分别研究2009年中国286个地级以上城市住宅均价和房价收入比的空间分异格局、总体趋势、空间异质性和相关性;根据供需理论和城市特征价格理论建立了影响中国城市住宅价格空间分异的初选因素,并根据半对数模型分析主要影响因素。结果表明：① 中国城市住宅价格空间分异显著,呈现出空间集聚性分异（东南沿海三大城市群与内陆城市之间）和行政等级性分异（省会与地级市之间）的双重格局;② 房价收入比较高的城市数量更多,分布范围更广,购房难度较大的城市已超过一半;③ 住宅均价的总体分异趋势和空间异质性都强于房价收入比;④ 城市居民收入与财富水平和城市区位与行政等级特征是住宅价格空间分异的两大核心影响因素。
In China′s high housing price times, housing price has become the core issue which was paid close attention by government and inhabitant. However, relatively little analysis is available on spatial differentiation patterns of housing prices in China′s cities according to taking more cities as analysis units in geographic field. And there is not unanimous conclusion in the main impact factors on spatial differentiation of housing price. In light of this, taking the housing prices and housing price-to-income ratio of 286 cities in China as basic data, we studied spatial differentiation patterns, global trends, spatial heterogeneities and correlations of housing prices and housing price-to-income ratio respectively. Furthermore, based on the law of supply-demand and urban hedonic price theory, we selected hypothetical 10 impact factors including 30 indicators on spatial differentiation for housing prices in China′s cities. Finally, the main impact factors were selected and analyzed according to regression analysis based on semilogarithmic model. The results show that: 1) There exist obviously spatial differentiation patterns for housing prices in China′s cities, and these differentiation patterns have features of the spatial agglomeration (between inland areas and three urban agglomerations of southeast coastal areas) and urban administrative level (between provincial capital and prefecture-level cities) simultaneously. 2) There are more number and larger scope with higher housing price-to-income ratio than that of housing prices. The number of cities of high housing affordability has been more than a half; 3) Both global differentiation trend and spatial heterogeneity of housing prices are stronger than that of housing price-to-income ratio; 4) Both the law of supply-demand and urban hedonic price theory can explain the phenomenon of spatial differentiation for housing prices in China′s cities. 5) The main impact factors on spatial differentiation of housing prices in China′s cities based on law of supply-demand are as follows: urban resident income and wealth level, urban housing price expectation and demand potential, urban residential construction cost. The main impact factors based on urban hedonic price theory are urban location and administrative level, urban natural environment, urban economic and producer environment, and urban infrastructure. Therein, urban resident income and wealth level and urban location and administrative level are two core impact factors on spatial differentiation for housing prices in China′s cities.
研究中国非物质文化遗产的空间分布特征及影响因素, 是提高非物质文化遗产的管理和保护水平的重要路径。通过GIS空间分析技术研究了2 376项中国国家级非物质文化遗产项目(台湾地区除外）。研究表明：非物质文化遗产呈带状、组团状分布, 分布不均衡。从全国看,非物质文化遗产呈组团状分布在东部（尤其是东部沿海地区）和中部地区, 而西部相对稀少,呈现西疏东密的空间分布;从南北看, 南方分布数量与密度均大于北方,且主要分布于长江流域带。影响空间分布的主要原因: 一是受地理大环境的影响,物产丰富和人类活动较多的地区非物质文化遗产较多; 二是与人类的宜生环境和民族性地域性有关;三是少数民族聚居区,由于地处边疆,较少受到外来文化的入侵,文化传统不易被破坏。
：Intangible cultural heritage is defined as a spectral cultural heritage that has important historical and art values. Research on the geographical distribution and affecting factors of the intangible cultural heritage in China is important for the improvement of heritage protection and management. Data from 2 376 items concerning intangible cultural heritage in China are collected on a national level and analyzed based on the Geographic Information System. Research shows that the structural types of intangible cultural heritage in China can be divided into three classes. The first class includes traditional craft and traditional opera. This class is considered the most predominant class among the intangible cultural heritage classes in China. The second class, which is less predominant, includes traditional music, customs, dancing, art, and literature. The third class, which is the least predominant among the classes, includes traditional physical education, medicine, and drama. Numerous types of intangible cultural heritage exist in China that were influenced by the nationality and rationality of the population. Most of these types of heritage can be found in the rich history, popular culture, and minority regions of China. The structural level of the heritage is unbalanced and exhibits zone and block shapes. The intangible cultural heritage in China is mainly distributed in the Eastern and Middle regions, whereas only a few are distributed in the Western region. The number and density of intangible cultural heritage in Southern China are bigger than that in Northern China. Intangible cultural heritage in China is also preserved by communities along the Changjiang River. Heritage distribution has a certain correlation with big river systems. The number and density of intangible cultural heritage is greatly unbalanced in the Eastern, Middle, and Western regions of China. Eastern China has the highest density of intangible cultural heritage followed by Middle China and Western China. Intangible cultural heritage is highly dense in Eastern China and sparse in Western China. The factors that affect the distribution of intangible cultural heritage are as follows. First is the geographic environment. More intangible cultural heritage can be found in areas rich in products and human activities. Second, the distribution of intangible cultural heritage has certain correlations with livable environmental conditions and minority regions because these areas are characterized by long histories and rich cultures. Third, minority regions along border areas are subjected to less cultural invasion. Although intangible cultural heritage items are divided in this paper to assess their precise spatial distributions, distinguishing these items is difficult because of carrier movement. The evaluation of intangible cultural heritage by the National Cultural Relics Administration is also limited. Thus, research on evaluation of intangible cultural heritage should be reinforced in the future.
For an in-depth research on the current situation and developmental trend of China's CO2 emissions, this article employed the revealed comparative advantage theory to carry out an analysis of the spatial framework and time-evolution regulations of net CO2 emission. The analysis focuses on the net CO2 emission per capita and unit GDP covering from 2005 and 2010 in China's six major regions (North, Northeast, East, Central South, Southwest, Northwest of China) and 29 provinces (excluding Hong Kong, Macro, Taiwan, Tibet and Xinjiang). In the calculation of CO2 emission, net CO2 emission (the absorption by the forest already deducted) were used as the basic data under the full consideration of the efficiency differentiation of energy conversion into CO2 in different provinces in different years(In this way, the obtained net CO2 emission were more accuracy).The difference in net CO2 emissions per capita and unit GDP among different regions and provinces from 2005 to 2010 were studied and the driving mechanisms for this difference are analyzed by introducing one analytical method---coefficient of variation. The results showed that the difference of per capita carbon dioxide among regions became smaller, the value for North and Northeast China were higher and the value for Southwest of China was lower. In the case of CO2 emission of unit GDP, the regional difference became more equalized. For instance, Central South and East of China displayed low amount, while Northwest, North, Northeast, Southwest of China revealed high amount, especially Northwest region showed the highest amount. The difference of per capita net CO2 emission among provinces revealed a "shock" trend, but the trend showed a slightly decreased in general. Considering the per capita CO2 emission, Ningxia and Inner Mongolia was the biggest; Jiangxi, Hainan, Yunnan, Guangxi, Anhui is comparatively smallest; and Beijing, Heilongjiang, Shanghai decreased obviously, while Shanxi, Chongqing increased sharply. The difference in net CO2 emission of per unit GDP among provinces became smaller from 2005 to 2010. Net CO2 emission of per unit GDP in Ningxia, Guizhou, Shanxi produced more, while Beijing, Tianjin, Heilongjiang, Shanghai, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Anhui, Fujian, Jiangxi, Guangdong, Guangxi, Yunnan produced less. The trend in Jilin Province decreased, meanwhile Hainan Province increased obviously.
知识溢出的多空间尺度耦合、空间知识溢出的测度以及空间知识溢出的机制是近期国内外有关知识溢出地理效应研究的主要新动向。借助科学计量学追踪知识溢出的方法,以2000~2009年被国际ISI及国内重庆维普数据库收录的,中国大学和科研院所等机构在生物技术领域合作发表科学论文的信息为数据源,从社会网络的视角,运用社会网络分析和GIS空间分析方法,分别以国家、省份和城市为单元,从国际、国家和长三角层面（区域）,分析2000年以来,中国大学和科研院所知识溢出网络的拓扑结构和空间结构变动特征,并从地理距离、社会距离、认知距离、组织距离等方面探讨影响知识溢出效应的机理。研究发现：① 2003~2004年为知识溢出网络发展的拐点期;② 国际和国家层面网络接近小世界网络,长三角层面的网络体现出更多的随机网络特征;③ 知识在国际层面的空间溢出具有明显的路径依赖性,主要受到社会距离和组织距离的影响;④ 在国家层面呈现由三角形向钻石形发展的趋势,随着网络发育的日益成熟,地理距离的影响逐步减弱,社会距离和组织距离的影响得以加强;⑤ 在长三角层面总体上呈现三点一线特征,地理距离在区域尺度的影响最为显著,知识溢出既遵循了等级扩散的规律,也体现了距离衰减的特点。
In recent years, there are some trends in the research field of geographical effect of knowledge spillovers, such as coupling of knowledge spillovers between various space scales, measuring the space track of knowledge spillovers, and exploration the mechanism of spatial knowledge spillovers. By using the metrology of tracking knowledge spillovers from Scientometrics, this article takes statistical data of the scientific papers published in cooperation about the biotechnology both in the database of Thompson R ISI Web of Knowledge (ISI) and Chinese Scientific and Technical Journals (Journal of Chongqiing VIP) from 2000 to 2009 as data source. From the perspective of social network, using countries, provinces and cities as nodes, the knowledge spillover networks is constructed respectively at international, national and regional (the Yangtze Delta) levels. By using the Social Network Analysis (SNA) and the GIS spatial analysis method, this article analysis the topological and spatial structure characteristics of the knowledge spillover networks since 2000, and study the Influence factors of knowledge spillover effects from the perspective of geographic distance, cognitive distance, social distance and organization distance. The results show that: 1）The period of 2003-2004 is the turning period of the development of knowledge spillover network; 2） The networks are more like small-world networks at international and national level, but at the Yangtze Delta level, the characteristics of networks are closed to random network; 3）The spatial spillovers of knowledge are path dependence at international level, and mainly affected by the social distance and organizational distance; 4）At the national level, the spatial distribution of network present the trend from triangle form to diamond form. With the maturity of network, the influences of geographical distance gradually diminishing, on the contrary, the influences of social distance and organizational distance gradually strengthen; 5）At the regional level of the Yangtze Delta, the spatial distribution of network appears three point and one line features, and geographical distance plays a significant impact at the regional scale, which means knowledge spillovers not only follow the law of hierarchical diffusion, but also reflect the characteristics of distance decay.
Global climate change is the most important environmental problem that humans have faced so far, especially the problem of global climate warming. The emission of greenhouse gases with CO2 as a representative is recognized as one of the culprits which lead to global climate warming.In the 21st century, with the growing scale of tourism industry, tourism industry has showed increasingly prominent influence on climate and environment, which causes attention of the social from all walks of life. And tourism carbon emissions and compensation problems have become the focus and hot spots of global. To measure the amount of CO2 emissions produced by tourism, and understand the basic situation of tourism carbon emissions, we must first find out what activities, process are consuming energy and exhausting greenhouse gases with CO2 as a representative, namely carbon source. This paper explores carbon source system of tourism from two perspectives: tourism components in lateral perspective and total life stages of tourism major departments in longitudinal perspective. First, from the lateral perspective, we build carbon source components of tourism based on the main components of tourism industries, and the main components of tourism industries are: tourist communications industries,tourism scenic spot industries, tourism hotel industries, tourism catering industries, tourist entertainment industries and tourist commodity industries. Then from the longitudinal perspective,the authors construct the carbon source subdivision of tourism major departments of the “early stage-middle stage-later stage” total life stages based on Life Cycle Assessment, abandoning the stereotypical measurement of carbon emissions which is only limited to “serving” and broadening the horizons of measure objects of carbon emissions. A relatively consistent and accurate understanding about carbon source system is favorable to find out the main tourism industry departments that produce carbon emissions and the major goals of carbon reduction measures, and to provide more targeted and more scientific decision-making for government departments.
尽管第五次人口普查所反映的社会空间结构特征已经是12 a前的事实,国内外学者也针对2000年的中国第五次人口普查数据做了一定的研究,但是,此类研究要么局限于全域性社会空间统计分析;要么限于县区、街道尺度展开的局域性地理空间分析研究。居委会（社区）这一核心统计尺度的普查数据一直没有被有效地挖掘利用。以南京旧城区为研究案例,首次通过匹配内城区居委会地图和第五次人口普查长短表数据,深度挖掘、揭示居委会尺度下的南京旧城区社会空间隔离特征,并指出：① 新世纪南京市城市社会空间转型与分异是计划体制时期社会空间建构力量与市场分化力量混合的结果,相对于上海、北京和广州而言,南京城市制度性力量显示了强劲的路径依赖特征、学习性与适应性;② 小尺度社会空间分析挖掘出大尺度无法辨析的学区中产阶层化(jiaoyufication)区域和转型期崛起的新城市精英社区。
：The fifth census is now over a decade old and much has changed in the socio-spatial characteristics of Chinese cities in that time. Moreover, many overseas scholars and Chinese researchers have published a substantial number of papers and books using the 2000 census data. However, most of scholars used the data in an aspatial way in sociologically oriented studies or use the data at the larger scale of town or jiedao level. Our study is based on data at the lowest geographic scale possible, the community level or juweihui. We use these data in combination with a carefully developed community level map. These data allow us to exam the socio-spatial structure of old city region of Nanjing. This area included 244 communities with a population of 1 358 714. The findings suggest a complex pattern formed by some of the well-known policies of the socialist era and the beginnings of free market processes, particularly in the creation of new elite areas within the old city. Particularly, Nanjing case shows that the complex pattern of urban social space in less developed cities would be consequence of stronger institutional path-dependence, adaptability and emulating capacity. Furthermore, the findings of jiaoyufication and new urban elite rely on small scale data.
通过对东川地域空间发展影响因素和山地资源型城市地域空间可持续发展模式形成机制的探讨,综合东川地域空间开发适宜性评价结果,提出了东川地域空间可持续发展的基本准则与模式。结合实证研究与理论分析,尝试提出中国西南地形起伏极大的中高山区国土开发的适宜模式。结论如下：① 东川地域空间可持续发展的基本准则是以山地自然生态为约束、保护与发展相协同;基本模式是整体均衡的地域空间管制模式,山地自然生态友好型的产业成长模式和“点状”开发模式。② 现有区域空间发展理论并不完全适宜指导西南中高山地区的开发实践。“点状”开发模式有助于引导形成自然生态与“点状”开发区有机融合的地域空间发展格局,不仅有利于相对集中地提升其现代化水平,同时也能最大程度地维护自然生态平衡,真正实现国土空间的可持续发展。
On the basis of analyzing the influential factors of regional spatial development of Dongchuan and the forming mechanism of regional spatial sustainable development(RSSD) pattern of mountain resource-based city, as well as the study results of the study “The evaluation of regional spatial development suitability of mountain resource-based city: A case study of Dongchuan District”, the basic rule and patterns of RSSD of Dongchuan were put forward. Further, the suitable and conceptual territory development mode for middle-alp mountain region in southwest mountain area of China, was initially brought forward. The results showed that: 1)The basic rules of RSSD of Dongchuan was first regarding the mountain nature ecosystem as essential restriction, and then combining protection with development. And the basic patters were the entire balance of spatial governance, ecological environment-friendly growth pattern of industries, and the pointlike regional spatial development pattern. 2)It was considered that current regional spatial theories were not well fit to guide the development of mountain regions, especially in middle-alp mountain regions with higher relief degree of land surface in southwest mountain area. The pointlike development pattern guiding into the natural environment mixed with the pointlike development areas, was propitious for the middle-alp mountain areas to improve the level of socialization and modernization, to maintain the greatest degree of ecological balance, and to head for real spatial sustainable development.
在构建土地生态系统服务和城市化2个子系统指标体系的基础上,采用价值系数法核算福州市各种土地生态服务的价值,并提出采用匀滑技术来弥补城市化系统个别指标数据片断的缺失,最后,利用协同学思想构建2个子系统之间的耦合度模型,探讨了不同序参量上、下限的选择对系统耦合关系的影响,并对福州市的土地生态系统服务与城市化之间的耦合关系进行了测定和互动关系分析。研究结果表明：① 序参量上、下限值的选择对土地生态系统服务与城市化系统的耦合度具有一定的影响,但对区域时间序列总体变化趋势的影响不大。② 福州市土地生态系统服务与城市化的交互耦合在2000年处于磨合阶段,而后进入高水平的耦合阶段,且两者的耦合协调度值处于0.36~0.82之间,除了2000年处于低度协调,2000年以后均处于中度协调及以上水平。③ 动态耦合模型与容量耦合函数模型两者计算得到的耦合度变化规律高度一致。
Based on the coupling and coordinative characteristics of environment system and urbanization system in Fuzhou, taking land ecosystem services and urbanization as two composite systems respectively, through the quantitative integration measure, this article aims at probing into the coupling interaction and coordinating relationship of environment and urbanization system of Fuzhou City, which locates in the Economic Zone on the Western Coast of the Taiwan Straits, China. Firstly, the land ecosystem services are evaluated by the method of value coefficient, and the lack of data fragments of the urbanization indicators are complemented by the smoothing method. Then, on the basis of Synergistic Theory, the theoretical models of land ecosystem services and urbanization were constructed to measure the coupling and coordinative degrees, and to analyze the effects of different upper and lower limits of the order parameters on the coupling and coordinative degrees and the interactive relationship between the two composite system from 2000 to 2009 in Fuzhou City. The results show that: firstly, the coupling and coordinative degrees are greatly affected by the different upper and lower limits of the order parameters, while the time sequence trends of the coupling and coordinative degrees in different limits are the same. Secondly, the coupling and coordinative degrees of land ecosystem services and urbanization are at run-in stage in 2000, then they enter into a high level coupling stage after 2000. Thirdly, the coupling degree values from the dynamic coupling model are highly consistent with those from the capacity coupling model. The studies provide the theory basis and the practical guidance for realizing environmental coordinated development. To maintain the present situation of higher coupling and coordination degrees of environment and urbanization system in Fuzhou, the government, the enterprises, together with the residents, should control their own behavior, including policy formulation and effective implementation, application of advanced environmental technology, the guide of market mechanism, and the enhancing of public environmental awareness.
On the premise of respecting ecological environment, ecological civilization construction focus on harmonious coexistence、virtuous circle、comprehensive development、continued prosperity among man、nature、society, and aim at seeking a win-win situation between ecological and economy. Considering the differences of speed and level of economic development among different region, this article argues that ecological civilization construction not only concentrates on its intension, but on its spatial variation, which required ecological civilization construction should root in local conditions. With the theoretical formwork, this article presents the trend for ecological civilization construction to dividing the ecological civilization control area, especially ecological fragile region. Based on preliminary results of the field surveys and interviews, government statistics and documents, and direct observation in Changting County of Fujian Province, a region with a representative in soil erosion of ecological fragile region in southern hills as well as a prototype of soil erosion control, the idea of ecological civilization control area was explored. Firstly, the philosophy and method of the major function oriented zoning are integrated. Secondly, comprehensive evaluation of indexes that including the aspects of economic, social, environmental, cultural and institutional of ecological civilization are carried out. Finally, the ecological sensitivity of ecological fragile region in southern hills as well as a survey of farmers in local area was considered. The results showed that the ecological civilization control area of Changting County can be divided into four areas including ecological civilization control and protection area, ecological civilization core development area, comprehensive management area, and centralized restoration area. It was identified that the area of ecological civilization control and protection is the key in ecological civilization construction, ecological civilization core development area is the economic development space carrier, ecological civilization comprehensive management area is the important direction of city development as well as the key area of controlling soil erosion while ecological civilization centralized restoration area hold environmental protection and ecological products as its priority mission. The article assesses the relevance of the paradigm of economic development in each ecological civilization control area to the ecological civilization construction, and suggests the need for a conceptual framework focusing on the ecological civilization construction resulting from bottom-up ecological civilization control area development. It was also drew that policy implications from the analysis, calling for policies not only to facilitate environment improvements but also catering for the means of livelihood for the inhabitant.
选取人口城市化、经济城市化、空间城市化和社会城市化4个维度的指标,2000~2011年的时间序列数据,运用均方差赋权法和线性加权和法,对吉林省综合城市化水平进行测度,运用ArcGIS软件对各市州城市化水平进行地理空间的可视化表达,并分析吉林省城市化水平的时空格局演变,发现：① 各城市化指标的分布格局均呈现“中高周低”特征,各市州城市化质量差异显著;② 以长春和吉林为中心的双中心集聚特征开始显现;③ 空间城市化是人口城市化的直接表象,经济发展是推动社会发展的关键因素。
：Urbanization can be described from four perspectives which are population urbanization, economic urbanization, spatial urbanization and social urbanization respectively. Based on the indexes collected from these four dimensions from the year of 2000 to 2011, this article managed to measure the comprehensive level of urbanization in Jilin Province using the variance method and liner summing weight method to determine the weights and compute the indexes. In order to visualize the distribution of urbanization levels in the prefectures, the maps were made utilizing the software of ArcGIS to analyze the spatial and temporal evolution in terms of urbanization level in Jilin Province. The following findings are summarized: 1) The variance of urbanization quality among prefectures is obvious, which shows a characteristic named “higher center and lower surrounding”. 2) The agglomeration pattern of couple centers of Changchun and Jilin City is being formed, but realizing integrated development still has a long way to go. 3) Spatial urbanization is the direct embodiment of population urbanization and economic development is the key to promote the development of society.
The ecological restoration of abandoned coal area in Huainan, Anhui has great significance. This article describes the analysis of heavy metals in soil sampled from Datong abandoned mining area in Huainan City. Spatial interpolation in GIS is applied to the revelation of spatial distribution of heavy metals. Results show that: 1) In average, concentration of 5 heavy metal elements exceed the background values by 2.000~ 36.300 times, in which Cd is the most significant, followed by Hg, Cr and Pb, and the concentration of Cu is relatively smaller. Soils of chemical plant and surrounding area were severely contaminated, and the soils of coal gangue pile and surrounding area were heavily polluted. 2) Wastewater of the former chemical plant and coal gangue were the main pollution sources of Hg and Cd, and they were both accumulated in soil depth of 20-30 cm. Wastewater of the former chemical plant was the pollution sources of Cr, and Cr was accumulated in soil depth of 0-10 cm. Wastewater of the former chemical plant and coal gangue were the pollution sources of Pb and Cu, and they were accumulated in soil depth of 20-30 cm and 0-10 cm respectively. 3) The heavy metals from coal gangue were accumulated in soil depth of 20-30 cm, and the heavy metals from wastewater of the former chemical plant were accumulated in soil depth of 0-10 cm. 4) Positive correlation between concentrations of most heavy metals was significant, it was speculated that most heavy metals were mainly from the same materials. There was a significant positive correlation between Hg, Cd and organic matter, nitrogen, available phosphorus, and a significant negative correlation between Cr, Pb and organic matter, nitrogen, available phosphorus. 5) Distribution of these heavy metals presented a stronger spatial relevance because their spatial pattern were mainly influenced by natural factors such as the soil parent material, climate, topography and other structural factors. All of spatial variability was small scale. Characteristic of spatial variation was relation with the complex distribution object.
元胞自动机（Cellular Automata,CA）能通过简单的规则模拟复杂的地理时空演变过程。将城镇空间发展战略、限制性发展约束条件等规划思想耦合于CA模型中,可以提供城乡建设用地空间布局分析工具。以广州市为案例,根据中国当前土地利用总体规划编制规程,尝试利用构建的约束性CA模型确定规划期内城乡建设用地最可能的空间布局模式,并据此制定城镇扩展边界线（Urban Growing Boundary,UGB）和土地用途管制分区,提供土地利用总体规划中关于“六区一界”的编制方案。广州市的案例研究结果表明,耦合空间发展战略的约束性CA是一种非常有效的空间分析工具,可为土地利用规划提供决策参考。
It has been proved that cellular automata (CA) model can simulate complex geographical process effectively only with simple conversion rules. According to the principle of traditional forecasting CA, a constrained CA model by combination of spatial development strategies was proposed in this article. In the model, the influence factors of land use evolution such as spatial indices, constrained conditions as well as planning policies were integrated to derive the layout rules of construction land. The proposed model will be used as an efficient tool for allocating urban construction land. Selecting Guangzhou city, a fast developing region in Pearl River Delta, as study area, the constrained CA model was further implemented and validated referring to current land use planning outline of China. It was shown that the most appropriate distribution of construction land can be efficiently achieved with the constrained CA. Urban Growing Boundary (UGB) and land use zoning can be further delimited based on the simulation results during different planning periods, which shows higher similarity with the layout planning of the case study area, Guangzhou City. The simulation results can provide scientific information for land use planning, and the constrained CA coupled with the planning scheme is capable of assisting decision-makers to allocate the construction land.
Land use change is a core field of the global environmental change and it has turned into worldwide research focus. Accurate prediction of land use change is of great importance from the standpoint of theory and practice. Cellular Automata (CA) model has unexampled advantages in creating spatial modeling approaches for simulating land use changes, which has been applied and proved by a great number of researches for decades and all achieved satisfactory effects. However, along with the attention of scale effect in geoscience, it is found that the scale effect in CA model is reflected on the transition rule, the cell size, the neighborhood size and the neighborhood type. That is to say, CA model is sensitive to these four factors. Different scales of these four factors work together and remarkably impact the accuracy of the results simulated by CA model. Among those existing researches analyzing the sensitivity of CA model in land use change simulation, single factor is always the research priority. But they are just far from comprehensive and the research results are not very precise since all these factors, without question, will affect directly to the performance of CA model. What is more, the complex relationships between those factors need to explore as well. To cure the above problems, an orthogonal experiment design method is proposed to analyze the scale sensitivity of CA model to these influential factors. What is more, the existing problems of the correlation between these factors were proved for the first time in the article. Under this scheme, Wuhan, the capital of Hubei Province was taken as an example to analyze the sensitivity of CA model by comparing the difference of the simulated results. Using the special method of range analysis in orthogonal experiment design, it helped to find the influence of different factors to the Cellular Automata model and the optimum combination of factors and also test whether there exist some correlation between any two factors of the cellular automata model. Specifically, when it comes to the sensitivity with which CA model reflects those factors, the sequence decreasingly was the transition rule, the cell size, the neighborhood size and the neighborhood type. In addition, these factors and their respective optimum level together make up the optimum combination of factors to CA model. Besides, the results also revealed that there existed remarkable interactions between the transition rule and the cell size, and between the transition rule and the neighborhood size. In general, this study provides a comprehensive basis for scale sensitivity analysis of CA model in land use change simulation and fills the gaps of the existing methods in exploring this problem.
对惠州黄洞水库沉积钻孔（HD）进行了210Pb和137Cs测试,结合岩性、粒度分析和建库历史资料为佐证,以137Cs为主确定了研究区沉积物年代序列和沉积速率,同时对钻孔沉积物进行了孢粉和炭屑指标的实验分析。粒度分析结果表明,建库前沉积速率较快（约为1.5 cm/a）,建库后（1960年以来）沉积速率降低（约为1.0 cm/a）。钻孔孢粉组合和炭屑记录揭示出与人类活动有关的孢粉种类为禾本科(Gramineae)花粉、芒箕（Dicranopteris dichotoma）、松属（Pinus）花粉等,孢粉绝对浓度和乔木与非乔木花粉比值（AP/NAP）是指示森林覆盖度的重要指标。同时出现乔木花粉减少、孢粉总浓度下降及禾本科相对含量上升,表明了裸地增加和水土流失严重,为人类砍伐和焚烧频率最高的时期。显著的大面积山火事件可以根据沉积物炭屑浓度与孢粉浓度比值（C/P）的峰值来判断。孢粉和炭屑记录揭示流域内建库前、大跃进–文革期、改革开放中后期3个时期不同的植被生态条件,反映了不同阶段人类活动方式和强度的变化,与历史文献记载的1958年大炼钢铁、1963年百年一遇大旱和1986年造林绿化工程等主要事件对比显示出一致的变化。
A sediment core was collected from the northeast of the Huangdong Reservoir in Huizhou, Guangdong province. Environmental 137Cs and 210Pb dating techniques (mainly with 137Cs) were applied to determine the chronology and modern sedimentation rates of the Huangdong Reservoir, by combining with the sediment lithology, grain size and the historical data on the construction of the reservoir. Meanwhile, a lab analysis was conducted on the pollen analysis and charcoal to explore the significances to the environment and reveal the past environmental changes, vegetation and ecological conditions of the reservoir. The grain size analysis result showed that the sedimentation rate was faster (approximately 1.5 cm/a) before the construction of the reservoir; and it decreased (approximately 1.0 cm/a) after the construction of the reservoir(since 1960s). The records on pollen assemblages and charcoal revealed that the pollens of herbs (such as Gramineae), spores of fern (such as Dicranopteris dichotoma) and Pinus were relative with the human activities. The concentration of pollen and AP/NAP ratios (arboreal pollen/non-arboreal pollen) were the important indicators to reveal the changes of the forest coverage. Human activities’ influence on vegetation was manifested in the decrease in pollens of tree, the drop in the total concentration of pollens, the increase in pollens of herbs. And it showed that the bare land or water and soil loss increased significantly if humans cut down and burned frequently. Significant large areas of forest fire events could be according to peak value of charcoal concentration as well as the C/P value (ratio of charcoal and pollen). This study revealed the vegetation ecological information of three different stages in the basin, i.e. the period before the construction of the reservoir, the period of Great Leap Forward and the Cultural Revolution, and the subsequent period of reform and opening up. Such information uncovered the changes of human activities in modes and intensities in different historical periods. The results of pollen assemblages and charcoal index analysis were consistent with the main events of the great Steel-Making movement in 1958, the hundred-year drought in 1963, and the afforestation project in 1986 which were recorded in the historical documents.
Cross section measurements were used to calculate the amount and patterns of sediment accumulation and erosion on floodplains and in channel at various spatial and temporal scales in the lower reaches of the Weihe River in 1960-1990, and the causes for the changes in the amount and patterns of sediment accumulation were investigated. Result showed that the total sediment storage amounted to 8.88×108 m3 in 1960-1990. The amount of sedimentation on floodplain was 1.83 times larger than that in channel and sediment deposition mainly happened in the reaches down the cross-section WY11. By two break points in 1968 and 1982, sedimentation process on floodplain was divided into there stages characterized by fast deposition, slow deposition and sediment release in sequence, in which deposition occurred mainly in the form of vertical accumulation and sediment release mainly resulted from the retreat of river banks. The sedimentation process is channel changed abruptly in 1969. The stage before the year 1969 was featured by fast deposition and with some altermations between deposition and erosion that after the year 1969 was characterized by slight deposion. Sediment aggradation occurred in both floodplain and channel during flood periods, and sediment was released from the floodplain in the form of river bank erosion and weak aggradation took place in channel during the low flow periods. The sediment trapping and releasing was more significant in floodplain than in the channel during these two stages. The sediment deposition extended upstream to the reach between WY17-WY27 when the operation mode of Sanmenxia Dam was storing all water and sediment during 1960-1963 and detaining the floods and sluicing sediment from March 1962 to October 1973, but no more serious further headward sediment deposition occurred when the operation mode was detaining clear water and releasing muddy water from November 1973 to 1990. Sediment deposition on floodplain and in channel was affected mainly by Tongguan elevation, which is used to represent the base level of the Weihe River and is defined as the water level of discharge of 1 000 m3/s at Tongguan near the river's outlet. In addition, the sediment deposition on the floodplain was found to be highly correlated with the sediment load in flood periods, while that in channel was associated with the flood discharge.
运用商丘地区8个农业气象观测站及气象试验站1971~2010年逐日日照时数 、温度和降水量观测值,构建了玉米光照、温度、降水及综合气候适宜度计算模型,对1971~2010年玉米全生育期及各主要生育阶段的气候适宜度与综合气候适宜度动态变化进行分析。结果表明：玉米全生育期温度、光照、降水及综合气候适宜度平均值分别为0.507、0.587、0.545及0.541;玉米生育期内光照适宜度较好,降水适宜度次之,温度适宜度最差,温度是限制玉米生长发育的主要气候因子。近40 a以来,温度适宜度以0.003/10a线性趋势下降,光照适宜度以0.049/10a线性趋势下降,降水适宜度以0.006/10a线性趋势下降。气候因子匹配效果较差,对玉米的生长不利。降水和温度是影响玉米播种及出苗的主要气候因子,播种-出苗期气候因子综合匹配效果较差。温度的明显升高及夏秋两季日照时数降低幅度较大,导致玉米出苗-拔节期对各气候因子的适宜性较差。玉米拔节-抽穗期降水和温度的适宜性较高,降水和温度的有效匹配有利于玉米的拔节及抽穗。抽穗-乳熟期温度、光照和降水组合效果趋好,有利于玉米干物质量的积累;乳熟-成熟期光照适宜性较强,温度和降水适宜性较差,综合气候适宜性变差。
Global climate change has significant impacts on agricultural production. Climate variability adversely impacts crop production and imposes a major constraint on farming panning, mostly on how to enhance the yields of maize, across the word. Owing to the fundamental importance of food to human welfare, crop and livestock production, used the data of maize experimental field and meteorological data of eight agro-meteorological experiment stations and agro-meteorological observation stations in Shangqiu from 1991 to 2010, the models of climate suitability had been established. The dynamic variation of climate suitability in the whole growth period from 1971 to 2010 was analyzed. The results showed that the suitability degrees of temperature, sunshine, precipitation and integrated were 0.507, 0.587, 0.545 and 0.541 respectively during the whole growth period of maize. The sunshine suitability degree was the best, precipitation suitability degree taken the second place and the temperature suitability degree was the worst. It is indicated that temperature is the major limiting factor for maize growth and development. The temperature suitability degrees decreased by 0.003 every ten years, sunshine suitability degree decreased by 0.049 every ten years and the precipitation suitability degrees decreased by 0.006 every ten years from 1971 to 2010. The weaken combination effect of temperature, sunshine and precipitation was unfavorable for the growth of maize. The precipitation and temperature were the main climatic factors affecting the sowing and emergence of maize. The precipitation, temperature and sunshine had poor combination effect in sowing to emergence period, which had the unfavorable influence on the growth of maize. Because of the temperature increasing and the sunshine hours decreasing, suitability of every climatic factor was weaker in the emergence to jointing period of maize. In jointing to tasseling period of maize, precipitation and temperature suitability degrees were well. It indicated that the effective combination of precipitation and temperature were beneficial to the jointing and tasseling of maize. The combination effect of temperature, sunshine and precipitation trended to better in the tasseling to milk period, which was beneficial to the accumulation of dry matter of maize. The sunshine suitability degrees were well, temperature and precipitation suitability degrees were weaker in milk to maturity period of maize, and the integrated climate suitability degree began to deteriorate.