Since the civil aviation and tourism experienced a rapid development in China in the past two decades, the relationship between them has become a hot topic. Thispaper tries to explore the relationship between civil aviation and tourism at both national and provincial scalebased onthe data of airport passenger throughput and tourist arrivals since 1985 using PVAR method. Results indicate that: 1) China’s civil aviation and tourism show a significant positive relationship in both the temporal and spatial perspectives. Both of them have experienced 4 stages which are slow growth stage-slowly steady growth stage-fast steady growth stage and fast fluctuant growth stage. Spatially, airport passenger throughput and tourist arrivals show significant correlation, while the space correlation between airport passenger throughput and A-grade scenic spot show geographic differences. 2) At national scale, the civil aviation and tourism present a long-term equilibrium development. The growth of civil aviation and tourism show similar reflect when another is facing shock, which is reducing at the beginning and then increasing. The result of variance demonstrates that the development of civil aviation has larger impacts on tourism than impacts of tourism on civil aviation. 3) At provincial scale, the provinces are divided into 4 categories based on the relationship between civil aviation and tourism: a,high-high coordination areas, which are mainly located in the eastern. b, high-low rivaling areas, including Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou and other border region. c, low-high rivaling areas, mainly in the central region. d, low-low coordination areas, mainly located in the central and western regions.
Entering the 21th century, under the context of coordinated regional development strategy, identifying the trend of spatio-temporal evolution of regional economy growth plays an important role in timely optimizing spatial pattern and formulating reasonable spatial development strategy. By characterizing regional economy growth with per capita gross domestic product (GDP) and under the framework of exploratory spatio-temporal data analysis (ESTDA), this article focuses on analyzing spatio-temporal dynamic evolution of 2 303 counties’ economy growth in China in 1998-2013. The main results are following that: 1) There are synchronous trends of widening disparity and enhancing spatial association trends of county units’ economy growth. To be specific, regional economic growth disparity results from enhancing spatial association, while spatial association in space reflects widening regional economy growth disparity. 2) Local spatial association pattern of county units’ economic growth is relatively stable with time evolution. For instance, high-high areas like a mass type are mainly clustering in the eastern coastal region and exhibiting strip distribution type in Inner Mongolia region, and the amounts of high-high areas tend to increase. while low-low areas are mainly distributing in the vast Midwest region, but the amounts of low-low regions are decreasing. So, dominant economy core areas in future are still along both east-west axis of the Longhai-Lanxin showing belt development and along the north-south axis of eastern coastal regions. 3) The LISA time path can help find where are the most economic growth potential and vitality. The longest regions of LISA time path are mainly distributed around Bohai Sea, the Changjiang River Delta, the Zhujiang River Delta and the Inner Mongolia Region, while the shortest regions of LISA time path are widely located in Midwest counties which are economic backward areas and lack of upward economic momentum. Regions with maximum tortuosity of LISA time path are often lack of local stable spatial dependent direction, such as areas along the line of Beijing-kowloon railway, adjacent to longitude of 110°E and part of counties in Tibet. Hence, it is firstly essential to develop the Jing-Shan economic trough belt, then motivating its effect in connecting the west and east of China. 4) According to space-time transition matrix of local Moran's I, the maximum probability value of together up is just 0.061, while the frequency of type IV is 0.936 8. This implies that county units’ economic structure and local spatial association structure have higher stability and there exists to some degree path-dependent or space-locked mode.
As the urbanization in China accelerates in recent years, there appears a phenomena called urban sprawl which has the following main features: selling agricultural land at a low price ,blindly investing in real estate and urban infrastructure and large-scale construction of the new cities .The cause of this city’s low-density sprawl lies in, to a large degree, the misconceptions of the relationship between urbanization and economic development in addition to the non-standard urban land conversion mechanism. Based on the data of 1990-2010 Urban Social and Economic Development, and taking 261 prefecture-level cities in China for example, this article objectively analyzes the relationship between urban sprawl and economic growth by adopting the multiple regression model. The research results show that : 1) There is no significant correlation between urban expansion and GNP after controlling the urban investment in fixed assets, foreign investment (FDI), the real estate bubble effect and other factors. In other words,the mere pursuit of urban built-up area scale expansion can not directly promote the development of urban economy.2) The investment in real estate accounts and the total urban population showed a significant negative correlation. 3) Demographic urbanization level, the total urban investment in fixed assets and GDP growth had significant causal effect on economic growth. Our results suggest that the simple pursuit of scale expansion of urban built-up area cannot directly promote the city's economic development in China. Therefore, it is particularly important to maintain harmonious development of the urban spatial expansion and economic development in China. Urbanization is a natural product and an important witness of economic development in China. Urbanization should not be dominated by man-made urban sprawl. In order to achieve the healthy and sustainable development of cities and regional economy in China, the results of this study also help correct the one-sided pursuit of urbanization and short-term effects of the transfer of land and real property.
Vertical specialization is a major form in which China take part in the international trade. In the meantime, Chinese provinces insert into upstream and downstream industry of national exports and share values. China has become the factory of the world of low-end product for a long time because of the high input of resource and labor and low value-added in Chinese per unit export, promoting the quality of exports is a basic requirement of Chinese sustainable foreign trade. Chinese export growth falls in 2008 as global financial crisis, which is a transition opportunity for Chinese export. That China has the shares of global value in its per unit export and whether the mode of the factory of the world has changed are the topics of concern. This article calculated China’s share value and Chinese provincial share values of Chinese per unit export based on Chinese 30 provincial multi-regional input-output tables in 2007 and 2010. The results show that China’s sharing the value has increased since global financial crisis. During the period from 2007 to 2010, the coastal provinces have the high share values, the high technology manufactures have the largest increases, and the manufactures which depend on the input of the resource and labor have the largest decreases. The coastal provinces have shared the most value of manufactures. Geographic location is one of the best factors of export trade. Closing down backward production and promoting industrial upgrading and transforming are helpful for the change from “Made in China” to “Made with Wisdom”.
In recent years, the evolution analysis of innovation networks has been a hotspot in economic geography. Using the patent information services platform provided by State Intellectual Property Offices (SIPO)to search and manipulate the patents of Shanghai equipment manufacturing industry from 1986 to 2012, this article depicts spatial structure and evolution characteristics of innovation networks at local, regional and national scales. We find that the evolution of innovation networks of Shanghai equipment manufacturing industry has obvious changing features from 1986 to 2012, the relative importance of innovation cooperation at local, regional and national scales has endured a large change in the early stage, but with the development and evolution of the industry, the spatial structure of the network has become more stable after 2002. The local cooperation was significantly improved the regional cooperation has been rise slowly. In the meantime, the cooperation at national scale has been held in acrucial position. Overall, the relative importance of innovation cooperation is each scale is local, national and regional. Moreover, the different factors have different effects on the evolution of the innovation network at different spatial scales. At the national scale, the technological level of urban innovation is main influencing factors on networking behavior, and its importance becomes more and more obvious. The geographic proximity is ineffective, and the spatial structure of innovation network is characterized as hierarchical diffusion according to the technology level of cities. At the regional scale, the importance of technological level runs through the entire network development stage, and geographic proximity began to emerge at the later stage, the spatial structure of innovation network is characterized both hierarchical diffusion and expansion diffusion. At the local scale, the average distance between actors is rapidly shrinking and the geographic proximity is very importance, the spatial structure of innovation network is characterized as expansion diffusion. Based on the empirical research, we give some suggestions for promoting industrial upgrading and construction of technology and innovation center of Shanghai: Shanghai is a frontier city of China's economic development and technology innovation, the local government should not only advocate the development strategy of regional growth, but also actively explore the cross-regional link ages with the cities which have higher innovation capacity; At the regional level, we think the argument unabashedly emphasis the large enterprises as a guiding principle for whole equipment manufacturing industrial chain are biased, promoting the clusters especially the high-tech park and university science park are crucial to the industry upgrading. Of course, the advantage of network visualization can turned the abstract description to quantitative analysis, but it does not involve the mechanism of network evolution. Therefore, we would exploreitbased on questionnaire survey and enterprise interview in future.
基于城市中观尺度,以中国333个城市数据为基础,运用多维变量测度中国城乡协调度及空间差异,并对其演变因素进行分析,主要得出如下结论：① 2004~2014年间,中国城市尺度下的城乡协调度总体呈上升趋势。② 城乡相关系数整体上在波动中呈递减趋势;城乡收入差异相对较大;城乡增长率逐渐缩小,且呈现倒U型。③ 中协调区的空间格局占多数,且中协调区和低协调区具有扩大的趋势。④ 中国城乡协调度存在区域间差异：东部地区协调度表现为上下波动,且增长趋势不明显;而中部地区、西部地区和东北地区整个研究时段的城乡协调度则呈现倒U型。⑤ 改革开放程度和经济发展水平愈高,其城乡相关系数、城乡收入差异、城乡增长率差异和城乡协调度排名相对愈好。⑥ 中国城乡协调度在时间和空间上的演化因素多与中国当前政策、经济因素有关。
With the perspective on urban scale, and based on the multi-dimension data from 333 Chinese cities, the article computes the Urban-rural coordination degree, space differences and evolution in China. By analyzing the factors which contribute to such evolution, the article makes the following conclusions: 1) Under urban and rural scale, coordination degree U in China keeps an upward trend from 2004 to 2014. 2) Urban-rural correlation coefficient as a whole presents an inverted U-shaped curve, showing a trend of fluctuation decline and resembling relatively large Urban-rural income gap; Urban-rural growth rate gradually reduces. 3) Spatial pattern of moderate coordination Urban-rural area are in majority, and moderate coordination Urban-rural area and lower coordination Urban-rural area keeps a trend of expanding. 4) China’s Urban-rural coordinated degree remains different between regions: Eastern Regional Coordinating degree U had fluctuations and no obvious growth trends were found; Urban-rural coordinated degree in the region of central China, western China and northeastern China shows an inverted U-shape in the whole study period. 5) The higher the degree of reform and opening up and economic development level, the higher the ranking of its Urban-rural correlation coefficient, Urban-rural income disparities, Urban-rural growth rate disparities and urban-rural coordination. 6) China’s current policy and economic situation, in terms of time and space, contribute more to the evolution of Chinese urban-rural coordination.
As an important part of ocean resources, marine fishery resources provide essential protein, economic benefits and social welfare for human beings. Marine fishery resources are the foundation for the sustainable development of marine fishery, which is an important root for the development of marine economy. The recession of marine fishery resources is grim, along with the development of marine fishing technology, the increase of fishing intensity, as well as deepening extent of marine pollution. Mastering the sustainable utilization situation of marine fishery resources will optimize the management of marine fishery resources, prompt marine fishery developing towards the direction of sustainable. This article, takes the 11 coastal provinces (excluding Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan) of China as the research subject, builds an index system which includes three subsystems: resource environment, economy and society, and estimates the sustainable utilization level of marine fishery resources from 2003 to 2012 by means of the Projection Pursuit model based on Multi-agent Genetic Algorithm and the Kernel Density Estimation model. Then the article analyzes the temporal and spatial differences based on the results, obtains the following conclusions: From the perspective of optimal projection direction, fishing technology, fishing intensity and the structure of fishery industry gradually become the important factors for the sustainable utilization of marine fishery resources; From the view of spatial and temporal pattern, the sustainable utilization of marine fishery resources of Shanghai belongs to the high level zone plate, Tianjin, Hebei, Jiangsu, Zhejiang and Guangxi belong to the medium level zone plate, Liaoning, Shandong, Fujian, Guangdong and Hainan belong to the low level of zone plate; In general, the sustainable utilization of marine fishery resources is not sustainable, specific performances: the sustainable time evolution, the unsustainable spatial evolution, and the unsustainable polarization trends. In the future, the high level zone plate should keep the original development model, the medium level zone plate should keep the level and strive for the high level, and the low level zone plate selection should chase the medium level and climb to the high level.
The rapid acquisition of geospatial data mainly depends on geospatial metadata. But the traditional organization of geospatial metadata and the keywords-based retrieval methods create barriers among metadata considering semantic relations between geospatial data such as spatial topology relationship, category relationship, resulting in a bottleneck in geospatial data sharing. In the context of big geospatial data, the development of linked data provides an effective practice for the semantic sharing and application of massive geospatial data. The linked geodata is intended to break the semantic barriers between geospatial data and form a data network with semantic realtions. Due to the complexity, diversity and uncertainy of geospatial data, linked geodata is often achieved through the association between metadata. Geospatial metadata contains a number of descriptive information. How to effectively organize vast amounts of geospatial metadata and map the metadata into the semantic space by simple way have become the hotspots in the field of geospatial data sharing. Construction of semantic associations among geospatial metadata is an effective means of performing semantic retrieval using related data technologies. Effective application of linked data depends on effective association models. Considering this, a method of constructing geospatial metadata association networks is proposed in this paper: firstly, a geospatial metadata association model is designed on basis of the resource description framework (RDF); secondly, a semantic relation between metadata is determined and the relationship is constructed; and finally, the degree of semantic relevance of the semantic relationship is calculated. In the association network, the metadata are nodes, the semantic relationships between the metadata are edges, and the degrees of semantic relevance are the weights of the edges. Every node is an RDF that has attribute properties, such as sources, spatial characteristics, temporal characteristics, and content, and has properties of semantic relationships. Experimental results showed that the constructed network could effectively support operations such as semantic association search and recommendation, and the retrieval results were more precise and accurate compared with traditional metadata retrieval methods based on keywords.
元胞自动机(Cellular Automata,简称CA)是一种基于微观个体的相互作用空间离散动态模型,其强大的计算功能、固有的平行计算能力、高度动态及空间概念等特征,使它在模拟空间复杂系统的时空动态演变研究具有较强的优势。文章回顾了元胞自动机的发展历程,阐述了CA在地理学中的主要应用领域和研究进展,在此基础上,以现实世界地理实体及现代城市扩张特征为视角,分析目前CA研究所面临的问题,并对其未来的研究趋势进行了初步探讨,认为以下3个方面将是未来CA研究的热点：① 利用不规则元胞及可控邻域的CA模型,对不同规则或不同邻域地理实体的模拟研究;② 采用三维元胞自动机对现代城市扩张进行立体化模拟,以克服二维CA模型的缺陷;③ 将矢量元胞自动机模型应用于地理实体的模拟研究,进一步提高模拟精度。
Cellular Automata (CA) is a kind of spatial discrete dynamic model based on the interaction of micro individual, the inherent parallel computing ability, highly dynamic and spatial concepts and other features, the CA has outstanding advantages in the study of simulated the temporal and spatial dynamics evolution of complex spatial system. To put it simply, CA is not only a discrete system in time, space and state, but also a local grid dynamics model of both spatial interaction and consequence in time , its "bottom-up"research method being applied in various fields such as society, economy and scientific research. constantly.The paper reviewed the development process of cellular automata briefly, expounds the main application fields and study progress of CA in geography, on this basis, from the perspective of the real world geographic entities and the modern urban expansion,analysis the existing problems in the study of CA at present, then for the study trends of CA has carried on the preliminary discussion, The results of the analysis is that the following three aspects will be the focus of future CA research: 1) Use CA model which has irregular cell or controllable neighborhood to simulate the geographic entities of different rules or different neighborhood; 2) In order to overcome the defects of the two dimensional CA model, use three dimensional cellular automata to simulate the three-dimensional expansion of modern urban; 3) For the sake of improvethe accuracy of simulation,use the vector cellular automaton model to simulate the geographic entities.
Based on RS and GIS technology, using high-resolution Landsat TM image data in 2000, 2005, 2010 and 2014, taking typical Laizhou Bay coastal zone as the study area, the paper analyzed land use change in Laizhou Bay coastal zone from 2000 to 2014, and assessed the changes of ecosystem functions and ecosystem services value (ESV) by drawing a connection between the observed land use dynamics and the evaluation of ESV, based on the benefit transfer method. The outcomes indicated that: 1) During the period 2000 to 2014, ESV of Laizhou Bay coastal zone decreased by 43%, from US 34.3 to 19.6 billion per year, net loss of yearly ecosystem service value was about US 14.7 billion. The ecosystem service functions were lost seriously. 2) The values of water supply service and air quality regulation are US -6.48 and US -0.22 billion per year, respectively. 3) The main causes of the decline of total ecosystem service value were the expansion of the construction land, salt pan, aquaculture, urban land and the decrease of the coastal wetland and cropland. 4) Sea and wetland reclamation caused US 16.2 billion loss of ecosystem service value yearly. The ecosystem service values of waste treatment, nursery service, genetic diversity, disturbance moderation, erosion prevention were lost seriously due to the loss of coastal wetlands. The ecosystem service value of water supply was lost seriously due to the expansion of the construction land and urban land. Results in this paper would lead government officials to realize the importance of ecosystem functions and services in Laizhou Bay coastal zone and identify the core ecosystem services from a socio-economic perspective. Land use change may seem economically profitable. However, after losing ecosystem services such as regulating or supporting services, the imbalance in ecosystem services would impact the human well-being and socio-economic development. Policy making should consider imbalance in ecosystem service, protect regional ecosystem services function and maintain its stability, so that ecosystems are preserved and society benefited.
基于辽宁省25个气象测站1984~2013年6~8月的逐日平均气温、平均风速、相对湿度以及日照时数等数据,以温湿指数、风效指数及着衣指数综合加权法与旋转经验正交函数分解法（REOF）相结合,分析辽宁省夏季舒适程度,并对舒适度变化趋势进行舒适区域划分。结果表明：① 温湿指数、风效指数及着衣指数均呈现出6月指数最低,7月指数相对较高的特点,年际变化特征不明显,且3个指数各个月空间分布上呈现的趋势并不相同。② 6月全省均处于“舒适”等级,而7月和8月处于“比较舒适”等级,说明6月是辽宁省夏季旅游最佳月份。6月和7月在空间分布中呈现出由西北向东南递增的趋势,但8月却呈现出相反的趋势。③ 根据旋转经验正交函数分解方法对前3个载荷向量旋转后的结果,将辽宁省划分为3个舒适区域,分别为辽宁中部及西北部区域、辽宁东部区域和辽东半岛区域。
Based on the 25 weather stations data in Liaoning Province in summer (June, July and August): average temperature, average wind speed, relative humidity and sunshine duration between 1984-2013 and combined with THI, K, and ICL and revolving experience orthogonal fashion (REOF) to divide Liaoning Province into different parts by comfort level of climate and analyze change tendency. Results indicated that: 1) THI, K and ICL both showed characteristic of the lowest index in June and relatively high in July , intrannual variability is not obvious, and the trend of spatial distribution of each month’s three indices is not the same; 2) The "comfortable" level is in June, while July and August are “less comfortable” level. So it indicate that June is the best month of summer tourism in Liaoning Province. June and July showed the spatial distribution increasing from nort hwest to southeast trend, but in August preached the opposite trend; 3) According to the first three REOF results, Liaoning Province will be divided into 3 comfort zones, the three zones are the central and northwestern regions of Liaoning, the eastern region of Liaoning, and the Liaodong Peninsula region.
通过开展植被样方调查,确定苔原带的主要优势种,分析优势种的分布格局及其关联性,从地理角度分析长白山苔原带植被变化特征。研究表明：① 长白山苔原带8个优势种中,草本植物已占6个。灌木中牛皮杜鹃（Rhododendron chrysanthum）依然为最主要的优势种,但笃斯越橘（Vaccinium uliginosum）的优势地位已被草本的小白花地榆（Sanguisorba parviflora）取代。草本植物聚集程度强,苔原植被存在草甸化趋势。② 除牛皮杜鹃与大白花地榆（Sanguisorba stipulata）之间存在较显著的负联结,排它现象明显外,多种优势种之间存在正联结,有弱的伴生现象,牛皮杜鹃和小白花地榆为强正联结,伴生现象更明显,草本植物与灌木伴生将长期存在。③ 各草本植物入侵、定植、扩展机制多样。小白花地榆分布广,聚集程度较弱,以种子繁殖为主,扩展速度较快;大白花地榆、小叶章（Calamagrostis angustifolia）等聚集程度较强,以无性繁殖为主,扩展速度较慢,但竞争能力强,在适宜生境中,能驱除其它物种。
Ecological environment and plant community has changed obviously to tundra zone in western slope of the Changbai Mountains during the last three decades. The space of herbaceous plant extended obviously, but the distribution range of shrub atrophied. In order to explore the tundra vegetation change characteristic from the perspective of geography, we carried out vegetation investigation to reveal the change, spatial distribution pattern and associations of the main dominant species of tundra zone in the Changbai Mountains. The results showed that: 6 dominant plant species are herbaceous plant among the 8 dominant plant species in the tundra zone of the Changbai Mountains. Although Rhododendron chrysanthum is still the main dominant plant species of shrubs and has a higher species abundance, a lower aggregation degree and occupies most habitats, but the dominant position of Vaccinium uliginosum has declined, living space has reduced. Sanguisorba parviflora has a high species-abundance, a low degree of aggregation. Sanguisorba parviflora and Rhododendron chrysanthum was significantly positively associated, and Sanguisorba parviflora became a strong extension of herbaceous plant. Herbaceous plants such as Sanguisorba stipulata and Calamagrostis angustifolia have a high degree of aggregation, present patch distribution, and have occupied part of habitats. The tundra vegetation of the Changbai Mountains has the trend of meadowization. Among mostly dominant plants showed a low correlation and had a higher degree of aggregation. It illustrates that each dominate plant specie has different choice of habitats and the pressure of distribution change get small because of inter-specific competition, so the change of tundra vegetation has stabilized. Except Rhododendron chrysanthum and Sanguisorba stipulata showed a significant negative correlation and had a obviously exclusive phenomenon. Among several dominant plant species showed a positive correlation and had a slight attendant phenomenon. Rhododendron chrysanthum and Sanguisorba parviflora showed a significant positive correlation and attendant phenomenon. It is visible that herbaceous plant and shrubs associated will exist for a long time. The herbaceous plant has a diverse invasion, colonization, and expansible mechanism. Sanguisorba parviflora has wide distribution, a low aggregation degree, because the predominant propagation mode of Sanguisorba parviflora was seed reproduces, it should have a faster extended speed. The predominant propagation mode of Sanguisorba stipulata and Calamagrostis angustifolia was asexual, their extended speed is slower, but inter-specific competition ability was stronger, in adaptation habitats, they can get rid of other species effectively.
基于南四湖近30 a来多源遥感影像、土地利用、环境监测和实地调查数据,选择1982年、1992年、2002年和2012年4个时间断面,从湿地组织结构、整体功能和社会经济3个方面选取指标,从无警、轻警、中警、重警和巨警5个级别划分警度,采用多级模糊综合评价法进行警度评价,并运用BP神经网络模型对未来10 a警度发展进行预测,研究结果表明：① 南四湖湿地生态环境现在处于重警状态,农业化肥、农药污染和工业污染物排放是主要的警报来源;② 近30 a来南四湖湿地整体生态环境处于不断恶化趋势,社会经济指标恶化趋势明显,未来10 a各项指标和整体预警度均呈下降趋势,整体水平达到中警状态,社会经济投入的增加是重要影响因子;③ 近10 a环境恶化速度比前20 a有所减缓,社会经济指标恶化速度较快,人类活动的负向干扰仍大于正向干扰。
Currently, as most lake areas in China are under high interference of intensifying human activities, lake ecosystem has been severely damaged and causing serious deterioration of human habitat.. As lake wetland eco-environmental early warning is the key to achieve lake monitoring, environmental management and ecological restoration and it is the further work which is based on ecosystem vulnerability and health assessment as well, a reseach of eco-environmental early warning on Nansihu Lake, China is done in this article. In this study, remote sensing date, land use and environment monitor date in 1982, 1992, 2002 and 2012 were chosen as date base. Then, an index system combine of organization structure, whole function and social economic environment was established. Every index was divided in five grades which include non-alert, light alert, middle alert, heavy alert and giant alert. The fuzzy synthetically judgment model was used as assessment. To predict the state of eco-environmental early warning in 2022, the back propagation algorithm neural network mothod is used. The model’s learning samples are results statistics in 1982, 1992 and 2002 and the testing sample is statistics in 2012. The testing results show that the accuracy meets the requirement and it can be used to make prediction of the early warning state in 2022. The conclusions were as follows: 1) As chemical fertilizer and pesticide issue in agriculture activities and industrial emission were over the environmental capacity. Nansihu wetland was in heavy alert state in 2012. In each under grades indicators system, organization structure indicators system was in middle alert state, whole function indicators system was in heavy alert state and social economic indicators system was in huge alert state; 2) As the little natural precipitation in 2002, the whole wetland has been deteriorating while the social economic environment indexes were getting even worse during the 1980s-2000s. The overall early warning state achieved huge alert state in 2002. In the coming 10 years, either indexes or the whole warning state is getting better because of the increasing investment in ecological restoration. 3) The degradation rate of nearly 10 years was slower than it of earlier 20 years while the social economic environment indexes always keep a high speed, which can be explained by the negative disturb form human beings activities. This research is significant to the environment management of Nansihu wetland and the result can provide scientific reference for lake management and regional sustainable development.
以1960~2013年黄土高原区及周边58个气象站的地面逐日降水数据为基础,对黄土高原区不同降水相态的时空分布特征进行了分析,研究表明：黄土高原区雨、雪分界线在35°N附近,以北区域以降雪为主,以南且110°E以西的区域以降雨形态为主。该分界线附近是雨夹雪的多发区。黄土高原区降雨有明显的年际波动,而降雪的波动不是很明显,雨夹雪和雾（露、霜）这几种降水相态年际波动较小且趋势一致。液态降水、降雪呈减少趋势,雪、雨夹雪、雾（露、霜）呈增加趋势。雪、雨夹雪、雾（露、霜）均存在显著的准30 a的振荡周期,此外,这4种降水相态还存在15 a、10~12 a、5 a中小尺度的周期。
Base on the data of daily precipitation of 58 meteorological stations in Loess Plateau Region, the temporal and spatial variations of different precipitation phases were analyzed in Loess Plateau Region. The results show that line of 35°N is the delimitation boundary of main snow region and rain region; the region to the north of 35°N is the snow region, the region to the south of 35°N and to the east of 110°E is main rain region. Besides, along the 35°N and 110°E, the sleet occurs frequently. The rains in Loess Plateau Area have obvious and different inter-annual fluctuations, but the snow is not very obvious. Except rain and snow, the fluctuation frequencies of sleet, fog (dew, frost) were weak and tend to the same. The station-days of all these recipitation phases (rain sleet fog dew frost) have remarkable 30 a periods. Besides, there were also 5 a, 10 a and quasi 15 a periods to different precipitation phases.
为探讨鄱阳湖流域洪水过程的变化特征和规律,系统分析流域洪水量级、频率、发生时间的变化特征,利用核密度估计分析洪水发生率的非平稳性,运用月频率法评价洪水集聚性特征,并探讨低频气候因子对洪水变化的影响。研究表明：① 鄱阳湖流域各水文站点年、秋季和冬季最大洪水及POT超阈值洪水以增加趋势为主。② 洪水发生率年内集聚性显著,主要集中在4~7月;年际洪水发生次数呈现非平稳泊松分布,洪水发生率出现明显的年际集聚性特征。③ ENSO、IOD对下年洪水量级及洪水发生次数有明显影响,洪水发生次数与年最大洪水量级异常现象通常是ENSO和IOD协同作用结果。
Changing properties of floods in the Poyang Lake have been thoroughly investigated in terms of flooding magnitude, occurrence rates and timing. These characteristics were obtained from annual and seasonal maximum flow (AMF) and sampling the flood series based on the Peak-over-Threshold (POT) method. Kernel estimation technique and Bootstrap method were used in detection of nonstationary of flooding processes. Monthly frequency have been used in analysis of changing properties of floods in terms of annual and international viewpoints. Moreover, impacts of ENSO, NAO, IOD and PDO on floods in the Poyang Lake Basin have been widely analyzed. Results indicated that: 1) Annual maximum streamflow and POT-based flood events are generally in increasing tendency at annual and seasonal (winter and autumn) time scales. The change points of AMF at hydrological stations of the lake basin were mainly in 1980s-1990s, except Lijiadu station where the change point of AMF was 1966. The flood magnitude increased by 19%, 13%, 22% and 16% after the change points at Lijiadu, Meigang, Hushan and Wanjibu stations. Autumn AMF and Winter AMF in all stations are increased or significantly increased. The average increase rate of Autumn AMF and Winter AMF are 113% and 40.5%, respectively, after the change points. 2) Clustering effects of floods were evident and floods were active during April and July, which were significant at 5% significance level, implying that the time interval from April to July is the active flood period.Massive occurrences of heavy floods during a certain period usually trigger high flooding risk and which poses serious challenges for human mitigation to flood hazards. 3) Annual occurrence rates of floods follow nonstationary poisson distribution with evident interannual clustering properties. Further, two periods having higher occurrence rates of floods were identified, i.e. in the late 1960s and the early 1970s, and the mid 1990s. However, the highest occurrence rates of floods are observed mainly during the 1990s. Active flood activities can usually be observed at most hydrological stations in the Poyang Lake Basin. 4) ENSO and IOD have coincident impacts on flooding magnitude and occurrence rates of floods of the subsequent years. ENSO usually have negative impacts on floods of the same year during Spring seasons and have a significant impact on the flood occurrence rate and on annual maximum streamflow during Spring in the subsequent years. IOD has a significant positive relation with the occurrence timing of floods in the same year. Positive IOD phase usually delayed occurrence timing of floods. PDO and NDO have no significant impacts on flood processes of the lake basin. the warm phase of ENSO together with the warm phase of IOD combine to intensify precipitation extremes of the next year in the Poyang Lake Basin and hence increase peak flood flow and flood occurrence rate across the basin. The results of this study are of great scientific and practice merits in terms of human mitigation to floods and also management of flood hazards, conservation of ecological environment of the Poyang Lake Basin.
通过野外调研和室内实验,研究了祁连山南坡灌丛草甸地上生物量的生长季变化,并对地上生物量与水热因子的关系进行了探讨。结果表明：在不同区域群落结构有所不同,覆盖度越低,上层和下层的植物高度越低,丰富度和多样性越小。但均匀度还受草场退化阶段的影响,群落结构相对稳定,植物的均匀度越高;地上生物量的年内变化是单峰曲线,乌鞘岭和门源的地上生物量在7月份最大,祁连和野牛沟的地上生物量在9月份最大;地上生物量的积累与前1月和前2月的气温和降水正相关,与前4月的气温也正相关,并且对气温变化的敏感性大于降水,但与地温和土壤水分的相关性不明显,前1月表层地温较高对地上生物量的积累有积极作用;对于地上生物量积累,日气温、日相对湿度、降水量有直接正向作用,而日最高气温、日最低气温、日水汽压有直接负向作用,5 cm、20 cm地温和0~10 cm、20~30 cm土壤水分也有直接正向作用,而10 cm地温和10~20 cm土壤水分也有直接负向作用。
Based on field investigation and laboratory analysis, the biomass of shrubbery meadows and the relation with water and heat factors during growing season were studied in the southern slope of the Qilian Mountains. The result indicated that community structures of shrubbery meadows exhibited obviously regional differences. The plant height, community richness and species diversity are lower owing to the lower community coverage, whiles plant evenness degree is correlated with the different stages of degeneration. However, the higher plant evenness degree was owing to the steadier of community structure. The annual variations of above ground biomass for shrubbery meadow communities showed the hump line pattern, and its highest values in Wushaoling and Menyuan happened on July but this occured on September in Qilian and Yeniugou station. The above ground biomass increments of shrubbery meadow communities had the positive correlation with temperature and precipitation before one and two monthes as well as temperature before four monthes, and its sensitivity to temperature was larger than to precipitation. The correlations with soil humidity and temperature were not obvious, but topsoil temperature before one month is conductive to the increment of above ground biomass. Daily temperature, relative humidity and precipitation displayed the directly positive effect on above ground biomass, but this is contrary to daily maximum temperature, daily minimum temperature and water vapor pressure. Soil temperature underground 5 cm and 20 cm and soil humidity underground 0-10 cm and 20-30 cm have directly positive effect on above ground biomass, whiles this is opposite to soil temperature underground 10 cm and soil humidity underground 10-20 cm.
In this study, stable water isotope compositions of different water bodies (such as precipitation, river waterfor surface water, spring and well water for ground water) were collected to reveal the characteristics of stable isotopes of different water bodies and conversion among them in Dongting Lake Basin, which located in the south of China. The results show that isotopes of surface and ground water inherit isotopes of precipitation’s rich in winter half year and depleted in the summer half year, and the variation trend of isotopes having been delayed in time. Referring to variation range and fluctuation of different water bodies’ isotope, precipitation’sisotope is more significant than surface and ground water’s. Generally, isotopes of river water is depleted with increasing latitude, which decided by the distribution of precipitation’s isotopes in space. Stable water isotope compositions of river, well and spring water distribute near the local meteoric water line suggests that precipitation is the main recharge source of the three water bodies. Furthermore, comparison of isotopic composition of surface and ground water with local meteoric water line in different season can reflect conversion of different water bodies.
比较了中国东南地区九岭山和九连山两地马尾松（Pinus massoniana）树轮不同组分δ13C对气候变化响应的敏感性,结果表明：α纤维素δ13C和综纤维素δ13C在均数方面较全木δ13C分别偏正1.170‰±0.168‰和1.211‰±0.121‰;3种组分δ13C年际变化序列显著正相关（p < 0.001）;两地生长季中晚期水分状况是制约马尾松树轮δ13C的主要因子,3种组分δ13C与此时段的气候要素相关性均达到显著水平（p<0.05）,3种组分δ13C对气候变化响应的敏感性没有显著差异。
It has been proved that stable carbon isotope ratio（δ13C）of tree-ring is an excellent physical proxy for climatic reconstruction in warm and moist regions. However, since wholewood, the raw material of tree-ring, is composed by different chemical components and it is still uncertain which component contains the most stronger climate signal in its δ13C. In this study, climate sensitivities of δ13C in wholewood, holocellulose and α-cellulose were compared in Pinus massoniana from mountains of Jiuling and Jiulian in southeastern China. Results indicated that δ13C of α-cellulose and holocellulose were enriched by 1.211±0.121‰ and 1.170‰±0.168‰ compared with the whole wood respectively; δ13C series of the three components demonstrated high coherence with significant positive correlation coefficients (p<0.001); Hydroclimatic conditions during the middle to late growing season were both the dominated climatic factors limiting δ13C variations in the two study areas and δ13C of the three components all significantly correlated with these climatic factors（p<0.05）without obviously differences. Therefore, it can be concluded that δ13C of tree-ring whole wood in Pinus massoniana is good enough to be used in the climatic reconstruction at an annual or even longer time scale and holocellulose or α-cellulose extraction unnecessary during the studies about stable isotopes in tree-ring of Pinus massoniana.
The formation and evolution of dunes on both sides of river is closely related with the river. The research methods adopted such as field survey, topographic measurement and sampling, analyzed the Keriya River’s (located in the western of China) granularity, spatial distribution of the geochemical elements and dynamic factors of the near-surface sediments. The conclusions are as follows: The granularity composition of the Keriya River’s surface sediments is mainly larger than 2 φ, and the aeolian character of the granularity of the Keriya River is more obvious; Si and Al take up a large part of chemical composition, compared with the average composition of geochemical elements of the upper continental crust (UCC) or enrichment factors, all elements except Ca, Co and As are decreased to a certain degree; The characteristic of chemical elements and granularity composition of the near-surface sediments from different sections are similar to that of the upstream Pulu, indicating that one major source of the Keriya River sediments is located in kunlun mountains; From upstream to downstream, under the condition of different power, the granularity characteristic of surface material has the opposite gradient trend between the flood plain sand and terrace eolian sand; The CIA of the Keriya River Basin is below 50, and the A-CN-K ternary diagram shows that a weak chemical weathering by loss of Na and K occurred in these sediments, while other geochemical elements was in a less weathering or leaching process. The difference of the chemical weathering degree of different sections is closely related to its local climate and landform pattern; When different geomorphic units are under the same section, the granularity characteristic and chemical weathering degree have a corresponding grading law from nearby to far apart from the riverbed; The average grain size of the Keriya River is correlated with some enrichment factor of elements, and it shows that particle size controls and affects the processes of chemical weathering to a certain extent. In short, in the different spatial scales, the differentiation about the physical weathering characteristic of the sediment surface of the Keriya River essentially reflects the different separation of wind power and water power. Therefore, the research has important significance for building comprehensive discriminant index of aeolian-fluvial interactions and others aspect.
对南方丘陵区3种不同母质水稻土时间序列黏粒矿物的X-射线衍射（XRD）进行分析发现：① 紫色砂页岩（PS）母质起源土壤的黏粒矿物以高岭石类似矿物为主;第四纪红黏土（RC）母质起源土壤的黏粒矿物以高岭石类似矿物、伊利石类似矿物与三羟铝石为主;红砂岩（RS）母质起源土壤的黏粒矿物以1.4 nm过渡矿物、高岭石类似矿物与三羟铝石为主。② 这3种母质土壤种稻后黏粒矿物的变化大体可分为2种情况。RC与RS母质的起源土壤种稻后,土壤黏粒矿物的变化相对较小,伊利石类似矿物相对含量有所增加,这可能主要与钾肥的持续施用有关。PS母质的起源土壤种稻后,土壤黏粒矿物变化相对较大,表现为高岭石类似矿物相对含量降低,低结晶度的伊利石或次生绿泥石与三羟铝石相对含量上升。PS母质发育的土壤种稻后脱钾明显且主要集中在原生矿物部分。这种原生矿物的脱钾作用对土壤黏粒含量和黏粒矿物的类型都有较大影响。③ 起源土壤的黏粒矿物通常会被水稻土所继承,并在水稻土发育过程中相对稳定,可以用其来指示起源土壤（或母质）的物源组分。
Paddy soils (Hydragric Anthrosols) greatly differ from their parent soils and homologous Orthic Anthrosols in physical and chemical properties, owing to their special soil formation processes. This prevented discriminating their provenance by conventional means. Paddy terraces in the hilly regions of South China are an example of successively expanding cultivated lands in a sustainable system. Because of their depth, fertility and ease of irrigation, soils at the bottom of slopes were generally the first to be converted to paddy; as population pressure increased, lands upslope were progressively brought into paddy cultivation. Thus, these hillside terraces, with increasing cultivation age from the top to the bottom of the slopes, form soil chronosequences. Considering the constraints, three paddy soil chronosequences derived from the main parent materials of the region in the hilly regions of South China, namely, purple sandy shale (PS), Quaternary red clays (RC) and red sandstone (RS), were selected to explore the clay mineral assemblages and their provenance implications. The XRD pattern suggested that kaolinite-like clays were major constituents of the PS soils. Similarly, illite-like, kaolinite-like and bayeritewere major constituents in the RC soils, and 1.4 nm intergradient minerals, kaolinite-like and bayerite were major constituents in the RS soils. For RC and RS soils, there was little change in the clay minerals. Long-term paddy cultivation can promote formation of illite-like minerals. In PS soils, the depotassication was strong, accompanied by marked transformation of clay minerals. Kaolinite-like minerals gradually decreased with paddy cultivation age; by contrast, derivative clay minerals such as secondary chlorite and halloysite gradually increased. Strong depotassication mainly occurred in the non-clay fractions. The results also indicated the clay minerals of paddy soils mainly followed the feature of their original soils and that their evolutions could be roughly distinguished based on their constituents. For soils with a low content of K-bearing minerals, there was little change in clay mineralogy. For soils that were abundant in K-bearing minerals, depotassication was strong and the change in clay minerals was comparatively remarkable. This result suggests that the evolution of clay minerals is primarily affected or determined by their original soils derived from different parent materials. In addition, the crystallinity of illite-like minerals would be worse under the long-term paddy cultivation and periods of artificial submergence with highly activity in hydrolysis might cause the change of the ordering degree of lattice of clay minerals. However, the projections of main clay minerals for paddy soils from same parent material centralized in a lesser range and the clay mineral assemblages can reflect their parent material sources in paddy soils.