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CN 22-1124/P
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  • 地理科学
      2011年, 第31卷, 第5期 刊出日期:2011-05-20 上一期    下一期
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    论文
    “大三通”背景下闽台港口体系结构演变及其空间对接研究
    王强, 伍世代, 徐玲琳
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (5): 513-519.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.05.513
    摘要   PDF (549KB)
    通过对闽台港口体系结构演化过程进行分析,提出闽台港口体系空间对接战略构想,结果表明:① 近30 a来,福建港口体系空间结构变化趋势呈现倒"U"形阶段性特征,台湾省港口体系空间结构演化呈现"N"字形阶段性特征;② 福建省港口体系等级结构逐步完善、优化,且较台湾省港口体系等级结构更为合理,台湾省港口体系结构演变正处于调整阶段;③ 闽台沿海港口体系吞吐货源结构较为相似,但台湾省高附加值货源所占比重较福建省大,且已形成基隆港、高雄港两大综合性港口和一批专业生产型港口,而福建省多功能综合型港较少,对地方港口体系发展带动力有限,中、小港口职能雷同;④ 未来海峡两岸港口体系将形成以厦门、高雄2个主枢纽港为中心,以福州港、基隆港、泉州港、台中港4个区域性重要港口为次中心,以湄洲港、漳州港、宁德港、台北港、花莲港、苏澳港等区域性一般港口为补充的环台湾海峡港口体系。
    Based on the analysis of the structural evolution of port system in both Fujian and Taiwan, the article puts forward the strategic conception of spatial matching of port system between Fujian and Taiwan. The results are as follows: 1) In recent 30 years, the evolution of spatial structure of port system is characterized by inverted "U" in Fujian, and characterized by "N" in Taiwan; 2) The hierarchical structure of port system has been improved gradually in Fujian, which is more reasonable than that in Taiwan. The evolution process of port system in Taiwan is at adjustment stage; 3) In Fujian and Taiwan, the cargo types of port throughput are similar, but the proportion of high value-added cargo in Taiwan is larger than that in Fujian. Two comprehensive ports of Keelung and Kaohsiung and a batch of professional ports have formed in Taiwan, while Fujian just has a few comprehensive ports, providing limited impetus for local port system development and the functions of small and medium ports are more or less the same; 4) In future, cross-strait port system will arise, which includes two pivotal ports—Xiamen port and Kaohsiung port as the centers, the Fuzhou port, Keelung port, Quanzhou port and Taichung port as sub-centers, and Meizhou port, Zhangzhou port, Ningde port, Taipei port and Hualian port as general regional ports.
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    转型期北京住宅用地投标租金曲线的空间形态与演化
    武文杰, 张文忠, 董冠鹏, 刘睿
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (5): 520-527.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.05.520
    摘要   PDF (828KB)
    在土地制度转型和城市空间重构背景下,中国大城市的住宅用地开发区位与其空间关系发生明显变化。尽管已有研究开始关注在市场化背景下土地价格的时空演变规律和特征,但由于缺乏长时间序列的土地出让及其相关空间数据信息,该领域的研究尚处在起步阶段。基于投标租金模型的基本思想,运用GIS和计量统计等方法,从理论上探索了城市土地区位的开发机理与时空演变模式,并以北京市1992~2009年住宅用地3 400多个微观交易数据进行了实证研究。结论显示,在新兴土地市场国家,价格信号在土地区位配置及其空间结构塑造方面发挥出有效性。住宅用地出让价格随着城市中心距离增加而变化,表现出不均衡的空间形态。在交通条件改善、城市次中心的形成、以及城中村与小产权房等城市化现象影响下,北京住宅用地价格梯度变化规律与西方成熟国家城市有所差异,其投标租金曲线的空间演化呈现出波动、递增、递减等多种空间组合形态。
    Transitions in the socio-economic environment have significant influences on reshaping the cities. While the western countries are undergoing post-urbanization changes, the transforming in Chinese urban land market can better reflect the trend of urban spatial reconstruction. In fact, dramatic socio-economic reforms in China are affecting the most Chinese cities’ urban form since 1978. After that, the new approaches to land marketization widely spread to most Chinese cities, and ever since the late 1980s, Beijing municipal government has attempted to rationalize the previously planned urban land use distribution system by the way of economic reform measures. As the market economy has been established, Beijing's residential land market has been booming during the periods with different land reform policy. While the Chinese urban land market reform has been the subject of much research in recent decades, recent literatures have paid attention to spatial features of land price in transitional Chinese cities, and in comparison to its counterparts in advanced market economies. Nonetheless, research on this issue has been limited by the lack of systematic data, especially spatial data, on land leasing parcels as well as other related data sources. This paper gives first attempt to add our understanding of the spatial variations of the residential land bid-rent function curve of the residential land market of a rapidly developing Chinese metropolis, Beijing—China’s capital city, based on the Beijing Land Leasing Parcel Database. By employing about 3 400 residential land leasing parcel data from 1992 to 2009 within the 6th ring road of Beijing metropolitan area, the period when the land leasing market has largely been established, a mono-centric city’s land bid-rent function model was established to quantitatively explore the spatio-temporal evolution of urban residential land development mode and its mechanism. Based on the empirical analysis, it can be observed that in the context of transformation and urban spatial reconstruction, price signal is applicable in the booming land market in Beijing and becomes the most important influencing factor in forming the unbalanced residential land market's spatial pattern. Specifically, the price gradient is generally negative from the city center to the city fringes. Meanwhile, the results provide a strong evidence that in the context of some special urbanization phenomenon in China such as the rapid development of urban transportation technology, the formation of urban sub-centers, the rising of urban village, the residential land bid-rent curve in Beijing has the increasing, decreasing, fluctuation mode, which is different with its counterparts in advanced market economies. This empirical result verified the efficiency of China’s emerging land market and it would enrich the existing knowledge of the emerging urban land market in transitional China, and provide information for further land and housing policy making.
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    中国旅游经济区域差异的空间分析
    汪德根, 陈田
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (5): 528-536.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.05.528
    摘要   PDF (547KB)
    利用二阶段嵌套泰尔系数分解方法,揭示2000~2008年中国入境旅游经济和国内旅游经济区域发展的省内地(市)间差异、省间差异、地带差异变化特征及其对全国总体差异的贡献率,并以省内地(市)间差异为视角,分析中国旅游经济区域差异的空间格局。研究结果表明:① 中国入境旅游和国内旅游的总体差异呈缩小趋势,且国内旅游的区域差异明显小于入境旅游的区域差异。② 省内差异对全国旅游经济总体差异变化的影响比地带间差异和省间差异对其影响更为显著,已成为全国旅游经济总体差异的重要构成部分;东部地带省间差异明显,对总体差异影响显著,而中西部各省份间旅游业发展相对均衡。③ 东部地带部分旅游业发达省份的省内差异明显,对总体差异的贡献率较高;中西部地带省内差异明显的省份较多,旅游发展空间格局表现为"双核"模式或"单核"模式,但因中西部省份的旅游经济占全国的比重普遍较低,因此中西部省内差异对全国整体差异的贡献率并不高。④ 相关分析得出,旅游资源禀赋、交通可达性、经济发展水平是影响中国旅游经济区域差异空间格局的主要因素。
    Using the method of two-stage nested Theil coefficient decomposition, this paper reveals the change features and contribution rate of overall regional inequality of the between-region, between-province and within-province inequality based on both inbound tourism economy and domestic tourism economy, and analyzes the spatial pattern for regional difference of tourism economic according to the within-province inequality from 2000 to 2008. The results are as following: 1) The overall regional difference between inbound tourism economy and domestic tourism economy in China tends to be narrow, and the regional difference of domestic tourism is less than that of inbound tourism. 2) Within-province inequality is more obvious than that of between-region and between-province inequality, and it plays an important role in the overall regional difference of tourism economy in China. The between-province inequality in the eastern region is obvious; however the tourism is relatively balanced in central and western provinces. 3) The within-province inequality in the eastern region is more obvious and has a high contribution rate to overall regional inequality; however, in the central and western regions, the situation is relatively different. The within-province inequality is obvious in some provinces, and the spatial patterns of tourism development are "double-center" model or "single-center" model, but the contribution rate of overall regional inequality of the within-province inequality is low, because of its smaller proportion of the tourism economics in the whole country. Resources endowment, transportation and economic development are the important factors related to regional difference of tourism economic in China by correlation analysis.
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    高速铁路对河南沿线城市可达性及经济联系的影响
    孟德友, 陆玉麒
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (5): 537-543.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.05.537
    摘要   PDF (898KB)
    高速铁路建设对沿线地区最直接的影响就是缩短地区间的时空距离,提升地区间的交通可达性水平,进而促进地区间社会经济联系和空间相互作用强度。从可达性和空间经济联系两方面探讨徐兰、京广客运专线建设前后河南省12个沿线地市的省内可达性和空间经济联系的变化状况,以及全国"四纵四横"高速铁路网络的构建对河南沿线城市的省际可达性和空间经济联系的影响。通过对河南省高速铁路沿线城市的省内和省际可达性及经济联系的对比分析,从客观上论证了高速铁路建设的重要性和必要性,也有利于廓清各地市经济发展的空间导向,有利于协调省内地区间和省际地区间的经济联系与合作,为区域空间发展战略的制定提供参考。
    As a new convenient and faster transportation mode, the high-speed railway (HSR) construction and operation will make great impacts on the transportation condition, economic growth and human being’s working and living conditions in areas along the railway. The accessibility level will be promoted and the socio-economic linkage will be strengthened which are the most basic and direct impacts of HSR. Taking Henan as an example, the evolution of accessibility and spatial economic linkage among the 12 cities along the railway are probed before and behind the construction of HSR. The impact of "four vertical and four horizontal" HSR network all through the country on the inter-provincial accessibility and economic linkage of cities along the rail in Henan are also analyzed deeply. Results show that: 1) the travel time among cities along the rail will be greatly reduced under the construction of HSR from Xuzhou to Lanzhou and from Beijing to Guangzhou, and the economic region within 2 h will be formed basically. The pattern of "one vertical and one horizontal HSRs" constitutes the main channel of economic linkage, and the main directions of economic linage among cities in Henan will be formed along the railway. The marginalized condition of border cities along the railway will be reversed and the location disadvantage will be improved by the promotion of accessibility among the cities along the railway in Henan. 2) The interprovincial accessibility will have been improved under the network of "four vertical and four horizontal HSRs", and the quantity of inter-provincial economic linkage of cities mainly concentrates on the Changjiang River Delta, South China and the Bohai Sea Ring. The intensity of inter-provincial economic linkage is still very low among the cities along the railway and northeastern, northwestern and southwestern China, and the main linkage axis has not been formed. With the comparison of internal and external provincial accessibility and strength of economic linkage before and behind the completion of high-speed railway network, the necessity and significance of HSR are objectively demonstrated. The spatial orientation of regional economic development is identified clearly which is not only in favor of coordinating the contact and cooperation within zones or inter-zones, but also in favor of providing some references for the generation of regional development strategies.
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    东北地区经济增长效率及其时空分异研究
    杨威, 金凤君, 王成金, 丁金学
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (5): 544-550.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.05.544
    摘要   PDF (516KB)
    以1987~2008年东北地区市域面板数据为基础,通过对数型柯布-道格拉斯的随机前沿分析,对东北地区经济发展效率及其空间分异进行了研究。结果显示:东北地区平均经济增长效率偏低,经济增长主要依靠资本等要素驱动,技术贡献率较低,属粗放型经济增长模式。1987~2008年,平均经济增长技术效率不同,但相差不大;总体来看,1987~2000年呈上升趋势,从1987年的0.525增加到2000年的0.659;2001年以来,呈下降趋势,从2001年的0.620降低到2008年的0.474。1987~1990年、"八五"、"九五"、"十五"和2006~2008年等不同历史时期下,经济增长效率空间差异不同,1987~1990年,空间差异不显著,其它时期差异都显著,尤以"九五"时期最为显著;总之,大城市经济增长技术效率值较大,中等城市次之,小城市最小。对外开放水平、产业结构和人力资本等因素对经济增长效率具有促进作用,但政府一般预算支出对其具有一定的抑制作用。
    This paper uses a panel data set of 36 cities over the period of 1987-2008 and chooses the stochastic production frontier function on Cobb-Douglas production function to investigate the efficiency of economic growth in Northeast China. Then the temporal and spatial pattern of efficiency of economic growth is examined. The study shows that the average efficiency of economic growth has been low in Northeast China. The contribution of technical progress is rather low while the contribution of capital is high, so its development belongs to extensive economic growth pattern. Overall, the contribution of technical progress rose from 0.525 in 1987 to 0.659 in 2000, while it declined from 0.620 in 2001 to 0.474 in 2008. The spatial pattern of efficiency of economic growth is different in the different historical period. The difference in spatial pattern was not significant in 1987-1990, while it was significant during the Eighth Five-Year Plan Period (1991-1995), the Ninth Five-Year Plan Period (1996-2000), the Tenth Five-Year Plan Period (2001-2005) and the Early Eleventh Five-Year Plan Period (2006-2008), especially most in the Ninth Five-Year Plan Period (1996-2000). On the whole, the value of efficiency is high in large cities, medium in moderate cities and low in small cities. These factors have an important promoting effect on the efficiency of economic growth such as level of opening to the outside world, industrial structure and human capital, while government action causes the inhibition of the efficiency.
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    基于引力模型的安徽城市空间格局研究
    朱道才, 陆林, 晋秀龙, 蔡善柱
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (5): 551-556.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.05.551
    摘要   PDF (560KB)
    依据引力模型的原理,构建新型引力和断裂点公式,通过安徽省17个城市间引力值和断裂点距离的计算和分析,研究安徽省城市的空间格局,得出结论:安徽省内区域性城市群初步形成,合肥市已经成为区域中心城市,城市间锁定效应和屏蔽效应显现,城市发展偏心化以及城市分布东紧西松加剧。提出应建立一个以中心城市为主的城市空间格局,依托中心城市,实行联动发展,注重城市交通基础设施建设,强调政府在城市空间布局中的主导作用。
    With the development of industrialization and informatization, not only the cities have been in a giant change, but also its spatial pattern has experienced the complicated and profound change. Based on the hypothesis of closed features of urban systems and linear two-way flow between the elements of the cities, according to the theory of gravity model, this paper brings forward a formula of gravity and fracture point based on the analysis and calculation of gravity and fracture point of 17 cities in Anhui Province. This paper reaches a conclusion that there is a growing trend of urban agglomerations in Anhui Province, in which its capital city—Hefei has become a regional center. This research shows that the locking and shielding effects has emerged between the cities in Anhui Province, resulting in accelerating tendency of center-deviated and imbalance of spatial distribution in the development of cites in Anhui Province, in which there is a huge difference between the dense eastern parts and western parts. Furthermore, this paper deduces some enlightening guidance and makes some suggestions: 1) the center-city-based urban spatial pattern should be established; 2) relying on the center-city, the strategy implementation of coordinated and jointed developments should be put into practice as soon as possible; 3) the infrastructure construction, especially urban transport system, should be paid more attention to; and 4) the government should play a leading role in the future spatial development. In the near future, with the implementation of the series of strategic measures and improvement of transport facilities, urban system in Anhui Province is further improved to be more rational pattern of urban spatial patterns.
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    兰渝铁路辐射带经济空间差异研究
    罗君, 白永平, 张学斌
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (5): 557-562.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.05.557
    摘要   PDF (605KB)
    认识铁路辐射带经济发展的空间格局对制定相关发展规划、铁路带沿线产业合理布局具有重要意义。以兰渝铁路沿线120 km范围内的主要行政单元为研究对象,选取衡量经济发展的9个指标,运用主成分分析法揭示辐射带经济差异,同时运用GeoDa软件提供的空间分析方法揭示辐射带经济差异的空间特征。分析结果表明:① 辐射带经济发展水平存在显著差异,在地理空间上存在集聚性;② 铁路的重庆段为铁路经济发展的热点区,辐射带内除重庆外无二级节点城市引导经济发展,重庆的经济辐射能力随距离的增加呈现出明显的衰减效应。基于兰渝铁路辐射带经济空间分异的现状,提出了相应的发展对策。
    It is important to make an analysis on the spatial pattern of the railway economy, which plays a crucial role in making development planning and guiding the industrial distribution. The main counties, within the 120 km areas along the Lanzhou-Chongqing railway, are taken as samples, based on 9 economic indexes, whose spatial differences are analyzed by using SPSS. This article uses the spatial analysis provided by GeoDa to reveal the spatial characteristics of economic differences along the radiation belts. The result shows that there are great disparities within different economic levels, a big gap exists between the numbers of developed areas and undeveloped areas, and the range value of the general score is high. A Geo-spatial agglomeration exists within the study area, which is the developed regions adjacent to the developed regions, and vice versa. Chongqing is the only one "hot-spot" region of the entire railway economic belt, which has a strong capacity to promote the economic development, and with the distance far from Chongqing, and the economic radiation capacity tens a systematic decline. Lanzhou, another endpoint city, has a weak radiation capacity. There are no node cities to guide the economic development within the study area, except for the endpoint metropolitan areas, so the regional spatial structure displays a model of economic nucleus-cluster. Based on the status of the spatial differentiation of the railway, we find main factors to impact the economic disparities and then several countermeasures and suggestions are put forward, including that node cities should be found in the radiation belt in order to build a point-axis spatial structure, and infrastructure improvement and regional cooperation are necessary to promote the economic development.
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    城乡结合部的空间生产与黑色集群——广州M垃圾猪场的案例研究
    刘云刚, 王丰龙
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (5): 563-569.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.05.563
    摘要   PDF (910KB)
    空间的生产是当今西方的主流社会理论之一,也在逐渐成为解释中国城市空间开发现象的有效工具。但是,目前国内对空间生产理论的运用主要集中于资本和政府作用下的"强"空间生产。通过对广州M垃圾猪场的案例研究,探讨了制度结构和社会行动等宏微观要素对城乡结合部空间生产的综合作用,并展示了一个由农村进城移民所发起的"弱"空间生产案例。农村进城移民通过积极的区位战略、社会经营网络的营造实现了空间的占据和空间的生产,其背后则折射了户籍、土地、卫生等诸多转型期的制度漏洞。空间生产的结果是一个以农村进城移民为主体的产业和生活单元,即黑色集群的形成,该集群具有非正规乃至非法特征,在城市管理者的制度挤压下呈现发展的不稳定性。研究结果表明,对此类空间的治理必须首先基于综合的理解,而不是取缔或粗暴管制。
    "Garbage pigs", also named as "swill-pigs", are mainly raised with food waste in the urban-rural fringe, which is confined for the health problems. This paper gives some structured social spatial descriptions of how the farmers occupied the place and how the farm operated through semi-structured interviews and discourse analyses of M garbage pig farm in Tianhe District, Guangzhou, China. To have a better understanding of this phenomenon, the authors apply the theories of 'production of space’, which concerns the space as socially constructed by the capital flow, political power and social movements. We explain this phenomenon mainly from the micro-perspectives of 'production of space’, which is still underdeveloped in current researches and focuses on the weak social forces and peripheral regions of spatial production. Two processes of production of space are identified, named as territerialization and delocalization. The former is operated mainly through the selection and reconstruction of the secret and low-cost spatiality, during which this place is formed into an Ano-Tulou (similar to the structure of Tulou, a Hakka style castle) structure and self-reproduction landscapes owing to the social cooperation and self-organization; the latter is supported by the local social network and production association. The production chains are embedded in the social network, which facilitates the improvement of spatial mobility and also fuels the opposition movement and spatial occupation. Finally the pig farm becomes an undergrounded, illegal, dirty, secret and informal black cluster as a construct not only of the social action but also the institutional backgrounds such as the land use system, the Hukou system and sanitary surveillance. It is different from the existing concepts such as informal sector, urban village, ethnic enclave, gated community or migrant enclave. We conclude that the garbage pig farm in Guangzhou is a product of famers’ adaptive process of territerialization and scalar delocalization under the pressure of institutions and through the social actions including diverse micro-politics in M garbage pig farm, so it is hardly possible to evict the farmers just through violent erasion.
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    油田开发的生态经济补偿核算方法研究—基于吉林省乾安大情字井油田的实证研究
    孙世军, 严晓飞, 崔朋, 冯江
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (5): 570-575.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.05.570
    摘要   PDF (340KB)
    油田生态经济补偿机制的建立,是缓解油田开发与生态环境之间矛盾的重要途径之一。基于机会成本法等方法,引入经济学理论中的经济系数,建立油田生态经济补偿模型。以吉林省乾安大情字井油田为例,地区生态经济补偿应为182.95元/t,占石油价格的4.8%,反映该地区油田开发外部不经济的成本,属于油田开发单位可接受范围,同时基本可以达到当地居民、政府满意的程度。通过与其他成熟模型的对比验证,油田生态经济补偿模型应用灵活,补偿费用科学合理。
    The establishment of ecological and economic compensation mechanism of oilfield is to ease the contradiction between oilfield development and the ecological environment. Nowadays,the research on ecological compensation is the hot field. The ecological and economic compensation is an important topic. The paper took the petroleum resources as the research subject, and tried to take the research on charge policy of petroleum resources for ecological and economic compensation as the breakpoint, and then established ecological and economic compensation mechanism far-reaching in such field. The study area is Qian’an Daqingzi oil well, a representative petroleum resources region located at Jilin. Based on the data collected in the investigation,the paper estimated the eco-compensation standards that were suitable to the study areas. Based on opportunity cost, and economic theory, authors established the ecological and economic compensation model. The ecological and economic compensations are calculated, which should be 182.95 yuan(RMB)/t, accounting for 4.8% of oil prices. It can reflect the external economic cost of oilfield development in the region, which is acceptable in oilfield development, and it can almost meet the satisfaction of the local residents and the government. By comparison with other mature models, the model is flexible, scientific and reasonable compensation. In view of the systemic research on charge policy of ecological compensation in petroleum resources,this paper could provide us with some references in establishing the eco-compensation mechanism in mineral resources field.
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    基于产业协调的“双转移”战略背景下广东欠发达山区劳动力转移分析——以梅州市为例
    俞万源
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (5): 576-580.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.05.576
    摘要   PDF (503KB)
    运用产业结构偏离度和协同系数分析方法,以梅州市为例,从产业协调发展角度,分析"双转移"战略背景下欠发达山区劳动力转移特征。分析认为:欠发达山区实施"双转移"战略必须坚持承接产业转移与劳动力转移同步,并加速劳动力转移,"异地迁移、本地转移、异地回流"是产业转移背景下的欠发达山区劳动力转移新模式。提高劳动力转移能力、增强劳动力转移吸引力是加速欠发达山区劳动力转移的关键。
    The "industry and labour transfer" strategy is being implemented in Guangdong Province, China, and the labour transfer in less-developed mountainous areas in Guangdong will face a new challenge. Taking Meizhou City as an example, the paper studies the evolution and coordination characteristic of industrial and employment structure, and analyzes the labour transfer characteristic under the background, using the methods of industrial structure deviation degree and cooperative index. The results showed that, 1) less-developed mountainous area should develop industry transfer and labour transfer at the same time; 2) less-developed area should accelerate the labour transfer while taking the industry transfer; 3) labour migration, labour local transfer and labour return are the new labour transfer modes; and 4) it is helpful to improve the labour transfer ability and strengthen the labour transfer attraction for speeding up the labour transfer in less-developed mountainous area.
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    转型期长春市就业结构的空间分异
    陈春林, 梅林, 刘继生, 韩阳
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (5): 581-588.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.05.581
    摘要   PDF (799KB)
    在经济体制改革及产业空间重构初期,利用2000年第五次人口普查数据,以街道和乡镇为基本单位,运用因子生态分析和聚类分析方法研究了长春市这一老工业基地就业空间结构的特征。研究表明:① 处在特定历史条件下的长春市工、居分离现象并不明显;② 根据因子分析的结果,得到受教育水平、普通收入群体、外来人口比重、性别分化程度四个主要因子对2000年长春市就业空间结构影响较大;③ 运用聚类分析法将长春市划分为6大就业类型区:混合就业区、传统产业区、科技教育集中区、物流业集中区、以农业为主的远郊区、新兴产业集中区,并最终得出长春市就业结构的空间形态特征为:单核心、混合圈层式、综合扇形要素的空间结构模型。
    Taking the blocks and townships as the basic units, this paper focuses on the spatial pattern of employment structure of Changchun City in the transforming period, using the data of the fifth national population census in 2000 and employing the methods of Factor Analysis and Cluster Analysis. The author arrived some conclusions. Firstly, it is not obviously separated between residential area and working space at the given historical context. Secondly, based on the Factor Analysis, educational level, ordinary income groups, the proportion of non-native population and sex differentiation level are the main factors, which mostly influenced the employment's spatial pattern in Changchun. Thirdly, based on the results of Cluster Analysis, Changchun employment area can be divided into six types, which include mixed employment areas, traditional industrial areas, technology education concentration areas, logistics industry concentration areas, agriculture-based outer suburbs and emerging industry concentration areas. These employment areas make up three kind of spatial structure patterns, that are single-core pattern, circle-type hybrid pattern, and integrated fan-shaped sector pattern.
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    吉林省高新技术产业发展与经济增长关系的实证研究
    肖艳, 胡洋
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (5): 589-593.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.05.589
    摘要   PDF (295KB)
    高新技术产业发展是衡量一个地区科技进步水平,评价地方经济增长方式转变以及区域经济竞争能力的重要依据。首先介绍了协整理论基本原理,基于1995~2008年吉林省的GDP和吉林省高新技术产业总产值数据,利用Engle-Granger两步法基本原理,检验两列数据之间的协整关系,在此基础上得出吉林省高新技术产业产值与吉林省GDP之间具有长期稳定的均衡关系的结论,并提出在培育高新技术产业发展过程中应发挥政府的宏观引导和调控作用,用高新技术改造提升传统产业,提高自主创新能力,运用风险投资推动高新技术产业的发展,加强科技交流和贸易往来以及大力培养和引进高科技人才。
    High-tech industry development is an indicator to measure a regional scientific and technological progress, and an important basis for evaluating the changes in regional economic growth and economic competitiveness. Along with the economic competition intensifying, the role of high-tech industry is more and more important in the Chinese economy, as a result, it is becoming the pillar industries among socio-economic development. After development and accumulation in many years, Jilin Province's high-tech industry has grown into a competitive industry with a comparatively perfect system, obvious comparative advantage and strong leading role. It has become the important power to promote economic development of Jilin Province. The basic principles of cointegration theory were introduced. Then, based on the data of high-tech industrial output value and GDP of Jilin Province from 1995 to 2008, using Engle-Granger two-step principle, cointegration relationship between the two groups of data is tested. The conclusion is drawn that high-tech industrial output value and GDP of Jilin Province have a long-term stable equilibrium relationship. And the suggestions are proposed: 1) strengthening the capability of independent innovation; 2) actively enhancing core competitiveness of high-tech industry, and creating positive external environment of high-tech industry development; and 3) attracting and training high-tech personnel and taking other high-tech measures to promote the development of high-tech industries in nurturing the development process.
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    福建武夷山国家级自然保护区生态补偿机制研究
    陈传明
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (5): 594-599.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.05.594
    摘要   PDF (321KB)
    建立有效的生态补偿机制是自然保护区取得资源环境保护和社区社会经济发展的关键。利用文献调研法、问卷调查法、访谈法、利益相关者分析法、机会成本法和意愿调查法等,分析福建武夷山国家级自然保护区生态保护对社区的影响,从补偿主体、客体、标准、方式和途径等方面探讨福建武夷山国家级自然保护区生态补偿机制。研究结果表明,福建武夷山国家级自然保护区大部分社区居民对保护区的建立持赞同态度,这种态度受被调查者的教育程度、年龄和性别的影响;自然保护区的建立限制了社区社会经济的发展,使大多数社区居民收入减少,而社区居民没有得到相应的补偿;社区居民面临着资金不足、补偿措施不到位和缺乏致富技术等问题;确定了基于利益相关者分析和意愿调查的福建武夷山国家级自然保护区生态补偿的主体和客体;依据发展权限制的损失(包括退耕还林的机会成本、野生动物破坏造成的损失)、社区居民受偿意愿和受益者的支付意愿,制定了生态补偿的标准,明确了生态补偿的方式和途径。
    Establishing nature reserve is one of the most efficient approaches to conserve biodiversity and restore ecological service function,and the problems common concerned by research scholars,decision makers and communities are the influence of nature reserve on social economy and ecological protection, as well as how to coordinate the relationship between them. Establishing an effective ecological compensation mechanism is very crucial to resources environment protection and the development of the community’s social economy in a nature reserve. In this paper, the methods of documents investigation, questionnaire, interview, stake-holder analysis, opportunity cost and contingent valuation were used to analyze and discuss the influence of Wuyishan National Nature Reserve of Fujian on communities from some aspects, such as compensated institutes and objects, compensation standards, modes and ways. The results showed that 1) most community residents agreed to establish this reserve, which were influenced by the educational background, age and gender of the respondents; 2) establishing reserve limited the development of the community’s social economy, which lessened most community residents’ income, however, they did not obtain corresponding compensation; 3) community residents were faced with some problems such as capital scarcity, imperfect indemnifying measure and short of technology to get rich; 4) compensated institutes and objects in the reserve were ensured based on the stake-holder analysis and contingent valuation; 5) the compensation standards were enacted according to the loss result from the limitation of the right to development (including the opportunity cost of returning farmland to forestry, the loss resulted from wild animals), and the community residents’ willingness to accept as well as the beneficiary’s willingness to pray; and 6) compensation modes and ways were definite too.
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    地级以上城市土地利用结构特征及影响因素差异分析
    鲁春阳, 文枫, 杨庆媛, 张鹏飞
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (5): 600-607.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.05.600
    摘要   PDF (616KB)
    根据2007年地级以上城市的土地和社会经济数据,采用比较法、模型法和主成分法,分析其土地利用结构特征及影响因素。结果发现:①不同规模城市的居住用地、公共设施用地、工业用地、道路广场用地和绿地的比例差距明显,而仓储用地、对外交通用地、市政公用设施用地和特殊用地的比例差异较小;②随城市规模增大,居住用地、公共设施用地、工业用地比、道路广场用地的比例符合《城市用地分类与规划建设用地标准》(GBJ137-90)(以下简称《标准》)、《城市公共设施规划规范》(GB50442-2008)(以下简称《规范》)的程度呈上升趋势;③居住用地比例超出《标准》上限城市较多,且城市规模越小,超标比例越高;④中等规模以上城市的公共设施用地比例偏低,而中小城市公共设施用地比例偏高;⑤特大城市中工业用地比例超标城市数量较多,而中小城市低于《标准》下限的较多;⑥随城市规模增大,道路广场用地比例低于《标准》下限的城市所占比例降低;⑦地级以上城市中至少有1/3城市绿地比例不及《标准》下限;⑧城市规模越大,土地利用的多样化程度越高,土地利用类型越齐全,且土地利用结构多样性指数高的城市呈集聚状,呈现"群"状特点,土地利用结构均衡度递增,但优势度趋减;⑨经济因素、产业结构、交通设施水平和城市人口是影响土地利用结构的主要因素,但对不同规模城市的影响次序不同。
    According to the land and socio-economic data of cities at provincial level and above in 2007, using the methods of comparison model and principal component analysis, this paper analyses the characteristics and driving factors of urban land use structure. The results showed: 1) the difference of the proportion of residential land, commercial land and public facilities space, industrial land, road and green space is large, but that of the proportion of warehouse, transportation, municipal utilities is small; 2) with the increasing of city size, the proportion of residential land, commercial land and public facilities space, industrial land and road rise consistenting with the Chinese standard and specification; 3) the cities of residential proportion does not conform to standard mainly beyond the standard cap cities, and the smaller city size, the more serious exceeding the Classification of Land-use and Standards of Urban Construction Land (Standard for short); 4) the cities with low commercial land and public facilities space are with medium sizes above, but it is high in medium and small cities; 5) the proportion of industrial land mainly exceeds the "Standard" in megalopolis, while the cities of industrial land proportion lower than the "Standard" are mainly with medium and small sizes; 6) as city size increases, cities with lower proportion of road and green space than the "Standard" decreases; 7) the proportion of green space is less than "Standard "limit at least 1/3 cities at prefecture level and above in China; 8) the larger the city size, the higher the diversification and the more complete of land use; 9) the cities with higher land use diversity index take on the form of agglomeration; 10) as city size increases, the bigger the equilibrium degree, the lower the dominance degree; 11) the main driving factors of urban land use structure are economic factors, industrial structure, transportion facilities level and urban population, however, the impact order and impact degree on cities withdifferent sizes are different.
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    1977~2008年延吉市城市景观格局演变
    杜会石, 哈斯, 李明玉
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (5): 608-612.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.05.608
    摘要   PDF (441KB)
    以延吉市为研究对象,利用1977年、1986年1:5万地形图,1992年、2001年TM影像,2008年ALOS影像等5期多源数据,运用景观生态学原理,借助遥感和GIS技术,选取城市景观构成、平均斑块面积、斑块密度、斑块分形维数、景观分离度指数、多样性指数和均匀度指数等进行分析,揭示延吉市近31 a来城市景观格局演变及其驱动力。结果表明,延吉市景观格局从1977年到2008年间发生了较大的变化,耕地、建筑用地显著增加,林地、草地显著减少;城市分形维数、景观多样性和景观均匀度都呈增加趋势,景观格局变化受人为因素影响较大。人口增加、经济发展、城镇化和工业发展是延吉市景观格局演变的主要驱动力。
    The evolvement and driving forces of urban landscape pattern in Yanji City in the past three decades were explored based on the theory of landscape ecology and the technology of remote sensing and GIS, using the multi-source interpreted data of topographic maps in 1977 and 1986, Landsat TM images in 1992 and 2001, and ALOS image in 2008. The indices chosen are the structure of urban landscape, the average area of patches, patch density, fractal dimension, isolation index, landscape diversity and evenness index. Taking GIS as a platform to integrate and analyze data, the driving forces are summarized together with the development of Yanji City. The results show that, the landscape pattern in Yanji City changed greatly from 1977 to 2008. The area of cultivated land and built-up land increased, while grassland and woodland decreased. The urban landscape diversity, landscape fractal dimension and evenness index were all increased. The reason of urban landscape pattern change is mainly by human activity. The growth of population and economy together with industrialization and urbanization were main forces for urban landscape pattern evolvement in Yanji City. The results can provide scientific evidence for ecological landscape design and urban development planning in other regions.
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    中国入境旅游规模空间分布变化及因素分析
    陈刚强, 许学强
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (5): 613-619.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.05.613
    摘要   PDF (812KB)
    基于地市入境旅游人数和相关经济统计数据,运用基尼系数和主成份回归等分析方法,探讨了1999~2008年中国入境旅游规模空间分布和内部结构变化的规律及相关因素。结果表明,全国、三大地带和大部分省份的空间分布都属集聚型,但其集中性基本呈现下降趋势,且这种变化趋势体现在内部结构的变化上也有明显地一致性。进一步分析表明,总体上,不同规模等级和空间层次的空间分布不平衡程度越低,趋向分散的态势就越明显。这种空间分布变化与旅游发展条件的不断改善存在正的相关性。在各地区旅游业得到全面发展、旅游需求发生结构性变化的转型时期,经济发展、产业结构优化、对外经济开放度、市场发展和基础设施条件等因素对缩小地区入境旅游规模空间差异的作用日益凸现,旅游发展机制向多元化因素驱动转变。
    Based on the prefecture-level data of inbound tourism population and relative economic statistics, this paper investigates the evolution and its factors of the spatial distribution disparity and its interior structure of inbound tourism size in China using Gini coefficient and principal component regression model in 1999-2008. The conclusions are drawn as follows: 1) On the whole, the spatial disparity remains large but becomes smaller and smaller in China and the Three Zones in the past 10 years, and the evolutions of interior structure for the different sizes are consistent with its whole trend. On the other hand, as the sizes increase, the imbalance of spatial distribution is smaller, while the dispersive trend is more significant. 2) The change between the imbalance of spatial distribution and the dispersive trend remains samilar in different spatial levels. As a whole, the spatial disparity is largest in the Western Zone, and is smallest in the Middle Zone. While the dispersive trend is most significant in the Middle Zone, and is most inapparent in the West Zone. On the same time, the analysis on the provincial disparity and its evolution testify the above conclusions. Then the distribution type is presented based on the provincial disparity and its evolution. But the situation becomes slightly complicated. The spatial disparity is largest in the Eastern Zone when the size is above 10 000 person-time, and the dispersive trend is most significant in the Western Zone when the size is 200 000 person-time. 3) The positive relation is existed between the spatial distribution change of inbound tourist size and tourism development condition improvement. In the transition period of the holistic development of local tourism industry and the structural change of tourist demand, the influences of the factors, such as economic development, industry structure optimizing, the degree of economic open, market development and infrastructure construction and so on, are more and more significant for reducing the spatial disparity of local inbound tourism size, indicating that the mechanism of tourism development has been drived by multi-factors.
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    基于STSM的入境旅游流集散地域结构特征分析——以中国入境旅游六大典型区域为例
    李创新, 马耀峰, 郑鹏, 亢雄
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (5): 620-626.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.05.620
    摘要   PDF (705KB)
    构建入境旅游流空间转移态矩阵模型,基于入境旅游统计数据与抽样调查数据,在合理划定中国入境旅游典型区域的基础上,实证研究六大典型区域的入境旅游流空间转移态矩阵,探讨入境旅游流集散的地域结构特征。研究表明:入境旅游流在中国东部表现为"等级式"集散模式,在中国西部表现为"等级式"与"接触式"并存的集散模式;入境旅游流集散的地域空间集中性十分突出,且集聚源区域与扩散目的地区域呈现高度重合性,尤其六大典型区域之间的互动关联极其显著;中国入境旅游流集散地域空间的梯级差异化特征鲜明,整体呈现"东—西递进式"的发展格局。
    Owing to theory of competitive state, this paper constructs the spatial transferring state matrix of Chinese inbound tourism flows. With statistic data of inbound tourism as well as sampling information of inbound tourists in 1994-2008, it delimits six typical areas of Chinese inbound tourism reasonably. Afterwards, this paper evaluates spatial concentration state indexes as well as spatial diffusion state indexes of these areas to build models of spatial transferring state matrix. The results show that hierarchical transferring pattern exists in the eastern China while hierarchical transferring pattern and contagions transferring pattern coexist in the western China at the same time. Furthermore, the spatial concentricity of concentration and diffusion areas of inbound tourism flows is obvious because there is an outstanding coincidence of concentration areas and diffusion areas among those six typical areas. In addition, the interaction among those six typical areas' concentration areas and diffusion areas is significant. Moreover, the gradient character of regional structure of Chinese inbound tourism flows' concentration and diffusion is conspicuous. On the whole, the spatial transferring of inbound tourism flows shows a dynamic balance system that is westward oriented.
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    南岳衡山景区周边古镇乡村旅游开发探索
    谢莉, 杨载田
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (5): 627-633.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.05.627
    摘要   PDF (530KB)
    作为历史文化遗产的重要组成部分,古镇的旅游开发价值越来越受到人们的关注和重视。当旅游作为一种休闲方式已经成为人们的普遍行为时,应对作为历史遗产文化承载体的古镇进行有效保护,合理利用,对其进行旅游开发,使其发挥潜能,突出特色,打造品牌,成为乡村旅游发展新动力。南岳衡山景区周边古镇成群分布,且富有鲜明地域特色,应抓住湖南创建特色旅游名镇的契机,对周边古镇进行抢救性保护和有序开发,重点开发古镇乡村生态休闲产品,探索古镇乡村旅游发展的新路径。
    As an important part of historical and cultural heritage, ancient town contains plenty of culture meaning, history information, and high landscape aesthetic value, which makes it rare tourism resources, and attracts more and more attention to its tourism development. Along with the rapid development of China's tourism industry and tourism products, the ancient town's tourism grows increasingly. As a common leisure lifestyle, tourism serves as the carrier of historical heritage and culture, and the ancient towns should be reasonablely and effectively used for the tourism development to extend the potential, to build up public brand so as to be the new impetus for rural tourism development. Hengshan Mountain is one of the Five Famous Mountains and the first 5A class tourist attractions in China, and its tourists from domest and foreign are more than 400 million per year. However, under the conditions of the limited area of the scenic area and of Nanyue region, it is necessary to build the Big Nanyue Tourism Circle or Big Tourism Zone of Hengshan Mountain. There are large numbers of ancient towns around the Nanyue mountainous scenery with bright regional characteristics. The scenic area around the town as its resources has a unique feature to attract the tourists, which offers rural tourism development opportunities for the towns surrounding the Hengshan Mountain. So we should get hold of the opportunity to create a special tour for ancient towns in Hunan, to rescue their resources and take environment protection in the tourism development. It is important to develop the ancient towns with ecological and rural leisure products, and explore a new path for the development of rural tourism in the ancient towna.
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    区域旅游形象塑造中的人文要素分析——以黟县为例
    姚治国, 赵黎明
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (5): 634-640.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.05.634
    摘要   PDF (373KB)
    区域旅游形象是目的地核心吸引力,形象感知是影响旅游动机转化为旅游决策的关键因子。区域旅游形象构建过程中存在两个系统,一个是内生变量系统,一个是外生变量系统,目的地人文要素归属外生变量系统。目的地人文要素系统对旅游目的地认知形象、情感形象和最终形象均产生重要影响,影响机制为:① 信息来源影响形象感应;② 景区管理影响形象认知;③ 文化壁垒影响形象传播;④ 旅游服务影响形象记忆;⑤ 主客关系影响形象修正。
    The tourism destination image and perception is one of the hot points in research fields of tourism. The tourism image content is the most attractive point for destinations, and perceived tourism image is a key factor to convert travel motives to decision-making of tourism behavior. There are two systems in the process of regional tourism image building: one is endogenous variable system, and the other is exogenous variables system. Good humanistic factor is very important in the system of exogenous variables, which plays a key role in the process of destination image building including cognitive image, emotional image and overall image, and which has an important impact mechanism. 1) The source of information affects destination image perception. Tourists always response to the effective destination information, and tourism information range is wider, destination tourism image is more easy to be known. 2) The tourism destination management affects destination image recognition, the legal normative and regular management of tourism destination can make a good tourism image for all kinds of tourists, and a bad tourism management can bring a negative tourism image. 3) The cultural barriers affects destination image communication. Tourists have different cultural backgrounds compared with the local people, therefore, the image communication depended on how much cultural barriers existed in the process of travel. The mechanism of cultural barriers to tourism image building is to influence the spread of regional tourism image, if there is great cultural differences between tourists and hosts, the tourism cultural accessibility is small, culture spread and communication opportunity is less, the quality of experience will be not high; 4) The tourism services affect destination image memory. The comfortable tourism services improve the perception quality of tourism image and increase the revisit rate, instead, uncomfortable tourism services reduce the perception quality of destination tourism image. 5) The relationship between the host and tourist affects destination image modulation. A good relationship can optimize the destination tourism image, and a bad relationship can worsen primary destination tourism image.
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