This article aims to examine how the size, connectivity and accessibility of the expressway network have evolved over time on a national scale and further influence the developing potential for a region during the past 25 years and future 15 years. Travel time and the shortest time path model were applied for this purpose. We describe the growth of the expressway network in China and analyze the development features, and evaluate the evolution of expressway network accessibility in each period including connectivity, travel time and location coefficient, and comparatively analyze their differences over time and space. In particular, we analyze the effect of expressways on spatial accessibility and location conditions, and identify which developments are likely to improve or detract from accessibility and location conditions. Furthermore, the composite developing potential for cities is evaluated by considering the population and regional gross domestic product to investigate the influence of expressways on regional development, and their changes before and after expressway construction is analyzed. The results show that the expressway construction has produced the obvious spatio-temporal convergence by reducing the travel time among the cities and brought the peripheral regions closer to the central regions and greatly improved the transport conditions in the western China which produce a continuously shrinking China. The accessibility of cities shows a spatial pattern of core-peripheral concentric circle configuration, and the Huanghe-Huaihe River Plain, the Guanzhong Plain, the middle and lower reaches of the Changjiang River have been the regions with the best accessibility but the worst conditions of accessibility are recorded in the northwestern and northeastern margins in China. The expressway has produced interference on the original accessibility with a certainly steady status established by traditional highways. In the early period, with the initially continuous construction of expressway, this interference was likely to be more obvious. But with the fully interconnected networking of expressway, it setbacks rapidly and the accessibility difference among the nodes also returns to original level, because expressway network becomes a new transport infrastructure increasingly to replace the existing highway. However, the expressways not only could not change the superior/poor level of locational condition for a city in the whole China but also increased the imbalances in development opportunities among cities.
利用省域面板数据进行单位根检验和协整检验,对1978~2014年中国(不包括港澳台地区)经济增长和城市化的关系,以及不同省域经济增长与城市化作用程度进行研究,同时运用Mann-Kendall方法将中国城市化增长分成1978~1995年和1996~2014年两个阶段,并对不同阶段中国省域经济增长和城市化的相互作用关系进行研究,结果表明：① 1978~2014年中国经济增长对城市化具有促进作用,从各省域的相互作用程度来看呈现中东部较低,西南和东北部较高的区域格局,同时此阶段城市化对于经济增长的作用并没有得到证实。② 1978~1995年中国城市化和经济增长之间的相互作用关系没有得到证实。③ 1996~2014年中国城市化与经济增长相互促进,从各省域城市化对经济增长的作用强度来看呈现出中东部低,而周边内陆省区高的区域格局,而经济增长对城市化作用的区域格局与之相反。
After the reform and opening up, with the rapid development of China's economic and acceleration urbanization, the relationship between urbanization and economic growth in China has received more and more attention. Building up the panel data model based on the panel data of thirty provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions, this article studies the interaction between urbanization and economic growth from 1978 to 2014. At the same time, through comparatively analyzing the relationship between urbanization and economic growth in the different stages of urbanization since 1978, the article tries to reveal the interactive difference between urbanization and economic growth in the different stages of urbanization, and the change of regional pattern stemming from the interaction between urbanization and economic growth. Based on the Mann-Kendall method, the article divides the development of China’s urbanization into two stages of 1978-1995 and 1996-2014. Through the unit root test and cointegration test by the panel data of provinces, the article analyzes the interactive degree of urbanization and economic growth comparatively in the different stages since 1978. The research results show as follows: 1) In 1978-2014, Chinese economic growth promotes urbanization and forms the regional pattern of presentation low in central and high in the north and the south China. At the same time, the role of urbanization for the economic growth has not been confirmed. 2) The interaction between urbanization and economic growth is not confirmed in 1978-1995. 3) In 1996-2014, Chinese urbanization and China’s economic growth are of mutual promotion obviously, and urbanization role in promoting economic growth is greater than the role of economic growth. Regional pattern formed by economic growth promoting urbanization show features of high in Middle East China and low in the inland areas, while the truth is just the reverse about regional pattern formed by urbanization promoting economic growth. All of those show that in the more developed areas economic growth promotes a more significant to urbanization, and in the backward areas urbanization gives a great push to economic growth.
This article provides an overview of international literature on the temporal aspect of the migration process, and a comprehensive and systematic review on progress in the research on the temporal processes of migration and their spatial effects in China. The review suggests that in China’s migration research, some attention has been paid to the temporal processes of migration and their spatial effects, reflected in the fact that the temporal factor has been considered in some research concerning migrants’subsequent migration following their first move to the cities, the stepwise reunion for members of migrant split families and the corresponding evolution of their multi-locational livelihoods, and their intention of return migration or settlement in the cities in the last stage of their migration process. However, the review demonstrates that there is a lack of systematic and integrated investigation into various stages of the migration process and comprehensive examination of the temporal changes in migrants’ livelihood in terms of their employment, housing and household characteristics.The review also suggests that our understanding of factors affecting migrants’ spatial behavior in the lengthy and multi-stage migration process is inadequate, and that the exploration on the temporal dimension of the migration process is constrained by the lack of individual-level event history data. Based on the above review, the article argues that in China’s future migration research, more efforts should be devoted to collect event history data relating to the migration process, divide it into various stages, and systematically examine detailed characteristics of each migration stage and the related temporal and spatial changes in migrants’ employment, housing and families, in order to fill in the gap in understanding the temporal processes of migration. The article further advocates that efforts need to be devoted to integrating the results of research on each specific stage of the migration process into a comprehensive understanding of the regularity in the evolution of the migration process as a whole. The article suggests that research as described above will expand and deepen our understanding of the temporal and spatial patterns of migration and their formulating mechanisms, and contribute to the development of relevant theories.
Life satisfaction, a stable and long felling of life, denotes how well people thrive. In the last decade, scholars from different academic fields including psychology, sociology, geography, economy and so on have contributed a lot of research on the relevant topics. Besides, life satisfaction is also increasingly being seen as an essential element for the quality of urban development and government policy, therefore, followed by the scientific interests is the concern of administrative authorities who believe public policy should be about enhancing life satisfaction of the people. Although the highest rate of growth in GDP in Chinese urban, the economic growth did not promise an equal level of the improvement of residents’ life satisfaction.According to the previous research, there is little study that focus on life satisfaction from the perspective of Human Geography in China, especially lack of research that the influence of geographical unit effect on residents’ life satisfaction. Traditionally, single-level model was used in previous research to analyze the influence, which ignoring the similarity of individuals who living in same geographical unit and the clustering effect of groups. Worse still, single-level models do not fully exploit the hierarchical nature of geography data that are increasingly available and that can be utilized to provide more information about the role of geography at different spatial scales. In this aticle, we use ordered category response multilevel model to analyze that how the characteristics of sub-districts and community affect residents’ life satisfaction. Based on large scale survey in 2013 in case of Beijing, several conclusions are drawn as follows: 1) There are life satisfaction heterogeneity both at sub-district and community level, and the heterogeneity at community level is bigger than sub-district level. 2) Individual attributes also affect subjective well-being(SWB). In general, weak groups, such as low-income families, nonlocal hukou people and old people, are more likely be unsatisfied about their life. 3) Type of community has significant impact on life satisfaction. The closeness of community and high identity of residents in same community should largely responsible for this. Residents living in commercial housing are more likely feel satisfied about life than affordable housing and unit housing. Currently, diverse community is the inevitable choice for the rapid progress of urbanization as it provides more choices for urban families to access housing opportunities. However, community disparity also deeps residents’ SWB gap, implying that it should be given due attention to promote living environment of affordable and unit housing, further improve residents’ sense of well-being. Furthermore, in current metropolitan cities in China, it is the weak groups who are most unsatisfied about their life and always need help and concern from government most urgently. Because of institutional and economic factors, they are always excluded from the preferential policy provided to urban residents, and have few opportunities to access to good life in urban, especially for rural migrant workers.
冲积河流平滩流量既反映了河道尺度上的水文-地貌耦合关系,又与流域因素密切相关。从这一概念出发,以黄河上游内蒙古河段为例,研究了平滩流量的变化,并在流域层面与河道层面上对其成因进行了研究。结果表明：上游水库调节改变了出库流量过程,使汛期流量大幅度减小,泄流过程均匀化,因而平滩流量减小。在龙羊峡水库修建后洪水流量减小导致漫滩机遇降低的情形下,泥沙淤在主槽内,也是平滩流量减小的重要原因。泥沙冲淤对于平滩流量的影响存在着某种累积或滞后效应,巴彦高勒平滩流量Qbf,BY不仅与当年的冲淤量有关,还与以前冲淤量有关,前4 a平均淤积量对平滩流量的影响最大。建立了平滩流量与前4 a累计淤积量、年均流量、年最大日流量的多元回归方程,该方程表明平滩流量既与当年的流量特征相联系,也与一定时间尺度上河道冲淤造成的后果相联系,反映了某种水文地貌耦合关系。研究还表明,存在着以下因果关系链：龙羊峡水库修建→汛期来沙系数增大→河道淤积加强→平滩流量减小。因此,通过改变龙羊峡水库的运用方式,增大汛期下泄流量,可以减小河道淤积、增大平滩流量,从而增大下泄洪水的能力,降低凌汛期间的防洪压力。平滩流量的变化是流域因素变化的结果,所建立的多元回归方程表明,在50 a的时间尺度上,暖干化指标的增大、引水率的增大、水库总库容的增大和天然径流系数的减小,是黄河上游平滩流量减小的原因。
Bankfull discharge (Qbf) of alluvial rivers reflects the hydro-geomorphic coupling at channel-scale. It is closely related with the drainage basin factors. Based on this concept, we have studied the variation in the Qbf of the Inner Mongolia reach of the upper Huanghe River, and elucidated the causes at channel and drainage basin levels. The results show that the dams’ regulation changes the flow regime, making the downstream flows more even, greatly reducing the high-flow season discharges and therefore, Qbf of the downstream channel decreased. The enhanced channel sedimentation (Sdep) after the Longyangxia Dam construction, especially the sedimentation within the main channel due to the decreased bankfull frequency is also an important factor. The sedimentation has some time-lag or cumulative effect on the variation in Qbf, namely, Qbf correlates not only with the Sdep of the same year, but also with the moving averages of Sdep of the foregoing N-years, and the correlation coefficient (r) reaches the highest at N=4. A multiple regression equation has been established between Qbf and annual discharge, yearly maximum discharge and the foregoing 4-year average Sdep, indicating that Qbf depends not only on the flow conditions at the same year, but also on the cumulative Sdep at a certain time-scale. The existence of a cause-effect chain has been identified, which is generalized as follows: the construction of the Longyangxia Dam→ the increased July-October C/Q (C: suspended sediment concentration; Q: water discharge)→the enhanced Sdep→the decreased Qbf. Thus, by means of increasing the July-October flow release from the Longyangxia Reservoir, the Sdep can be reduced and the Qbf increased. Therefore, the increased flood-risk due to the reduced Qbf may be mitigated. As well, it has been demonstrated that the decrease in Qbf occurs as the outcome of the changing drainage basin factors. A multiple regression equation was established, which indicates that the increased climatic warm and dry trend, the water diversion ratio and the total capacity of the reservoirs and the decreased natural runoff coefficient are the causes for the decreased Qbf in the upper Huanghe River.
The research on the economic interaction among cities is beneficial to understand the spatial organization of regions and urban economy, to clarify the space developing orientation of regions and city entities, and to organize transportation reasonably. It provides references for the guiding and strengthening of regional and urban spatial interactions, and the optimization of spatial structure of urban system. Based on the methods of Gravity Model, Potential Model and Subjection Model which are interacted in space, this research quantitatively analyzes the spatial pattern and evolution of the urban economic links in the northeast region from 1992 to 2012, taking 41 cities in the northeastern China as study objects. It provides references for strengthening the spatial interaction among cities in the northeast region and promoting the economic sustainable development in the cities of the northeast region. The result of the study shows that there is close relationship between the economic relation intensity and regional spatial structure, the more intense the economic relation is, the more complicated the regional spatial structure will be. In the northeastern China, the time-space differences are significant that the economic relation intensity in the south is higher than in the north and it is higher in the middle part than on the two sides. In the recent 20 years, the regional economic development pattern represented by Shenyang, Changchun and Harbin has been formed. There is no change in the cities in the center of the region but the closest linkage among cities changed distinctively. The economic development in the northeastern China presents feature from south to north and from middle to sides. Finally, this article puts forward the concept of River Basin City and its pattern, and makes a concrete analysis.
以长春市中心城区大型零售商业网点的调研数据为基础,运用空间密度分析、最近邻距离分析及区位熵分析等研究方法,探讨长春市零售商业空间分布特征及其形成机理。研究结果表明：① 长春市零售商业网点的空间分布整体呈现单中心集聚与多中心分散特征,商业业态空间分化逐渐显现,不同业态空间分布特征差异性较大;② 零售商业网点规模容量呈现老城区小规模密集分布,外围开发区大规模离散分布特征,且商业网点的规模容量等级结构较为合理;③ 不同区块的零售行业特征存在较大差异,成熟区块表现出多行业、多功能复合特征,发展中区块单一功能特征较为明显;④ 商业业态演进及其内在特性选择、居民消费结构与行为因素影响、集聚经济效应驱动及公共政策的宏观调控共同影响零售商业空间格局的形成与发展。
Based on 2013 survey data for large-scale commercial sites in the central district of Changchun, this article provides a detailed discussion of the spatial characteristics and formation mechanisms of retail businesses using spatial density analysis, nearest neighbor distance, and location entropy analysis. The results show that spatial distribution of retail outlets in Changchun is made up of coexisting areas of concentration in the core area and diffusion in the peripheral areas. The results also show that a spatial pattern of multi-center clustering and a spatial development trend from northeast to southwest among retail sites characterize the overall spatial distribution of retail outlets in Changchun. Different retail formats show different spatial distribution features, and the expansion of emerging formats such as chain supermarkets towards the city periphery has become a trend. The density of retail outlet distribution is higher in the inner district than that in the outer district, but the construction intensity trend is moving in the opposite direction. The hierarchical structure of the capacity size is reasonable, which is mainly reflected in the stage of gathering from the single center to multicenter. Furthermore, different blocks of the retail industry show quite different characteristics: the mature districts generally have high integrated service capacity, while the function pattern of developing districts features a more single-focus approach.
It is of certain significance to explore the new-type tourism-driven rural urbanization for providing valuable reference for underdeveloped rural areas which lack of conditions for industrial development but abundant of tourism resources. The article applies qualitative methodology to revealing the characteristics and mechanism of new-type rural urbanization facilitated by tourism in the cases of two rural villages, i.e. the Yaotang Village and the Duanshi Village in the World Heritage Site, the Danxia Mountain. The result shows that as driven by tourism development, the two villages have achieved the new-type rural urbanization with the core of “people urbanization” that interplayed with plural subjects, namely local government, rural communities and external stakeholders. Local infrastructure construction and tourism enterprises development are well encouraged with governmental support of policies and capital, which prevents effectively the phenomenon of “Tragedy of the Commons” and “fake urbanization” from occurring. Furthermore, the two communities have initiatively participated in community construction and tourism operation by investing land, capital and labor, etc., which have accelerated the conversion of industry, employment and living lifestyle. It is also found that it is the external forces like external capital, tourism immigrants as well as tourists that have provided essential supports of capital, labors, information and culture, which gradually enlarge with the development of tourism market. Finally, the article argues that the tourism-driven rural urbanization does not occur in a traditional way that normally characterized with conversion of living space, career and identity; it is essentially an endogenous urbanization to characterize with in situ conversion mode of production and living lifestyle by peasants participating in tourism development. In this way, it may be possible to cultivate regional urbanization by the way of changing villagers’ registered residence in a near future.
The main purpose of this article is to examine the ways in which popular music (live music) in Guangzhou is implicated in the emotive production of performance venues, and how it is located in Guangzhou. The popular music in Guangzhou can be considered to be a noise that has social and political power to challenge the pre-existing place meanings and norms, rather than simply being sounds that lack aesthetics. According to the previous cultural geographical analysis on popular music, how (popular) music is embodied and performs the space and place is the core issues in recent research. Especially, the non-representational side of music is highlighted in current music studies. However, the geographical research on popular music in China is rare and limited to the discussions on the relations between music and place. This shortcoming limits geographers’ understanding of popular music in contemporary urban China, and obstructs Chinese cultural geographies’ focuses on ‘ways of doing/practice’. Drawing on participant observation and life history interviews with 25 informants (3 owners, 4 organizers, 15 musicians and 4 audience members) in 6 live houses in Guangzhou (T: union; C: union; Musician; SD livehouse; 191 Space; and Tek Kwun), this article analyses the function of popular music in performing the identities of different people, creating the mobilizing and transgressive space/place for the participants to form their embodied identities, and modernising traditional social norms. Building up the theories and results from Wood et al.’s (2007) non-representational music study and Revill’s (2000) politics of popular music, the findings of this research indicate that: firstly, music has ‘cultural authority’ in the organization of the socio-cultural, economic, and political spaces. The performance venues, therefore, can be considered as a kind of material culture which is made by their owners, music events’ organizers, musicians and audiences; Secondly, the performance venues are mobilising. They are made by performing music that is on the move, and are empowered by the musicians who create and perform the music, and people who arrange the performance venues; at the same time, these venues are transgressive, they are seen as pollution in Guangzhou, and evade the ‘formal procedure’ of performance, and distinguish the ‘insiders’ from ‘outsiders’. Conversely, the bodies are shaped and restricted by the socio-political contexts in Guangzhou and the physical venues. These findings not only respond to the previous music geographical studies on lyrics and sounds/voices, but also extend the research areas of Chinese popular music. In addition, though the existed music studies have paid attentions on Chinese popular music, most of them are from western or westernized views. Therefore, this musical research with non-western gaze in non-western society provides a new perspective to Chinese cultural geographers to go further the analysis on ‘the ways of seeing’.
以湿地变化较为剧烈的小三江平原为研究区域,以1955~2010年的地形图和Landsat TM遥感数据为数据源,采用网格分析法研究景观指数的时空分异规律,并分析不同时期人为干扰度对景观格局指数的影响。结果表明：① 从时间上看,1955~2010年小三江平原沼泽湿地的面积和最大斑块逐渐减小,斑块占景观比从52.87%下降到10.41%,最大斑块减少了47.6%,破碎化和分散性逐渐增加,连接度从1.02%增加到2.88%后下降为0.79%,呈先增加后降低的趋势,斑块的形状由复杂变得简单后又变得复杂,人为干扰度逐渐增加,从0.31%增加到0.6%;② 从空间上看,1955年研究区沼泽湿地景观由西南向东北破碎化逐渐减弱,1986年后变为由西南向东北破碎化逐渐增加的格局。沼泽湿地斑块类型所占景观面积比例和连接度指数的高值区主要分布在研究区的中部和东北部。人为干扰度的空间分布格局是由西南向东北逐渐减弱;③ 1955~2010年人为干扰对小三江平原沼泽湿地的邻近与连接程度的影响逐渐减弱,对沼泽湿地边缘密度影响逐渐增强,人为干扰对沼泽湿地斑块密度的影响主要受沼泽湿地面积的影响,人为干扰对沼泽湿地斑块的形状影响较小,沼泽湿地的优势景观控制力逐渐下降,人为干扰是小三江平原湿地面积减少的主要原因。
With the research area being the small Sanjiang Plain whose wetland changes have been quite severe and with the source of data being the 1955-2010 topographic map and Landsat TM Remote Sensing Data, the grid analysis method was used to study the rules of spatial-temporal differentiation of the landscape index and the effects of the level of man-made interference on the landscape pattern index under different periods were also analyzed. The results show: 1) Looking at it from the aspect of time, in 1955- 2010 the area of the small Sanjiang Plain marsh wetland and the largest patch decreased gradually, patch accounted for landscape ratio from 52.87% decreased to 10.41%,the largest patch has reduced 47.6%, fragmentation and dispersibility increased gradually, connectivity increased at first then decreased, its trend embodys in connectivity from 1.02% increased to 2.88% then decreased to 0.79%, the shape of the patch changed from being complex to simple and then changed to being complex again, the level of man-made interference gradually increased,from 0.31% increased to 0.6%; 2) Looking at it from the aspect of space, in 1955 the fragmentation from the south-west to the north-east of the marsh wetland landscape of the research area diminished gradually. After 1986, it changed into a pattern where the fragmentation from the south-west to the north-east increased gradually. The high value areas of the marsh wetland with respect to its proportional area of the landscape and connectivity index are distributed in the central and north-eastern parts of the research area. The spatial distribution pattern of the level of man-made interference diminished gradually from the south-west to the north-east; 3) Effect that human interference had on the vicinity and connectivity of the marsh wetland of the small Sanjiang Plain diminished gradually in 1955-2010, but its effect on the marginal density of the marsh wetland increased gradually. The effect that human interference has on the density of the marsh wetland patch is mainly affected by the area of the marsh wetland. The effect that human interference has on the shape of the marsh wetland patch is quite small, the superior landscape controlling force of the marsh wetland declined gradually. Human interference is the main cause of the reduction in the wetland area of the small Sanjiang Plain.
以鄱阳湖流域内的赣江、抚河、信江、饶河和修水（五河）和鄱阳湖为研究对象,利用水文控制站的水文资料,分析了各流域内主要河流的入湖泥沙和鄱阳湖出湖泥沙特征,对鄱阳湖泥沙收支平衡进行了分析。结果表明：① 1955~2010年五河总入湖泥沙811.69 Mt,其中赣江（占59.7%）>信江（占13.7%）>修河（占10.2%）>抚河（占9.7%）>饶河（占6.7%）;② 径流量是影响入湖输沙量的最主要因素,入湖泥沙与入湖径流的季节特征一致;③ 水库的蓄水拦沙作用是五河入湖泥沙下降的主要原因,但水库对入湖泥沙的影响强度与水库库容和集水区的植被覆盖状况有关;植被覆盖变化对赣江、抚河、饶河和修河的入湖输沙量的影响明显;④ 1955~2010年,鄱阳湖总出湖泥沙560.10 Mt,其中1955~2000年出湖泥沙量呈降低趋势,但受鄱阳湖采砂影响,2001年以来出湖泥沙显著增加;丰水季长江水对鄱阳湖的顶托和倒灌,使出湖泥沙与出湖径流在时间上不同步;三峡工程的运行改变了（长）江（鄱阳）湖之间的水动力关系,长江倒灌泥沙显著减少;⑤ 受鄱阳湖采砂的影响,鄱阳湖泥沙平衡系统由净沉积转变为净侵蚀,1955~2000年入湖泥沙大于出湖泥沙,年均泥沙沉积约为1.41 mm;2001~2010年出湖泥沙大于入湖泥沙,加上采砂输出沙量,2001~2010年鄱阳湖泥沙净减少2 213.65 Mt。
Poyang Lake is the largest fresh water lake in China. The sediments disposition is important in providing medium for wetland vegetation and benthic animals. In this article, the water discharge and sediment content gauged by the hydrostations in the main five tributaries(named as the Ganjiang River, the Fuhe River, the Xinjiang River, the Raohe River and the Xiuhe River) in Poyang Lake Basin were used to investigate the sediment budget in Poyang Lake. The following results was showed: 1) The total sediments loaded into Poyang lake from the five tributaries was about 811.69 Mt during 1955-2010, in which the Ganjiang River accounted for 59.7%, the Xinjiang River accounted for 13.7%, the Xiuhe River accouted for 10.2%, the Fuhe River accounted for 9.7 and the Raohe River accounted for 6.7%; 2) The annual sediments loaded into Poyang lake was mainly decided by water discharged into Poyang Lake. And the inputted sediments were synchronized to the water discharge seasonally. 3) Sediments loaded into Poyang Lake decreased sharply caused by reservoir interception, though forest coverage changes also contribute to the decrease of sediments; 4) The total sediments loaded into the Changjiang River from Poyang Lake was about 560.10 Mt in 1955-2010. And it showed a decreasing trend during 1955-2000, but the trend was interupted by the practice of sand mining in the new century; 5) Affected by the backflow from the Changjiang River in flood period, sediments loaded into the Changjiang River were asynchronous with water discharge seasonally. And the sediments loaded by the backflow from the Changjiang River was reduced dramatically because of the emplacement of Three Gorges Dam; 6) The sediments budget in Poyang Lake was changed by sand mining. Sediments deposit was estimated about 1.41 mm/a during 1955-2000, but outputted sediments showed greater than the inputted sediments during 2001-2010 beceause of the practice of sand mining.
对黄河内蒙古段河道大断面进行了连续4 a的测量,分析了断面泥沙冲淤与形态调整的变化过程;通过对河床形态指标变化与水沙条件的相关分析,揭示了河床调整主要的影响因素。结果显示：近4 a内不存在河槽萎缩的现象,整个河段河道存在总的冲刷降低的趋势,继承了自2004年以来该段河道以深度加大为主,河槽逐渐缓慢扩大的变化方向。整个河段平均从2011年汛后至2014年汛后,全断面冲刷了64 m2,河槽河底降低了0.16 m,河槽断面面积增加了4.4%,平均深度增加了4.9%,河槽宽度只增加了0.88%,河槽宽深比减小了4.8%。河槽冲刷和形态调整主要发生在2011年汛后至2012年汛后期间,与2012年较大的洪峰有关。分析河槽冲淤和断面形态变化与水沙条件的关系,结果显示滩唇高度、河槽过水面积、平均深度及宽深比变率与流量大小关系密切。滩唇高度、河槽过水面积、平均深度随着流量的增大而增加,宽深比随着流量的增大而减小。相反,河床断面面积和主槽宽度的变化与水沙条件的关系不显著。除了滩唇高度与平均含沙量有关外,平均含沙量和来沙系数与河床冲淤以及河槽形态变化之间关系都不显著。揭示出近年来内蒙河道主槽以垂向冲淤为主,并且流量变化控制着河槽冲淤与形态调整过程。
The Inner Mongolia reach of the upper Huanghe River has an alluvial channel, and its flood carrying capacity reduced considerably owing to aggravating siltation in the last decades. This study investigated the processes of sedimentation and channel geometric changes of the river reach based on the data of geometric survey of 28 channel cross sections of the river reach made in 2011-2014. Through correlation analysis of the changes in channel geometric indices with water and sediment conditions, the principal factors inducing the channel changes were determined. The results show that the incessant channel aggradation and shrinkage of channel capacity in the river reach in the last about 20 years of the 20th century did not occur in the past four years but the general trend of channel degradation starting from 2004 was continued with a gradual and slow increase of channel capacity principally through channel deepening. From the end of flood season in 2011 to that in 2014, each of the cross sections was scoured by a mean area of 64 m2 with a decline of 0.16 m in the bed elevation, an increase of 4.4% in the capacity, an increase of 4.9% in the depth, a reduction of 4.8% in the width/depth ratio, and a decrease of only 0.88% in the width of the main channel in the whole reach from the uppermost cross section Sns3 to the downmost cross section at Toudaoguai. Scouring and filling in channel and the adjustments of channel geometry occurred mainly during the period from the end of flood season in 2011 to that in 2012, as a result of the high floods in 2012. The results of correlation between the change rates of channel geometric indices and water and sediment indices show that there were significant relations between the water discharge and the bankfull level, capacity, mean depth, and with/depth ratio of the main channel. The bankfull level, capacity, and mean depth of the main channel increased and the with/depth ratio decreased with the water discharge. In contrast, the area of the whole cross-sections and the width of the main channel did not respond to changes in either water or sediment significantly. Except for the relation between bankfull level and mean sediment concentration, the relations were insignificant between the incoming sediment coefficient (the ratio of sediment concentration to water discharge) or sediment concentration and channel erosion/deposition and channel geometric indices. The relations of changes in channel geometry with water and sediment indexes suggest that scouring and silting in the main channel in the reach studied mainly occurred on the channel bed, and the variation of water discharge was the dominant driver for scouring and filling in the main channel and the adjustment of channel geometry in recent years.
Based on the landsat images and social economical data, the oasis distribution map in 1963-2009 were reconstructed via GIS technology, path analysis, transfer matrix and correlation analysis were used to explore the differences of spatiotemporal change and its impact factors of Jiuquan-Jinta Basin in NW China. In this study, the land covers were divided into two categories: oasis and desert. And the oasis included farmland, woodland, grassland, water and residential area which based on classification criteria; the other one are desert. The results showed that: 1) The oasis area increased gradually from 1 189.04 km2 in 1963 to 1 678.99 km2 in 2009, Jiuquan Oasis increased in its edge area with a relatively stable upward trend, while Jinta Oasis increased in its fringes and both sides of the seasonal river with a fluctuation way. 2) The stability of Jiuquan Oasis is higher than that of Jinta Oasis, the stability of the oasis were determined mostly by the sustainable supply degree of water resource, especially in Jinta Oasis. Regional difference on human activities, the degree of the responding rate to policy, and the economic and development level were the main factors which affected the spatiotemporal change between Jiuquan and Jinta Oasis.
通过界定敏感性参数的含义,认为参数的敏感性是系统对某一指参数的变化的敏感程度,以此为依据建立M-YAS模型分析参数的敏感性。以佛山市为例选取37 项影响水资源可持续的参数,分析水资源可持续性的参数敏感性问题,结果表明：37项反映水资源可持续性的参数中,仅13 项参数（生活用水定额、林牧渔畜用水量、工业用水定额、农田灌溉用水量、工业用水量、耕地灌溉定额、万元工业增加值用水量、火电冷却用水量、城乡生活用水量、工业节水、万元生产总值用水量、生活节水和农业节水）对于水资源可持续性的目标层而言是敏感性参数,且13项参数均来自用水结构与效率的准则层,说明区域水资源可持续性的目标层对用水结构与效率的准则层较为敏感。
Water resources endowment, economic level, science and technology level and management are influence the sustainable development of water resources. There is different impact for the different indicators on regional water resources sustainability. The subtle differences of the indicators, which is a sensitive indicator of regional water resources sustainability, can lead to a greater difference in regional water resources sustainability. The sensitivity of Regional Water Resources Sustainability provides a more subtle decision support for macro management of water resources, which makes the efficient use of water resources and the purpose of the study. The study on regional water resources sustainable sensitivity, which appears large differences in the sustainability of regional water resources due to the difference in factors, provides more subtle decision support in macro management of water resources; makes more efficient use of water resources. Sensitivity studies can identify the sensitivity factors have important influence on the sustainability of water resources from many uncertainties, Foshan was taken as the research object of the paper, which analysised parameter sensitivity of the sustainability of water resources. This article established sensitivity analysis model (M-YAS), and selected 37 parameters, which affect the water resources sustainable.The results showed that: only 13 parameters from 37 the parameters is sensitive parameters for water resources sustainability target layer. And the domestic water quota is most sensitive for the target layer, followed by forestry, animal husbandry, fishery and livestock water. Another important conclusion was shown as: 13 parameters were from the structure and efficiency on the basis of the water layer. It showed that the goal of the sustainability of water resources and efficiency on the basis of the structure of water layers is more sensitive. The results displayed that the sustainability of water resources in Foshan city is affected by 13 indicators reflecting the structure and efficiency of water.
基于黄河中游4个水文站1919~2010年还原的天然径流量、1873~2011年的夏季风强度指数、北大西洋涛动指数（NAO）和西太平洋副高指数等资料,利用Morlet小波方法分析了黄河中游河口镇-龙门区间（简称河龙区间）,龙门-三门峡区间（简称龙三区间）和三门峡-花园口区间（简称三花区间）径流量的周期变化,并探索了夏季风、中纬度西风与西太平洋副高等环流因子对黄河中游3个区间径流量周期性变化的影响。研究发现,黄河中游3个区间径流量的变化对夏季风、中纬度西风和西太平洋副高存在差异性响应,季风对于黄河中游的径流量不仅在时间上具有趋势性的影响,更为重要的是存在周期性的控制作用,在80 a长周期上对于整个黄河中游都有控制作用,但影响黄河中游降水-径流过程的不仅仅是夏季风,相关统计结果表明还受到西风带和西太平洋副高周期的影响。3个区间都存在一个中等尺度(25 a)的周期,这个周期在夏季风上没有得到体现,河龙区间和龙三区间的25 a周期是受西风带影响所致,而三花区间的中尺度25 a周期是西太平洋副高指数的强度和西界的作用所致。
The Morlet wavelet method was adopted to analyze the periodicities of runoff in three regions (Hekouzhen-Longmen, Longmen-Sanmenxia and Sanmenxia-Huayuankou), and to explore its effects on summer monsoon, Westlies and West Pacific Subtropical High (WPSH) on the changes of runoff. Data collected are cumulative natural runoff of four hydrology stations in the middle Huanghe River, annual summer monsoon index, North Atlantic Oscillation, and strength and west boundary of WPSH. Analysis results indicate that the weaken of summer monsoon intensity leads to decreasing trend of runoff in Hekouzhen-Longmen. More importantly, summer monsoon has periodic change, and it’s the mainly reason to periodic vibrations of runoff. Besides, runoff indicate a 80 year period, and it is coincident with 80 year period of summer monsoon. The periodicities of runoff are in fluenced by both summer monsoon and westerly and WPSH. Additionly, runoffs in all these three regions have a medium scale periodicity with 25 year cycle, except the summer monsoon. The 25 year periodicity of runoff in Hekouzhen-Longmen region and Longmen-Sanmenxia region is caused by Westerlies, while the periodicity of runoff in Sanmenxia-Huayuankou region is caused by the intensity and west boundary of the WPSH. The study has theoretical and practical significance for the prediction of water resources in the Huanghe River Basin in the future.
对巴丹吉林沙漠东南缘查格勒布鲁剖面该层段的CGS3a层段（Chagelebulu Section 3a）139个样品的主元素——SiO2、Al2O3、TOFE（Fe2O3+FeO）进行分析,划分出与地层旋回对应的5.5个化学元素旋回。研究认为：沙丘砂和黄土中SiO2呈现的峰和Al2O3、TOFE、(TOFE+Al2O3)/SiO2和CIA呈现的谷是类似于现代干冷的冬季风在过去多次作用的结果,而嗣后的湖相SiO2呈现的谷和Al2O3、TOFE、(TOFE+Al2O3)/SiO2和CIA的呈现的峰是类似于现代暖湿的夏季风在过去多次作用的结果。即35 000~25 000 a B. P.该沙漠经历了5次冬季风和6次夏季风交替的气候波动,这些气候事件与GRIP冰芯氧同位素记录的D/O（Dansgaard/Oeschger）事件相对应,Heinrich事件也在其中有很好体现。CGS3a层段所记录的千年尺度的气候波动可能是受到了北大西洋气候突变的影响。
The CGS3a segment of the Chagelebulu section in the southeastern of Badain Jaran Desert, records five and a half sedimentary cycles consisting of alternations between dune sands or loess and overlying fluviolacustrine during 35 000-25 000 a B.P. Based on the analysis of primary chemical elements (139 samples)—SiO2, Al2O3, TOFE(Fe2O3+FeO), we found that:1) The variation of the primary chemical element content shows five and a half chemical element cycles, which are approximately consistent with the sedimentary cycles. 2) Among SiO2, Al2O3, TOFE, (TOFE+Al2O3)/SiO2 and CIA, SiO2 has the highest content in the CGS3a (range: 44.98％-90.02%, average: 65.96%), followed by Al2O3 (range: 5.17%-15.37%, average: 11.87%), and then TOFE (range: 1.40%-6.90%, average: 4.19%), (TOFE+Al2O3)/SiO2(range: 0.07 -0.47, average:0.27) and CIA(range: 39.66-68.26, average: 58.97). 3) The contents of SiO2, Al2O3, and TOFE significantly differ among the different sedimentary facies. The average SiO2 content is higher in the dune sands than in the fluviolacustrine and loess, whereas the average Al2O3, TOFE, (TOFE+Al2O3)/SiO2 and CIA contents are higher in the fluviolacustrine and loess than in the dune sands. This study suggests that the peaks of SiO2 contents and the valleys of Al2O3, TOFE, (TOFE+Al2O3)/SiO2, and CIA contents in the dune sands and loess represent the dominant periods of East Asian winter monsoon, the valleys of SiO2 contents and the peaks of Al2O3, TOFE, (TOFE+Al2O3)/SiO2, and CIA contents in the fluviolacustrine reflect the dominant periods of East Asian summer monsoon. Therefore, we suggest that the CGS3a segment experienced at least five cold-dry climates and six warm-humid climates during 35 000-25 000 a B.P. Of these, the warm climate fluctuations (23LS, 25LS, 27LS, 29LS, 31LS, 33LS) correspond well to the Dansgaard-Oeschger events (D/O3-D/O8, ie, 25 000 a B.P., 26 000 a B.P., 29 000 a B.P., 31 000 a B.P., 32 000 a B.P., 35 000 a B.P.) recorded in the Greenland Ice Core Project (GRIP). Moreover, the cold period (28D, 30 600 a B.P. ± 2 900 a B.P.) correlates well with the Heinrich Event H3 (approximately between 29 000 a B.P. and 31 000 a B.P.). The abrupt changes of East Asian monsoon recorded in the CGS3a segment correspond well to Dansgaard-Oeschger climate fluctuations and Heinrich events, whicha indicate that the East Asian monsoon was probably affected by the climate changes in the North Atlantic. This study offers significant geological evidence to support the East Asian monsoonal millennial scale climatic fluctuations, which is the regional response to the millennial scale climate changes from the North Hemisphere in China’s deserts during 35 000-25 000 a B.P.
随着人类社会的发展,人类对灾害的理解发生了很大的变化,灾害范式也在不断的演进,可以归纳为：荒政范式、工程范式、行为范式、社会范式和可持续范式5种灾害范式。通过分析这些灾害范式形成的社会历史背景、灾害的基本观点、关注的主要问题以及减灾防灾的主要对策和措施,得出以下结论：① 在人类社会历史进程中,人们对灾害的认识和理解是逐步深化和发展的;② 灾害范式与减灾实践的发展是互动生成的;③ 范式的产生与转变都有深刻的社会动因;④ 一定时期,存在一定的主流灾害范式,但其他灾害范式的影响依然存在。
Markedly, our understanding of hazard has changed with history, and the hazard paradigm is also in the process of evolution. Based on different hazard concepts and human reaction, there are five hazard paradigms recognized as following: famine policy paradigm, engineering paradigm, behavioral paradigm, social vulnerability paradigm and sustainable paradigm. Famine policy paradigm originated from the pre-Qin period of China, which of main features are as following: Catastrophes are created by nature; Disaster alleviation is main responsibility of the government represented by the emperor; The policy of benevolence is the principal implementing policy against natural disasters. In the 20th century, engineering paradigm was the mainstream paradigm in the world. This paradigm concerns those issues such as the regularities of natural disasters occurrence; the strength and frequency of the potential natural disasters in different region; and the methods of disasters resistance for protection. In the 1930s, behavioral paradigm appeared in the western developed countries. The main points of this paradigm are as following: human perceptions and behaviors influence the consequences of natural disasters, but disaster is a natural process primarily; The principal goal of disasters management is resistance extreme events through project management control; The basic preventive measures include improving disasters early warning for short-term and preparation better land-use planning for long-term. Social vulnerability paradigm came from experience of some western scholars in the developing countries in the 1970s. They discovered the developing countries suffered enormously from natural disasters. They thought the main cause of disaster is human behavior rather than nature and technology development. According to social vulnerability paradigm, the disasters reduction depends on the social- economic and political reform. Sustainable paradigm was growing up as a new inspiration at end of 20th century. This paradigm examines the essence of disaster from view of complex interaction between human society and natural environment. The basic principles of disaster reduction are to maintain and improve the quality of natural environment and living condition of people, to ensure the justice that the same and different generations have the same right to enjoy the resources and environment and the publicaction based on common; to promote regional sustainable development through integrated capacity-building of regional disaster risk management. The final goal of the paradigm is establishment sustainable society and achievement of human coexistence. The author analyzes the five paradigms’ formation of social and historical background, the principal issues, the main points and measures of disaster reduction, the conclusions are as follows: 1) Recognition and understanding of hazards and disasters is deepening and developing gradually through human history; 2) Development of hazard paradigm and practice of disaster reduction are mutual influence; 3) The generation and transformation of paradigms are impacted by social factors deeply; 4) Individual hazard paradigm often rises to dominance for a period of time, but the impact of other paradigms is still exist.
The Asian monsoon is an important part of the global climatic system. Previous studies have indicated that the formation and change of the Asian monsoon are greatly associated with solar activity, the land-sea thermal difference, global ice volume, the uplift of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and other climatic and geographic elements. The proxies of the climate records are more abundant during the last millennium than those of the other history periods. The studies on the changes of the Asian monsoon during the last millennium can help us explore the monsoon evolution rules and predict tendency ofthe Asian monsoon in the future. In the paper, based on the inversion method and the currently available information and data, a driving model which probably reveals the dynamic mechanism of the Asian monsoon changes during the last millennium is established. According to the actual quantitative values of all the proxies, we can get the coefficients and the corresponding contribution rates of the equation. Through the analyses of the influencing degree of each climate proxy on the Asian monsoon, the following results are obtained: 1) The Asian monsoon is not only linearly affected by the climate elements, but also drived by a complex nonlinear dynamic system. 2) Some climate factors,including the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, the Indian Ocean sea surface temperature, the previous monsoon intensity, southern oscillation index, methane content, the temperature of Greenland, the north Atlantic sea surface temperature and the northern hemisphere temperature, play important roles on the Asian monsoon changes during the last millennium. 3) The solar activity, which exhibits extremely important inpact on the Asian monsoon at long timescales, does not significantly affect the change of the Asian monsoon during the last millennium.
通过对青弋江上游泾县段阶地砾石层进行砾组分析,讨论阶地砾石层的沉积环境及其对青弋江发育的启示。结果表明：① 砾径以中砾和粗砾为主,砾石沉积时水动力条件较强,流速基本为2 m/s左右,最大可达到3.5 m/s,特别是T3砾石层形成时期;② 砾向在T3和T2砾石层形成时期分别为南南西（SSW）和南西西（SWW）方向,古流向变化不大,呈自南而北的基本流向;③ 砾态以次圆和圆为主,其总含量超过70%,较高的磨圆度暗示砾石经历了较远距离的搬运;④ 砾性主要有石英砂岩、砂岩、脉石英和石英岩,其总含量达到90%以上,且砾石物源区变化不显著;⑤ T2砾石层和T1砾石层是典型的河流沉积,而T3砾石层可能是河流沉积和泥石流沉积叠加作用的产物,并且T3砾石层的沉积特征对于分析古青弋江的发育有一定的启示作用。
Through the analysis of the gravel fabric of terrace gravel layers to the upper Qingyijiang River at Jingxian County, this article tries to discuss the sedimentary environments of terrace gravel layers and its indicative effect on the development of the Qingyijiang River at Jingxian County. The Qingyijiang River Basin is located in southern of Anhui Province, issuing from the northern fringe of Huangshan Mountain, is an important tributary of lower reaches of the Yangtze River. Field investigation focuses on a natural outcrop along the upper reaches of the Qingyijiang River at Jingxian County, where a well-preserved sequence of three gravel layers of river terraces is present. These gravel layers are generally 4-6 m in thickness, overlying by about 2-5 m red clay. The results show that: 1) The gravels are mainly medium and coarse in diameter, and the hydrodynamic conditions are strong in the formation periods of terrace gravel layers when the mean velocity of river is about 2 m/s while the maximum velocity can be up to 3.5 m/s, especially in the formation periods of T3 terrace gravel layer; 2) The gravel orientations in T3 terrace gravel layer and T2 terrace gravel layer are 191° and 250°, pointing to the SSW direction and SWW direction, respectively. The paleocurrent of the Qingyijiang River at Jingxian County shows little change from the formation period of T3 terrace gravel layer to that of T2 terrace gravel layer, being similar to the present current which flows from south to north; 3) The gravels are mainly sub-round or round in shape, and the total content of such gravels is more than 70% in each terrace gravel layer. The roundness of terrace gravel layers is good, implying that these gravels should be transported over a long distance from its provenances; 4) The terrace gravel layers contain mainly quartz sandstone, sandstone, vein quartz and quartzite, and the total content of such gravels is up to 90% in each terrace gravel layer, showing that the change of the provenances is not significant; 5) The gravel layers of T2 terrace and T1 terrace are typical fluvial sediments, while the gravel layer of T3 terrace might be a product of the superimposition between the debris flow deposit and river deposit, and the sedimentary characteristics of the T3 terrace gravel layer might potentially has some indicating functions on the analysis of the development of the Qingyijiang River to some extent.
利用2000~2014年的MOD13Q1-NDVI数据,对内蒙古灰腾梁风电场及该电厂50 km缓冲区内的植被生长情况进行了分析。结合气象数据,重点探讨了风向对植被生长的影响。与2000~2008年风电场建设完成前植被生长相比,2008年后风电场运行对植被的生长产生了明显的影响,但影响范围和强度是不均匀的,结果表明：① 风电场运行对风电场区域内/外植被的影响机制是不同的,风电场区域内不利于植被的生长,而上/下风区域却有利于植被的生长;② 相对于风电场建成前,风电场建成后的2008 ~2014年缓冲区和风电场区域植被恢复比例分别上升了26.66%和13.14%,但上风区域却上升了51.83%,下风区域上升了41.07%。可见风电场上/下风区植被恢复比例,尤其是上风区植被的恢复比例要远高于其它区域;③ 距离风电场中心30~40 km的上风区很可能是受风电场影响最为明显的区域。
With increasing environmental problems and a growing shortage of energy resources, wind as a renewable energy source is increasing in attention from various sectors. Currently, China′s energy policies are gradually turning to utilizing wind energy. Although there are many positive environmental benefits that wind energy provides, researchers around the world have recently begun to investigate environmental negative effects of wind energy development, and they are identifying the pros and cons of wind energy. Current investigations largely focus on vegetation, soil and animal disturbance due to wind farm construction, as well as focusing on possible impacts to the surrounding land surface temperature and local climate change. Existing research indicates that in wind farm areas both near-surface air humidity and surface sensible heat flux decrease. These changes can indirectly change meteorological elements, for example cloud cover and precipitation. The construction and operation of wind farms significantly reduces wind speed in the leeward direction which affects local air temperatures (both increasing and decreasing temperatures). These elements could have an impact on the growth state of local vegetation. In this article, remote sensing techniques are used to investigate the scope and impact intensity of the Huitengliang wind farm, Inner Mongolia, on local vegetation. This investigation will provide a reference for wind farm construction, conservation and restoration of vegetation and environmental improvement. Utilizing MOD13Q1-NDVI data in 2000-2014, vegetation change in a 50 km buffer area around the Huitengliang wind farm, Inner Mongolia, was analyzed. Combining meteorological data in this analysis, the impact of wind direction on vegetation growth was discussed. Compared with the construction phase (2000-2008), the operation phase (2008-2014) has a more obvious impact on the growth of vegetation. However, the results showed that vegetation impact was uneven: 1) The influencing mechanisms of a wind farm on vegetation differ within and outside of the farm area. Within the wind farm area, the wind farm is not conducive to vegetation growth, while it is helpful to vegetation growth in windward/leeward area; 2) Compared with the wind farm construction stage, the proportion of vegetation restoration in the buffer area and the farm area during the operational phase of the wind farm increased by 26.66% and 13.14%, respectively. The proportion of vegetation restoration in the windward and leeward areas, however, increased by 51.83% and 41.07%, respectively, over the same time period. This indicates that the proportion of vegetation restoration in the windward/leeward areas, especially in the windward area, is much higher than in the buffer or farm areas; 3) A zone 30-40 km from the center of the wind farm, on the windward side, is likely to be the area of greatest vegetation impact from the wind farm.