities in PRD are KIBS hot spots with a high value agglomeration area, while the rest other cities in the eastern, western and northern of Guangdong are located incold area of KIBS , and the diffusion effect which come from the high level area(the PRD)remains limited to these adjacent cities, this lead to the regional lock-up effect of these cities to be low-low concentration for a couple of years. Fourth, a number of dynamic factors were used to interpret the spatial distribution of KIBS across Guangdong Province, result shows that urbanization, industrialization, ICT, economic openness and transport facilities play a positive role in promoting the development of KIBS, amongst which urbanization factor is the most important factor .While market demand factor has a negative influence on the development of knowledge intensive business service. Therefore, promoting urbanization level, improving the level of new industrial development and popularization of ICT infrastructure construction, increasing foreign investment, and revising the negative effect of market demand, all can effectively promote the development of KIBS in Guangdong Province.

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    论长春都市圈的地域范围与空间结构
    韩刚,袁家冬
    地理科学. 2014, 34 (10): 1202-1209.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2014.010.1202
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    都市圈地域范围的界定是都市圈研究的基础。科学地确定都市圈的空间范围是保证都市圈的中心城市与周边乡镇的资源的整合,基础设施的共建共享,土地利用一体化,社会经济协调发展的关键。长春都市圈是长吉图开发开放先导区的中心区域,具有雏形期都市圈的基本特点,都市圈的构建对于推进吉林省域及东北中部地区的城市化水平,协调社会矛盾,促进经济整体发展具有重要意义。借鉴国内外相关的都市圈范围界定方法,以日常生活圈为视角,科学合理的确定出长春都市圈的中心城市及周边地区,在此基础上,运用经济距离、引力模型、通勤率等指标,对长春都市圈周边乡镇与中心城市之间的隶属关系进行验证,同时划定出长春都市圈的地域范围和空间结构。希望通过都市圈的构建,淡化行政区划,保护绿色开敞空间与土地资源,建设紧凑型的城市形态与相对分散的功能化区域,积极落实国家新型城镇化政策。


    Metropolitan area is a geographical unit which composes of central city and surrounding areas where has highly social and economic integration with the central city. It is generally defined the city center as the core, with the convenient traffic communication as the basis. The economy and diffusion of information in metropolitan area remains highly complex and interconnected. The metropolitan area can integrate more resources, including human resources, material resources and financial resources. So, the metropolitan area is a regional integration entity which is limited by the convenient degree of daily commuting. Defining geographical boundary of metropolitan area is the foundation of metropolitan region research. Defining spatial scale of metropolitan area reasonably is the key to ensure that the resources, infrastructure and land use in central cities and surrounding towns can be integrated in order to achieve the harmonious development between economy and society. Changchun metropolitan area is the central region of Changchun-Jilin-Tumen Forerunner Area, with basic characteristics of the embryonic form of metropolitan area. Construction of Changchun metropolitan area is of great significance for promoting the urbanization level of the central area of Jilin Province and the northeast area of China, coordinating social contradiction, and boosting the overall economic development. This article uses modern defining techniques about city circles, in consideration of daily live circle, to define the city center in Changchun. On this basis, the relationship between surrounding towns and central cities of Changchun metropolitan areas is verified using indexes such as economic distance, gravity model and commuting rate, and at the same time metropolitan area and spatial structure of Changchun metropolitan area are delineated.Changchun metropolitan can be divied into core layer, close circle circle, opportunity circle based on the relation of central city with the surrounding area.Through the construction of metropolitan area, the main expectation is to dilute the administrative divisions, protect green open space and land resources, construct compact city morphology and relatively disperse functional areas, and actively implement the policy of national new-type urbanization.

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    基于地理加权回归的吉林省人口城镇化动力机制分析
    庞瑞秋,腾飞,魏冶
    地理科学. 2014, 34 (10): 1210-1217.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2014.010.1210
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    以吉林省各县域(市辖区)为基本单元,借助第六次人口普查和统计年鉴的相关数据,结合地理加权回归模型和空间自相关分析方法,讨论人口城镇化水平和国有动力、非国有动力、农业动力及外向动力等因素的空间相关关系,并以此解释人口城镇化分县域(市辖区)差异的影响因素。结果表明:国有动力对吉林省人口城镇化的影响作用最大,影响强度由中北部向西南、东南两个方向递减;农业动力和非国有动力分居二、三位,但差别不明显。其中农业动力的影响强度由西北向东南方向递减,非国有动力的影响强度由东南向西北递减;外向动力对人口城镇化的影响力较弱,影响强度各地区差别较大。吉林省人口城镇化未来发展应重视非国有动力的影响和农村现代化的作用;关注人口城镇化动力多元化,考虑实现错位发展和个性化发展。


    Population urbanization refers to the process in which rural populations move to urban areas. And this process has attracted more and more attentions of governments, scholars and public in China, as the emergence and rise of the concept of new-type urbanization. In this article, the mechanism of population urbanization in Jilin Province was analyzed by using geographically weighted regression (GWR) and spatial autocorrelation method. Compared with the ordinary least square (OLS), GWR extends the traditional regression framework by allowing the estimation of local rather than global parameters. According to the previous studies and the context of the study area, the article first supposed that there are four kinds of forces supporting the population urbanization in Jilin Province including state-provided force, non-state-provided force, agricultural force and external force. The state-provide force stands for the construction and investment by the state. Converting to the state-provide force, the non-state-provided force emphasized the role of market-oriented economy. The agricultural force refers to the motivational role of rural development, which is proposed due to the status of big agricultural province for Jilin. And the external force aims to analyze how the FDI and foreign trade drive the population urbanization. Then the role of each force was examined and measured by using OLS and GWR method. It is found that, the state-provided force played a most role among the four forces, and the effect intensity declined from central region to northwest and southeast region; the agricultural force stood on the second place, the effect of which increased from southeast to northwest; the non-state-provided force took the third place. The effect intensity of external force is smallest compared with the other forces, and there are no obvious spatial laws. According to these findings, this article suggested that more attentions should be paid to the role of non-state-provided force and the process of rural modernization in future development of population urbanization in Jilin Province. Meanwhile, diversified dynamic urbanization are also encouraged, namely the cities or counties should follow a misplaced and individualized developing mode.

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    河南省耕地集约利用时空分异及分区研究
    刘玉,郝星耀,潘瑜春,唐秀美
    地理科学. 2014, 34 (10): 1218-1225.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2014.010.1218
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    通过构建耕地集约利用评价模型,采用Kernel密度曲线等深入分析1990年、2000年和2010年河南省126个县域的耕地集约利用程度及其时空规律,并采用双重自组织模型进行耕地集约利用分区。结果表明:① 县域耕地集约利用度的Kernel密度曲线呈现典型的单峰分布模式,分布曲线由“尖峰形”向“宽峰形”发展并整体向右移动,表明河南省耕地集约利用整体水平上升,县域差异扩大。② 耕地集约利用水平空间差异显著,“北高南低”、“东高西低”、“平原区高,山地丘陵区低”的特征明显;大多数县域耕地集约利用度随时间变化稳步提高,但提高水平差异较大;耕地投入强度和耕地产出效率的提升幅度较大,耕地利用强度和可持续性状况提升较慢。③ 采用双重自组织模型将126个县域划分为东部黄淮平原区、北部平原区、东南丘陵平原区、中南平原区、西部山地丘陵区等5个耕地集约利用区,并提出了相应的发展策略。


    The intensive use of cultivated land resource is not only the key to improve the cultivated land use efficiency and to ensure the national food security, but also been one of the most important components in rural development and social stability. Henan is the largest agricultural province and the most populous province in China, research on the intensive use of cultivated land in Henan is a window for penetrating into phenomena in China, for which occupying more than 6% cultivated land area in China. Considering the actual situation of the 126 counties in Henan Province, the evaluation index system for cultivated land use intensity was established from four aspects, including land investment degree, utilizing intensity, output efficiency and sustainable development status. The weight of each index was calculated by the entropy method, and then the intensity of cultivated land use in 1990, 2000 and 2010 at county level was evaluated and graded. The results demonstrated that: 1) As for temporal characteristic, the average degree of cultivated land intensive use showed an increasing tendency, increased from 0.262 in 1990 to 0.461 in 2010, and the total disparities of intensive use degree in Henan at county level have enlarged. The distribution shapes of intensive use degree were typical “single peak” shapes in the three years, transforming from "spike peak" in 1990 to "broad peak" in 2000 and 2010. 2)As for spatial characteristic, the character of spatial clustering about counties of high value and low value was remarkable, and intensive degree was significantly higher in eastern plain region than in western mountain area, higher in northern region than in southern region. The investment degree and utilizing efficiency of cultivated land were the main reasons that lead to the increment of cultivated land intensive use, while utilizing intensity and sustainable development status improved slower. The level of cultivated land intensive use in most counties from 1990 to 2010 showed a steady increase. 3) The spatial difference of cultivated land intensive use was resulted mainly from location condition, natural features and economic condition, and the main driving forces influencing cultivated land intensive use in different counties were different. The 126 counties in Henan were aggregated into five regions by self-organizing dual zoning method, including the eastern Huang-Huai plain area, the northern plain area, the southeast plain area, the central-south plain area and the western mountain area, and some suggestions on cultivated land intensive use were brought forward.

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    1982~2011年北半球中纬度秋季植被绿度变化的主要模态
    张学珍
    地理科学. 2014, 34 (10): 1226-1232.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2014.010.1226
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    利用系统聚类方法和经验正交函数分解(EOF分析)2种方法,分别提取了北半球中纬度地区1982~2011年秋季(9~11月)归一化差值植被指数(NDVI)变化的主要模态,辨识了植被绿度变化的区域差异;并采用奇异值分解(SVD)的方法,综合时间和空间2个维度上的变异信息,揭示了植被绿度变化的气候背景。结果表明,北半球中纬度秋季植被绿度变化有2种基本模态,一种是持续增加模态(模态I),该模态广泛分布于北美大陆、亚欧大陆的北半部(大约在55oN以北)和东西两端,NDVI平均增速为0.014/10a;另一种是趋势转折模态(模态II),NDVI先增加,后减少,转折点大致出现在1994年,该模态主要出现在亚欧大陆中部,NDVI变化的平均速率分别是0.027/10a和-0.017/10a,其中以40oE~80oE最为典型。植被绿度变化与温度变化的时空特征基本一致。模态I区域的温度变化以持续性升高为主要特征,模态II区域的温度变化则以先增加后降低为主要特征,转折年份与NDVI变化的转折年份基本一致。SVD分析的第一模态NDVI与温度的时间系数相关系数为0.82,第二模态为0.92。由此表明,植被绿度变化主导模态可能由温度变化模态所致,在区域-大洲尺度上,温度变化的区域差异导致了秋季植被绿度变化的区域差异。


    :To understand response of terrestrial ecosystem to climate changes, it is important to study variations in vegetation greenness (VG) under the changing climate. We firstly extend the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiameter (AVHRR)-based Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) from 2006 to 2011 by calibrating the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer-based NDVI. Using hierarchical clustering and empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis, this study picked out main models of variations of autumn VG (September to November) which was indicate by NDVI from 1982 to 2011. Then, by using Singular Value Decomposition (SVD), we integrated temporal variations and spatial variations of NDVI and temperature to reveal climate background of variations in VG. We found that the MODIS-NDVI captures the main variations of VG as the AVHRR-NDVI; therefore, it is reliable to extend the AVHRR-NDVI with the MODIS-NDVI. Both of cluster analysis and EOF analysis show the variations in autumn VG had two main models. One (model I) was featured by an increasing trend of VG from 1982 to 2011. This model spreads across the North America land, northern part and (west, east) two ends of Eurasia. The mean rate of increase in NDVI was ~0.014 per decade. The other model (model II) was featured by turn of NDVI variations. This model mostly spread in the center area of Eurasia. The turn point of NDVI variations was about 1994. From 1982 to 1994, the NDVI increased at the rate of 0.027 per decade; while, from 1995 to 2011, the NDVI decreased at the rate of 0.017 per decade. EOF analysis as well as illustrates that above two models could explain 21.1% and 8.1% of total variations of NDVI, respectively. The SVD analysis illustrated that variations in NDVI matched well with variations in temperature. In the Model I area, the temperature changes were featured by an increasing trend. The time coefficients of NDVI and temperature had a strong correlation (R=0.82). In the model II area, the temperature changes were featured by a turn point. Before the turn point, temperature increased; after the turn point, temperature decreased. The time coefficients of NDVI and temperature also had a strong correlation (R=0.92). These results suggest that the persisting greening in the Model I area occurred in the climate warming background and conversion from greening to browning in the Model II area co-occurred with the climate changes from warming to cooling. These findings demonstrate that the main models of variations in VG might result from temperature variations. In the continental scale, the spatial heterogeneity of temperature variations resulted in spatial heterogeneity of VG variations.

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    1961~2010年辽河三角洲参考蒸散发变化特征及主导因子分析
    王炳亮,李国胜
    地理科学. 2014, 34 (10): 1233-1238.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2014.010.1233
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    基于FAO Penman-Monteith 公式计算了辽河三角洲区域19个气象站1961~2010年逐日参考蒸散发(ET0)对平均气温、风速、相对湿度和太阳辐射的敏感系数,结合各气象因子的多年变化定量分析参考蒸散发变化的原因。结果表明:气温对ET0变化为正贡献,风速、相对湿度和太阳辐射为负贡献;综合考虑敏感性分析和趋势分析的结果,滨海干湿过渡区气象因子对参考蒸散发变化的贡献由大到小依次是风速、平均气温、太阳辐射和相对湿度;半湿润亚区由大到小依次是风速、平均气温、相对湿度和太阳辐射;半干旱亚区由大到小依次是平均气温、太阳辐射、风速和相对湿度。


    Based on the FAO-56 Penman-Monteith formula, reference evapotranspiration (ET0) was calculated using a 50-year meteoro1ogical dataset at 19 meteorological stations over the Liaohe Delta during the period 1961-2010. The change of ET0 was studied by analyzing the sensitivity coefficients of ET0 to air temperature, wind speed, relative humidity and solar radiation together with their relative changes. The results show that variations present among the 3 sub-region (semi-humidity sub-region, semi-arid sub-region and coastal zone). The positive contribution of temperature and the negative contribution of wind speed and relative humidity and solar radiation are observed in 3 sub-regions. Therefore, contribution of wind is biggest and contribution of relative humidity is smallest because of its little relative change. Wind speed and air temperature are the determining factors of ET0 in coastal zone and semi-humidity sub-region, meanwhile air temperature and solar radiation are the determining factors of ET0 in semi-arid sub-region.

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    广东北江流域前汛期降水与全球海温及遥相关的相关性研究
    刘占明,陈子燊
    地理科学. 2014, 34 (10): 1239-1246.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2014.010.1239
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    以广东北江流域18测站1965~2007年的月降水数据为基础,统计发现该区域降水前汛期突出,后汛期不明显,年内降水呈明显的“单峰型”分布。Mann-Kendall趋势检验表明,4月、5月降水主要呈下降趋势,6月降水主要呈上升趋势。考虑到前期海温及遥相关指数对降水具有预测性的指示意义,本文将流域前汛期各月份降水经验正交函数(EOF)分析的第一模态时间系数与同期及前期1~12月全球海温及10种遥相关指数进行时滞相关。结果发现影响前汛期各月降水的海温异常关键区并不局限于广东近海,各月的海温异常关键区、遥相关指数及其影响时段存在较大差异。海温异常关键区面积各月均表现为负相关海域大于正相关海域;4月、5月正相关海域主要分布在南半球,6月正相关海域主要分布在北太平洋海域;有些海区在滞后0~12月均与前汛期降水相关显著。研究有助于减少广东北江流域前汛期降水预报的不确定性,为指导工农业生产及防灾减害提供一定的科学依据,也可为研究区域气候变化规律及其影响因素提供一种思路。


    Statistics show that there was more precipitation in the first rainy season (April, May, June) , but the second rainy seasonal (July, August, September) precipitation is usually not obvious, and the yearly variation of precipitation is obvious unimodal distribution, base on the monthly precipitation data of 18 stations in Guangdong Beijiang river basin from 1965 to 2007. The precipitation in April and May were mainly downward trend, but mainly upward trend in June from 1965 to 2007 by Mann-Kendall test. Based on the significance of early sea surface temperature (SST) and teleconnection indices to the prediction of precipitation, the paper analyses the correlation between the PC1 of EOF in the first rainy seasonal precipitation and the same period and early one to twelve months globe SST and 10 teleconnection indices. The results showed that SST anomaly key areas are not only distributed in China’s neighboring seas; SST anomaly key areas and teleconnection indices and its key periods are larger differences among months in first rainy season. SST anomaly key area of all months showed that sea areas of negative correlation are bigger than the positive correlation. The positive correlational sea areas of April and May are mainly distributed in the southern hemisphere, while June mainly distributed in the North Pacific Ocean. The negative correlational sea areas of April mainly distributed in northern hemisphere; and the negative correlational sea areas of May mainly distributed in the East Atlantic-the Mediterranean Sea, northwest Pacific Ocean, South America’s southern waters, Australia’s western and southern waters; while June mainly distributed in Australia-centered sea areas. Some sea areas are significantly related to the first rainy seasonal precipitation at the same time and lag one to twelve months. The statistics showed that precipitation in the first rainy season correlated significantly with PNA, AAOI and NAO; and PNA was positive correlation, AAOI was negative correlation. Most of the teleconnection indices that correlated significantly with precipitation in May and June were negative correlation. This study will help to reduce the uncertainty of the first rainy seasonal precipitation forecasts in Guangdong Beijiang River Basin, and to provide a scientific basis for the guidance of industrial and agricultural production and the disaster prevention and mitigation, but also to provide a way for the study of regional climate change and its influencing factors.

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    广西土壤有机碳储量估算及与全国部分省区的比较研究
    陈曦
    地理科学. 2014, 34 (10): 1247-1253.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2014.010.1247
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    以广西第二次土壤普查的土壤剖面数据为基础,结合广西1:50万的土壤图以及相关的地形DEM图和行政区划图,在GIS平台下对广西表层土壤有机碳密度和储量进行了估算,对不同土壤类型、不同区域的土壤有机碳分布特征进行了分析,并将结果与全国其他省市地区的研究成果进行了对比。结果表明:广西表层土壤有机碳密度分布不均,呈现桂北高,桂南低的空间分布特点;中等海拔地区高,低海拔地区低;黄壤高,砖红壤低。有机碳密度均值为3.33 kg/m2,低于全国平均水平4.70 kg/m2;表层土壤有机碳库储量为6.42×1011kg,占全国表层土壤有机碳储量的1.5%。


    The main purpose of this research is to estimate the soil organic carbon density and reserves of top soil in Guangxi, China. With the combined analysis of the soil profile data of the second soil survey, the soil map (1∶500 000) and digital map, the author unveiled the carbon density and reserves’ distribution features of different soil types and areas in Guangxi, and furthermore, made comparison to the data in other provinces in China. The results show that the soil organic carbon density varies significantly at different type of topsoil. The carbon density in soil is comparatively higher in the north of Guangxi than it in the south. And it is also higher in high latitude areas and yellow soil, while it is lower in low latitude areas and latosol. In addition, the whole soil organic carbon reverses of the topsoil in Guangxi is 6.42×1011kg, as much as the 1.5% of the nationwide reverses in China. And the average value of the soil organic carbon density, 3.33 kg/m2, is lower than the national average level, 4.70 kg/m2.

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    黑河中游绿洲化过程中不同开垦年限农田大型土壤动物群落特征
    董炜华,王子婷,李锋瑞,刘继亮
    地理科学. 2014, 34 (10): 1254-1261.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2014.010.1254
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    对不同开垦年限绿洲农田大型土壤动物群落结构特征进行研究,探讨绿洲化过程中农田大型土壤动物群落对土壤环境演变的响应及适应机制。天然荒漠草地开垦为绿洲农田后,新垦绿洲农田大型土壤动物密度和类群丰富度增加为天然荒漠草地的1.95倍和1.54倍,百年绿洲农田土壤动物密度和类群丰富度增加为天然荒漠草地的3.54倍和3.00倍;但群落多样性和均匀度指数变化较小。不同动物类群随着绿洲农田开垦年限增加,其变化规律也存在较大差异,如地蜈蚣科(Geophilidae)、线蚓科(Enchytraeidae)、正蚓科(Lumbricidae)和蝇科幼虫(Muscidae)个体密度逐渐增加,拟步甲科(Tenebrionidae)和象甲科(Curculionidae)个体密度显著降低,而平腹蛛科(Gnaphosidae)、夜蛾科(Noctuidae)幼虫和蚁科(Formicidae)受农田开垦以及开垦年限的影响较小。RDA分析结果表明绿洲化过程中不同开垦年限绿洲农田的土壤温度、pH、土壤粘粉粒、土壤含水量、土壤有机碳和全氮的变化是导致绿洲化过程中绿洲农田大型土壤动物群落演变的主要影响因素,而随着绿洲农田开垦年限增加,土壤含盐量、土壤粗砂粒和细砂粒的变化是导致不同开垦年限绿洲农田大型土壤动物群落演变的主要影响因素。


    Age sequence in the process of oasification changes soil conditions and affects on soil fauna community. Up to now, few research has explored soil macrofauna community composition and diversity at an age sequence of cultivation in process of oasification. We investigated the composition and diversity of soil macrofauna communities using hand sorting method in both early May, mid July and September in native sandy shrubland, 27-year and 100-year oasis farmland. The results showed age sequence of cultivation had significantly affected on density, group richness, diversity and evenness index of soil macrofauna community. The density and groups of soil macrofauna community were strongly influenced by age sequence of cultivation in contrast to the modest change of diversity and evenness index. 27-year oasis farmland supported nearly 1.95 and 1.54 times higher of density and group richness soil macrofauna community than native sandy shrubland. 100-year farmland supported nearly 3.54 and 3 times higher of density and group richness soil macrofauna community than native sandy shrubland. The density of Geophilidae, Enchytraeidae, Lumbricidae and Muscidae larvae increased with oasis farmland cultivated, but the density of Tenebrionidae and Cicindelidae distinctly decreased with oasis farmland cultivated, and the density of Gnaphosidae, Noctuidae larvae and Formicidae had no obviously changed with oasis farmland cultivated. RDA analyses showed that the distribution of soil macrofauna community between native sandy shrubland and 27-year oasis farmland was clearly affected by soil temperature, pH, soil moisture, soil silt and clay content, total nitrogen and soil organic carbon. However, soil salinity, soil coarse content, soil fine sand content were the most important factors in shaping the spatial distribution pattern of soil macrofauna community between 27-year and 100-year oasis farmland.

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    黄河三角洲潮滩沉积物磁性特征与沉积环境分析
    彭俊,陈洪全,马随随,李志文
    地理科学. 2014, 34 (10): 1262-1269.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2014.010.1262
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    环境磁学方法作为沉积记录研究的重要手段,已在黄土、湖泊和陆架沉积物中得到广泛应用,但将此方法应用于潮滩沉积环境的研究并不多。因此,通过测量黄河三角洲潮滩YDZ1柱样沉积物磁学和粒度参数,结合AMS14C测年数据,对末次冰盛期后黄河三角洲潮滩沉积物磁性特征与沉积环境进行分析。结果表明:以假单畴(PSD)~多畴(MD)晶粒为主的亚铁磁性矿物主导了潮滩沉积物的磁性特征,磁学参数中的χARMARM/SIRM和χARM/χ可视为粘土(<4 μm)或细粒级组分(<32 μm)含量的代用指标。潮滩沉积相序自上而下为泛滥平原相、河流相、三角洲前缘相、浅海相、潮坪相和河流相,沉积环境表现为强(陆相)、弱(海相)、强(陆相)的演变过程。


    Environmental magnetism is a newly rising frontier science among earth science, environmental science and magnetism. It reveals environmental actions, environmental processes and environmental problems of different temporal and spatial scales through the magnetic measurement and analysis of the magnetic mineral assemblage and characteristics. Due to the type, the content and the grain size of magnetic mineral related to the sediment sources, sediment transport capacity and early digenesis, and changes of these factors are heavily influenced by environmental changes, the information of sedimentary environment change can be extracted through the analysis of the magnetic characteristics of sediment. At present, environmental magnetic method has been widely used in loess, lake and shelf deposits as an normal mean for studying sedimentary record, but using this method on sedimentary environment in tidal flat is seldom. Hence, by measuring the magnetic parameters and the grain size parameters of the core YDZ1 in tidal flat of the Yellow River Delta, and combined with data of AMS14C dating, this paper analyzes the sediment magnetic properties and its sedimentary environment after the Last Glacial Maximum in tidal flat of the Yellow River Delta. The results show that the ferromagnetic mineral of pseudo-single domain (PSD) and multi-domain (MD) dominates the sediment magnetic properties of the core YDZ1. Among the magnetic properties of sediment, the parameters of χARM, χARM/SIRM and χARM/χ can be regarded as the substituted indexes for the clay (<4 μm) content or the fine-grained component (<32 μm) content. The sedimentary facies from surface to bottom in tidal flat of the Yellow River Delta has experienced the floodplain facies, the river facies, the delta-front facies, the neritic facies, the tidal flat facies and the river facies, and the sedimentary dynamical environment had a variation process from strong to weak, and then strong again.

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    皖西大别山五大水库生态系统服务功能价值评估
    黄润,王升堂,倪建华,孙贤斌,王笑梅
    地理科学. 2014, 34 (10): 1270-1274.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2014.010.1270
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    根据皖西大别山5大水库水资源特征,将其水生态系统服务划分为直接使用价值和间接使用价值2大类8个小类,以2010 年为评价基准年份,运用市场价值法、费用支出法、替代工程法等环境经济价值评估方法,对大别山5大水库生态系统服务功能价值定量评价。研究结果表明,2010年5大水库生态系统服务功能的总价值为60.59 亿元,占当年六安市国内生产总值的8.95%,其中直接使用价值为19.62 亿元,占总价值的32.41%;间接使用价值为40.97 亿元,占总价值的67.59%。调蓄洪水和水资源蓄积的功能价值构成比例高,分别为34.32%和32.51%,水库在防御洪涝灾害和涵养水源方面具有重要的作用。


    Dabie Mountain is one of the most important water conservation in Anhui Province. According to the features of water resources, the water ecosystem services of the five reservoirs in West Anhui were classified into 2 categories (direct and indirect valuation) and 8 subcategories in this article. At the same time, a set of valuation index system was constituted with market value method, cost payout method, substitute engineering approach and so on, the value of the five reservoirs water ecosystem service was assessed by means of value evaluation in 2010. The result demonstrated that the total value of the five reservoirs water ecosystem service was 60.59×108 yuan RMB, and was up to 8.95% of the GDP of Lu′an City in 2010. The direct value was estimated as 19.62×108 yuan RMB, and indirect value was 40.92×108 yuan RMB. Among the different ecological service categories of the five reservoirs, flood control and water resource storage were of great value. The five reservoirs play an important role in flood control and water resource storage.

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    池州市A级旅游景区空间结构
    程海峰,胡文海
    地理科学. 2014, 34 (10): 1275-1280.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2014.010.1275
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    采用最近邻距离模式、连接度、通达度、紧密度分析的研究方法,从总体空间分布特征与区域内空间分布结构2方面对池州市旅游景区空间结构进行分析测定,发现池州市A级旅游景区空间距离较小,呈集聚型分布;β指数为1.56、 γ指数为0.53、平均径路长为3.26,旅游景区间交通网络的通达度较低,交通网络联系程度较弱,尚未形成稠密的旅游交通网络,旅游资源整合水平较低;紧密度指数C为0.55,紧凑程度处于中等,为区内旅游交通建设,提高区内旅游资源网络连通性、通达性提供了较好的基础。


    The tourist attraction is the material carrier of tourism supply. The proper construction of spatial structure of the tourist attraction is of great significance to the development of Chizhou tourism. With the network analysis of geographical mathematics method, the article analyzes the spatial structure of Chizhou tourism. Based on the nearest distance model, connectivity, accessibility and compactness, it analyzes and measures the spatial structure of Chizhou tourism from the perspective of the features of general spatial distribution, and regional spatial distribution structure. The result shows that the spatial distance of class A tourist attraction in Chizhou is small with the aggregation distribution; β index is 1.56 , γ index is 0.53, the average pathway length is 3.26, the connectivity in the tourist attractions is low, and the connection of transportation network is weak, the intense transportation network has not come into being, and the integration of tourism resources is low. C of the compactness index is 0.55, the compactness is in medium level, which lays good foundation for tourism transportation construction and improvement of connectivity and accessibility of tourism resources.

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