城镇化问题是当代中国社会经济发展的综合性课题,是涉及到国民经济各部门如何协调发展,达到一个新的现代化和谐社会发展的根本问题;新型城镇化是中国城镇化健康稳定发展的基本保证,在当前的新形势下,探索中国新型城镇化理论与实践问题,具有重要的学术价值与实践意义。在过去一阶段,虽然城镇化推动了中国社会经济发展取得了巨大成就,并在城市现代化建设与城乡一体化方面也取得了惊人的发展,但在某个时期或一些地区,城镇化过速发展阶段,出现了无序的发展状态,大中城市边缘盲目扩展,水土资源日渐退化,生态环境遭受破坏,特别是有些政府决策人对城镇化的许多制约因素认识不足,甚至决策失误,导致了城市环境出现许多不安全、不舒适的问题。着重从地理空间与自然资源保护的角度,探索中国新型城镇化3个理论与实践问题：① 如何认知中国新型城镇化的基本特征与新的路径;② 在全球经济一体化形势下,如何构建新型城镇化的创新模式;③ 在新型城镇化实施过程中,如何认识中国城镇化本身的发展规律,走具有中国特色的新型城镇化道路。
Issue of urbanization is a comphrensive subject which is related to harmonious development of each department of national economy and building a harmonious society. New urbanization is the guarantee of healthy and stable development of urbanization. The research work of the thesis has higher academic meaning and practical value. Urbanization promoted social and economic development of China in the past decades. But some problems arised in the process of urbanization in some areas, such as the rapid pace and disordered state of development, the blind expansion on the edge of cities, degradation of land and water resources, destruction of the ecological environment, and many unsafe, uncomfortable problems in urban environment.From the geographical space and natural resource conservation point of view, this article focuses on three theoretical issues. 1) How to have a good understanding of the basic characteristics and realizing route of new urbanization; 2) How to build a innovation model of new urbanization; 3) In the process of implementing new urbanization, how to understand the development law of China's urbanization, and to take a new road of urbanization with Chinese characteristics.
Urban region is an important spatial organization form of economic globalization and regional integration trends. Functional polycentricity is the most essential features and the most critical stage of evolution to city region. In the flowing space and urban network theory, functional polycentricity study of urban regions can unfold from intercity functional connection with quantitative measurement and qualitative analysis approaches. In this article, the Zhujiang River Delta urban areas for the study, we carry on the discussion to the functional polycentricity of the Zhujiang River Delta region based on the data of intercity rail traffic flow. Research shows that, intercity rail traffic flow functional relation of the region has a high level of functional polycentricity of the Zhujiang River Delta which include in the middle and upper levels of typical cities or regions in the world. With the measurement and analysis of functional polycentripolycentriccity for the eastern and western wings, it shows that there lacks seffective intercity rail transportation contact between eastern and western wings, which has a serious negative impact on thefunctional polycentricity of the Zhujiang River Delta. The functional polycentricity development of the Zhujiang River Delta has entered the centrifugal stage. Along with the development of the intercity rail transit construction and regional integration, the region of the multifunctional center will tend to be mature.
Urban spatial structure is a hot topic in the urban geography and urban economy research. Theoretically, the evolution and mechanism of the urban spatial structure is affected by multiple factors, such as competition, rental, governor and relations of production, et al. Chinese scholars usually focus on the single factor influence in the urban spatial structure evolution and mechanism studies, and the connection between the factors and spatial has been ignored. Thus, according to reconstructing the model of “special events”, logically combining the urban spatial structure and factors affecting the urban development to understand the dynamic mechanism of the spatial structure evolution of Tianjin City in this article. Special event is the breakthrough point. Firstly, classifying the special events in different historical periods of spatial evolution in Tianjin into seven factors: spatial event, economy policy, urban development policy, urban planning, infrastructure, land system and housing system. They decide the economic development, industrial structure, urban development scale, urban distribution, spatial development trend, land use efficiency and house estate type and distribution, respectively. Secondly, according to the analyze the influence of special event in different historical periods to Tianjin spatial evolution in each factor, figured out the role of special events in the Tianjin spatial structure evolution. Finally, the development of Tianjin spatial structure in the future was predicted.
Scientific evaluation of Marine ecosystem sustainable development ability is an important basic to grasp accurately whether healthy development of Marine ecosystem or not. In the Marine economy sustainable development concept, the sustainable development of Marine ecosystem is a foundation, and of great significance for human development. However, as the global population increases and an increase in the demand for resources, the Marine resources excessive consumption, and water eutrophication and serious consequences such as ecological variation, Marine ecosystems are under great pressure. Therefore, how to determine scientifically whether Marine ecosystem health development or not, has become an important problem under Marine economy sustainable development target. Large Marine ecosystem is an open system, which has the general characteristics of complex systems, such as open, dynamic, metabolic and adaptive. Marine ecosystem exchanges energy with the outside world, whose structure changes with the external disturbances and internal fluctuation change, and is a dynamic and stable ordered structure with a strong vitality. It has not only different pattern in the space and function, also shows a succession stage on time. Marine ecological system conforms to the characteristics of dissipative structure, and the change process shows the dissipative structure system characterized by the entropy change. The evaluation index system of sustainable development ability of Marine ecosystem was founded based on the characteristics of Marine ecosystem and understanding of Marine ecosystem sustainable development connotation. The sustainable development ability assessment model for Marine ecosystem was built up based on information entropy. The information entropy theory is based on probability and numerical statistics. Entropy in this article is a quantitative description of Marine ecosystem state, to evaluate Marine ecosystem sustainable development ability and the trend. Thus it analyzed various indexes' impacts on the sustainable development ability of Marine ecosystem. By establishing a model based on support input entropy, pressure output entropy, consumption metabolism entropy and restore metabolic entropy model , the evaluation for China's Marine ecosystem sustainable development ability was explored, so as to accurately grasp the Marine ecosystem health development, further to provide the references for government's guideline, and then put forward some countermeasures to promote Marine ecosystem sustainable development. The main conclusions of this study could be summarized as follows: 1) the requirements of Marine ecosystem on the natural ecosystem continuously grew; 2) under the attention of state and government, Marine pollution problems have been improved, and Marine ecosystem moves towards orderly and healthy direction; 3)the ability of the natural ecosystem to support continuously showed an increasing trend, and Marine ecosystem sustainable development ability was on the rise as a whole.
With the fast development of the national economy, the ecological pressures caused by economic development are continuously increasing. So it is necessary to make quantitative analysis for the status of China's resource consumption in the course of economic development. In order to scientifically evaluate the service and support capacity provided by regional ecosystem for economic and social development, the theory of ecosystem services was introduced to evaluate quantitatively resource consumption and the green GDP. Based on above-calculated values, the model of the ecological load intensity was established. In this article, taking 31 provincial districts in China as the samples(Hongkong, Macau and Taiwan excluding), the values of resource consumption and environmental loss costs for all provincial districts were firstly calculated by using ecosystem service values according to the interrelated data from 2001 to 2012. The green GDP for all provincial districts was further gained by combining the annual values of GDP. Moreover, the ecological load intensity for all provincial districts from 2001 to 2012 was computed in China. On the basis of above-mentioned issues, the Exploratory Spatial Data Analysis combined with GIS was used to study the temporal changing tendency and the spatial distributing characteristics of the ecological load intensity for all provincial districts since 2001. Furthermore, the spatial cluster and difference was analyzed and the corresponding influence factors were discussed. The above results showed that the values of resource consumption and environmental loss costs for all provincial districts were increasing yearly from ￥16.83×1012 in 2001 to ￥25.24×1012 in 2012. Meanwhile, the ecological load intensity for all provincial districts was decreasing yearly from 1.551 to 0.446. From 2001 to 2012 the ecological load intensity existed some spatial cluster and difference, however, the spatial cluster was appearing a weakening tendency with the time. The distribution of the ecological load intensity had a positive correlation characteristics, which meant that there existed a spatial cluster feature. The regions with HH (high-high) correlation pattern were mainly located in the west where resources were relatively rich. The regions with LL (low-low) correlation pattern were mainly located in the east where the economy was relatively developed. The spatial difference of the ecological load intensity exhibited mainly in the middle regions which had a negative correlation characteristics with circumjacent regions. The regions with negative correlation pattern had been increasing to 11. The ecological load intensity in these regions had an obvious diffusing tendency and ecological benefits were spilling over toward surrounding regions. In the future, it is still necessary to continuously advance and promote functional region programming, adjust area industry structure, check the performance of regional government, and so on. Some measures should be taken to gradually enhance utilization efficiency of resources, lower environmental loss costs and improve economic development quality.
The Sanjiang plain reclamation area of Heilongjiang Province is the largest continuously arable area and the third-largest interregional commodity grain supply base of China. Recently, with the acceleration of regional industrialization and urbanization, the Sanjiang plain reclamation area faces challenges such as how to choose and construct regional central cities to build a reasonable urban system and promote the local urbanization process. Hence, the article focuses on choosing central cities in the Sanjiang plain reclamation area of Heilongjiang Province. The research content includes the following parts. Firstly, this research uses the modified gravitational model to calculate the spatial linkage capacity of the 24 county-level units (including 20 counties and 4 reclamation bureaus) to identify the hinterland delimitation of each county-level unit. Secondly, based on the former result, this article further studies the spatial structure features of each reclamation bureau by measuring the metropolitan fragmentation index. Thirdly, this article suggests that Jiansanjiang, Hulin, Fujin, Youyi and Mishan etc can be cultivated as potential central cities of each reclamation bureau. Last but not the least, in order to promote the urbanization process of the Sanjiang plain reclamation area, this research proposes that the Sanjiang plain reclamation area should improve the comprehensive strength of central cities, strengthen the cooperation relationship between state farms and local governments, and deepen the local opening-up degree.
Criticizing the classical world city theories as “presentism”, the historical studies of world cities have become emerging research subjects in this new century. Although many researches have examined the spatial transformation of world cities in a “long-term” perspective, few lights are shed on the cultural, social and political elements. Using the historical materials, such as maps, literatures and reports, this article chooses Dongshan, a well-known historical district in the east side of Guangzhou, as a case, and attempts to rediscover its spatial transformation in globalization at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries. It finds that, in the historical period, the transformation of Dongshan, from village to residential area of bureaucratic elites, extends the urban area sharply and changes the spatial structure of the whole city. Four kinds of dynamics are identified and integrated as a special model in promoting the spatial transformation: 1) The Christianity, as the beginning one, invests in the district first and provides medical and educational facilities to returnees and bureaucratic elites; 2) The oversea Chinese, as the basic one, chooses to dwell here and provides capital to the Christianity and governmental projects; 3) The government, as the guiding one, promotes modern urban planning to reshape the space and plays as a policy constitutor. Its permissions for mission work and encouragement in investment from overseas Chinese are crucial for the former two dynamics; 4) The bureaucratic elites build houses here and finally create the image of the district as a prosperous place. The story of Dongshan could challenge the classical world city theories in three aspects: 1) It provides a Chinese case to prove the importance of historical views again; 2) Not just global economic links, the global cultural factors, such as the Christianity, the cultural links between overseas Chinese and homeland, could also promote urban developments. The economic variable is not as decisive as Friedmann argues; 3) Especially in Chinese cities, the role of government and bureaucratic elites are important, but neglected in classical theories. Influenced by the classical theories, most of the historical studies on world cities still focus on the economic factors, this article attempts to argue that, non-economic factors, including cultural, social and political ones, should be involved in future analysis.
The land use change has profoundly impact on biodiversity and ecological processes, and is closely related to the change of the rural and urban landscape pattern. As the driving force of land use, the theory of land economic niche was used to analyze the rural and urban landscape pattern in this article, with an aim to provide some new methods for the characterization and representation of landscape pattern. The typical parameters of landscape pattern including fragmentation index and fractal dimension were selected, and the software Envi 4.8(RS), Arcmap 10.0(GIS) and Fragstasts 4.1 were used, to discuss the relationship between the land economic niche, also its change, and the urban and rural spatial landscape pattern in Huizhou City, Guangdong Province. Results showed that the changes of different landscape land area corresponded well with those of land economic niche, when the land economic niche increased, the corresponding landscape land area also increased and vice versa. The smaller the land economic niche was , the bigger the fragmentation and fractal dimension index were. Meanwhile, the changes of fragmentation index and fractal dimension index corresponded well with that of land economic niche, where the land economic niche increased, the fragmentation index and fractal dimension index increased correspondingly and vice versa. The change of urban and rural space landscape pattern occurred mainly in areas with high land economic niche. The land economic niche is an important factor affecting the change of landscape pattern in urban and rural areas. The variance of the land economic niche can well explain the urban and rural spatial landscape pattern characteristics.
在人海关系地域系统的基础上提出了人海经济系统的概念,在此基础上对辽宁沿海地区人海经济系统进行研究。采用熵值系数法进行权重赋值,建立脆弱性与敏感性、恢复性函数关系,并对其进行评价。结果表明：① 从脆弱性结果分析来看,1996~2009年辽宁沿海地区人海经济系统脆弱性逐年降低,并从极强脆弱型发展为弱脆弱型;② 1996~2009年敏感性指数呈现多个“倒U”型连续波动;③ 1996~2009年,恢复性指数呈现逐年增长的趋势。海洋产业增加值逐年增加,海洋油气产业发展出现波动性的变化,海洋捕捞产量得到了一定程度的控制,海洋产业结构进行了一定程度上的调整,为加快新兴产业发展起到了重要的作用。
Vulnerability of human-sea system is a research frontier in regional sustainable development. Vulnerability analysis is not only an effective tool in the realms of global environmental change and sustainability science, but also provides a new paradigm for the study of interaction mechanisms and processes of coupled human-land system. Studies carry out in human-sea system are of significance to not only the enrichment of the theories of human-land system, but also marine sustainable development. Based on human-sea system theory, combined with the theory of geography, economics and oceanography, the vulnerability framework to search the vulnerability of human-sea economic system is the focus in sustainable development of global marine, key process and dynamical mechanism. Vulnerability is considered as functional relationships between sensitivity and coping ability, this article, by constructing a vulnerability assessment model of entropy theory and function model, carries out a vulnerability research of the human-sea economic system in Liaoning regional area. Human-sea economic system studies the structure characteristics and rules of evolution in geographical space within the scope of the marine industry, and it contains a combination of various factors in sea and land which includes the regional, comprehensive, coordinated and sustainable features. It shows that: 1) the vulnerability of Liaoning coastal area in human-sea economic system declined year by year from 1996 to 2009, and from the strong vulnerability to weak one. 2) from the sensitive indexes, it showed a trend of “inverted U”. The junctions of the "inverted U" happened in 1999, 2001, 2004, and in 2006. Since 2006, the proportion of ocean GDP declined year by year. 3) from the coping ability indexes, it showed the steady grow. The added value of Marine industry increased year by year, offshore oil and gas industry development change by volatility, and marine fishing production get control in degree. In addition, the structure of Marine industry had some adjustment, and sped up the development of new industry. In the development of marine industry, marine chemical products production, shipbuilding and transportation are all important. So we can reduce the vulnerability of human-sea economic system from these aspects. Human-sea system includes three subsystems that are human-sea resources environment subsystem, human-sea economic subsystem and human-sea society subsystem. The coupling analysis of these three subsystems is also important. Then it obtains the vulnerability characteristics and the countermeasures of sustainable development, and it is another research direction in the future.
In this article, we focus on the spatial distribution of pollution industries in the Pearl River Delta (hereinafter referred to as PRD) by using the panel data during the period of 2000-2010. Firstly, the temporal and spatial pattern of pollution industries was analyzed. The speed of pollution industry development shows as an “S” shape. Nonmetallic industrial enterprises, among others, have dramatically relocated to the non-PRD area from the PRD area. Within the PRD area, the spatial pattern of pollution industries have shifted, with Foshan and Guangzhou entering the first-tier while Shenzhen and Dongguan in the second. For different types of pollution industries, the spatial-temporal dynamics is more complex and intricate. Panel data model is further used to find out whether environmental regulation is related to the spatial distribution of pollution industries, and if so, which kind of environmental regulation is at work. According to Weber's industrial location theory, the model is built with the proportion of the pollution industries output to those in Guangdong Province as the dependent variable, and the independent variables consider factors that influence the spatial distribution of the pollution industries, such as capital, wage rate, transportation, agglomeration and environmental regulation. Among others, the variable of environmental regulation is the focal one for our investigation, the proxy of which is four different indicators, namely the ratio of sulfur dioxide emissions to the provincial average value, the ratio of industrial waste water to the provincial average value, the utilization rate of solid waste, and the year of getting the award for the model city for environmental protection. The results show that higher level of sulfur dioxide emissions, which indicates looser regulative control on air pollution, boosts the agglomeration of pollution industries, while the other variables for environmental regulation do not demonstrate significant impact. In what follows, we bring the ratio of sulfur dioxide emissions to the average as the single variable for environmental regulation into the sector-specific panel data model, and discovers that the spatial distribution of pollution industry sector such as nonmetallic industry, water and electricity gas industry and paper-making industry are significantly influenced by environmental regulation, while other industries such as ferrous metal industry and chemical industry are unaffected by the environmental regulation. This result shows that China's energy saving and emission reduction policy which includes the sulfur dioxide emission reduction targets do work for the heavily air-polluting industries. Finally, the article concludes with the following two points concerning the mechanism of environmental regulations for the location of pollution industries. 1) Environmental regulation has been an important location factor in China, inasmuch as the local governments hope to upgrade the local industries with the help of environmental regulations under the context of fiscal decentralization. 2) The impact of environmental regulations on industry location depends not only on the industry character, but in the Chinese context also on the regulative means aimed for specific environmental goals.
The rapid growth of urban population in China, together with the dramatic institutional transition, has led to the fast spreading of urban space and a growing tendency of residential suburbanization. Remarkable environmental changes have taken place in urban China, with large suburban residential areas emerging in big Chinese cities. As often observed in urban China, the dwelling environment of suburban areas is distinct from downtowns with less job opportunities and insufficient facilities, resulting in longer distance in daily trips and disadvantages in residents′ accessibility. For the female population particularly, despite more engagement in labor market and possibility of economic independency thanks to the improvement of women′s status in the past decades, most of them keep taking responsibility for domestic duty resulting from the traditional family value, and thus suffer more challenges in daily life in the context of dramatic urban sprawl compared with the male counterpart. Few studies have addressed the gendered activity pattern in suburban China, urging for attempts to reveal the gender inequity and the ignorance of women′s wellbeing in the development of suburban areas.This study based on a GPS-based activity-travel survey in Beijing in 2012, applies a time-geographic research framework and a feminist perspective to explore the activity pattern and day-to-day variability in activity-travel behavior of suburban women in both spatial and temporal dimensions as an attempt to reveal the gendered activity space in suburban China. Emphasis is put on daily rhythms and time allocation of activities based on the activity-travel diaries, and GIS-based activity space based on the standard confidence ellipse analysis of GPS data. On the one hand, in the aspect of time, it is observed that the daily life of the suburban women tends to be regular, diversified and fragmental in terms of time use. On weekdays specifically, working activities constitute a dominant part in time allocation, and the participation of shopping, housework, travel and leisure activities is relatively fixed with insignificant variation from Monday to Thursday and a slight augmentation in housework activities on Friday; while on weekends, housework and leisure activities constitute a greater part in time use, and less time is allocated to trips on Sunday compared with Saturday. On the other hand, in the aspect of space, it is found that the majority of the suburban female residents are employed in the inner suburban areas, and most of the non-work activities take place in suburb with an exception of shopping activities on weekends. It could be concluded that the suburban areas in Beijing, while being gradually shifting from dwelling space to living space for suburban female residents, still need further promotion in job opportunities and shopping facilities. The results from the study shed light on the weekly space-time behavior pattern of suburban female residents, and provide beneficial implications for spatial planning and infrastructure construction in the suburban areas addressing the gender equity and women′s quality of life.
以南京市高淳区东坝镇土地整治项目为实验区,基于格局-过程-效应的视角,运用最小累积阻力模型分析土地整治对生态连通性的影响及生态格局优化途径。结果显示：① 从景观格局看,土地整治后生态景观破碎度降低,集聚度上升,较整治前更规整,但景观优势、空间连接度和多样性指数下降,不利于整个生态系统的自组织能力与可持续发展;② 从景观过程看,土地整治后原有的生态廊道被侵占和阻断,景观生态服务功能和强度均弱化。③ 从景观效应看,土地整治后生态功能连通性降低,生态流阻隔,形成明显的3个“生态孤岛”。因此,研究区在整治过程中需注意保护东-西方向生态流迁移关键通道和南-北方向、西南-东北方向辅助通道的畅通,努力优化整治区生态格局。
China has witnessed an explosive rise in the demand for construction lands in recent decades in conjunction with its rapid urbanization and industrialization.This intensifies the contradictions between construction land expansion and arable land protection. Fortunately,land consolidation has been proposed and carried out since 1990s, which made the aforementioned situation better. Meanwhile, it seems to yield many new issues on ecology which might be side-effect.As it is accepted that land consolidation is an artificial transformation of land ecological system, which can not only change the composition and structure of ecological land, but deeply affect the material cycling, energy flow and ecological process of landscape elements.Therefore, itchanges the connectivity and function of ecological land. From the perspective of pattern-process-effect, a case study of land consolidation project in Dongba Town, Gaochun District,Nanjing was analyzed for the impact of land consolidation on ecological connectivity and its pattern optimization based on the minimum cumulative resistance model which would be called MCR model hereafter. Whereas attempts for MCR model has been made for many realms such as ecological security assessment, urban growth boundary definition, landscape pattern optimization, etc., few such spatially explicit MCR model for land consolidation impact has been devised. The analysis might provide an alternative and quantitative perspective of this field and subsequently deepen understanding of the fact that in which way and to which extent land consolidation alters the ecological connectivity. The results showed that: 1) With regards to landscape pattern, the ecological landscape fragmentation decreased from 1.32 to 1.19 while the aggregation index increased from 97.78 to 98.13 during land consolidation. This suggests that more regular ecological patches. However, the landscape dominance index, space connectivity and diversity index declined, which could indicate unfavorable impact on the ability of self-organization and sustainable development of the whole ecosystem. 2) With regards to landscape process, the original ecological corridors were occupied and blocked after land consolidation landscape, making the ecological service function and service strength weakened. It was mainly attributed to the losses of pit-ponds as well as canals which were crucial channels for energy flow, material cycling and exchange. 3) With regards to landscape effect, ecological functional connectivity reduced after land consolidation as the mean of regional resistance value ascended from 498.16 to 761.35 and the maximum increased from 7389.21 to 8987.28. A threshold value of 927 according to the natural break point was employed to pick out the hotspots of connectivity reduction area. As a consequence, it is salient to see the formation of three "ecological islands", more explicitly indicating where the ecological flow was blocked much. Therefore, much more attention should be paid to protect the key channel and auxiliary channels for ecological flow to optimize the ecological pattern.
利用2008年锦州玉米农田生态系统野外观测站资料对CoLM与BATS1e模型模拟能力进行定量评价。比较发现： 两模型对净辐射和表层土壤温度的模拟精度都较高且差异不大,CoLM模型对感热、潜热、土壤热通量、次表层土壤温度模拟能力都不同程度高于BATS1e模型,模拟值对实测值解释能力分别偏高3%、22%、1%、10%,NS (Nash-sutcliffe效率系数)分别偏高1.042、0.266、0.023、0.138。从各月情况看,两模型在7月对感热、潜热模拟能力都较高,而在其它月份CoLM模型模拟精度明显高于BATS1e模型,土壤热通量和次表层土壤温度在5~8月前者模拟精度高于后者。由于CoLM模型对潜热更高精度的模拟可证明其对表层土壤湿度模拟精度高于BATS1e模型。
Using observations data in 2008 from Jinzhou Agricultural Ecosystem Research Station, land surface process models performance between CoLM and BATS1e were evaluated and compared. The results show that net radiation and surface soil temperature are both able to be accurately simulated with a very small difference between the two models. Model performance of CoLM is higher in different degrees than BATS1e for simulations of sensible, latent, soil heat fluxes and subsurface soil temperature with interpreting ability of simulations to observations and Nash-sutcliffe coefficient of efficiency factor of the former being 3%,22%,1%,10% and 1.042,0.266,0.023,0.138 higher than those of the later, respectively. As far as every month is concerned, simulation precisions of sensible and latent heat fluxes in most months except July when two models work very well as well as soil heat fluxes and subsurface soil temperature from May to August are higher for CoLM than BATS1e. Besides, it will be proved that Model performance of CoLM for simulation of surface soil water content is also higher than that of BATS1e because of its more accurate simulation for latent heat flux.
以长白山北坡林线长白落叶松（Larix olgensis）和岳桦（Betula ermanii）为研究对象,通过野外样方调查、树轮技术分析,采用趋势线模型拟和、单因素方差等统计方法从各种参数分析长白落叶松和岳桦径向树高生长的对比关系并揭示2个种群动态对环境适应性的对比差异。结果显示：垫状生长形的长白落叶松海拔最高（均值：2 017 m）,其次为旗形树（2 005 m）,正常形态的海拔最低（1 992 m）,所在生境差异显著（p < 0.05）。正常形态的长白落叶松生长速度大于岳桦（树高方程斜率：长白落叶松0.750 9>岳桦0.253 6）,随着旗形树的出现,速度相似（斜率：长白落叶松0.375 4>岳桦0.253 6）,变成垫状后,岳桦占优。长白落叶松受到压制种群扩张速度不如岳桦,长白山林线上侵表现为以岳桦种群为主力,长白落叶松仍是岳桦主要的伴生树种。
The aim of this article is to understand the different responses between Laris olgensis and Betula ermanii to environment adaptability on north slopes treeline of the Changbai Mountains. The alpine treeline is regarded as highly sensitive and a potential indicator of environmental change and it has thus become one of the hotspots of environmental change research. Most researches on treeline dynamics have been conducted at a population scale, and there have been comparatively few studies of treeline dynamics at multi-population. In this study, treeline dynamics were analyzed at two populations in the Changbai Mountains by examining the change in relationship between two population’s dynamics and the environment. The treeline of the northern slope of the Changbai Mountains was selected as the study area. Data source was obtained by field investigation and tree-ring analysis. The altitude differences of three growth forms (general tree, flag tree and cushion) of Laris olgensis were revealed by half-peak width, mean ± standard deviation, and One-way ANOVA. DBH (diameter at breast height) of each tree (Laris olgensis and Betula ermanii) was measured by measuring tape (precision: 0.1 cm) and 142 cores were taken from the living trees in plots. The ages of the sampling trees were known using tree-ring and the age-class (DBH) regressions were created to estimate ages of all trees in the plots. The annual stem recruitments of Laris olgensis and Betula ermanii populations were calculated based on field investigations. The difference of growth rates between Laris olgensis and Betula ermanii was understood by assessing differences in the slopes of trend lines and paired-samples T test. The different responses to environmental change between Laris olgensis and Betula ermanii were evaluated using mathematical models. The results showed that cushion growth form of Laris olgensis situated in the highest habitat, followed by flag tree and general tree in the lowest habitat. There were significant differences among three habitats of growth forms of Laris olgensis (p<0.05). The growth velocity of diameter and height growth of Laris olgensis with general growth form was higher than that of Betula ermanii. The difference was not significant between Laris olgensis and Betula ermanii when Laris olgensis changed flag tree. However, Laris olgensis was lower than Betula ermanii when it changed cushion growth form. Population expansions of Laris olgensis and Betula ermanii were very obvious as temperature increase. Expension velocity of Laris olgensis was lower than that of Betula ermanii because it was pressed by Betula ermanii. The growth velocity of all growth forms of Laris olgensis was lower than that of Betula ermanii when tree ages were less than 13 years. Treeline shift was caused mainly by population expansion of Betula ermanii. Laris olgensis was still main accompanying tree specie of Betula ermanii. However, Laris olgensis may become pure forest when Betula ermanii was cut down in quantity.
Rainfall in most parts of China laid monitoring sites scarce and unevenly distributed, especially in large areas of rainfall monitoring and forecasting inaccuracies phenomenon exists. Using GIS technology to Dujiangyan City, as the study area, combined with the altitude variation of rainfall and measured rainfall data, the initial establishment of rainfall variation with altitude quadratic formula and the corresponding contour turning inflection point rainfall layers, refer to the contrast from define the matrix point layer generated rainfall forecast rainfall raster effects, and finally the development of mountain plains based on the AE transition zone land ecological security early warning system, based on the layer contour inflection point rainfall rainfall grid dynamically generated in the study area as part of the system under dynamic monitoring of early warning indicators module's main index factors, has initially solved the rainfall monitoring sites in the study area few cases, the region and the local visualization forecast rainfall forecasting accuracy is not high, effectively improve the accuracy of rainfall forecasts intuitive.
Chagan Lake wetland is an important ecological barrier of the western Jilin Province. Analyzing the evolutional characteristics of the water environment will provide a scientific basis for the protection of the water environment security. The evolvement of water environment was comprehensively studied through analyzing the water level data from 1982 to 2011 and the water quality data in 1985-2011. Carlson trophic state index (TSI) and the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method were used to assess the eutrophication level and the water quality. The results showed the water level was recovered and stabilized at 129.8-130.3 m after the operation of the channel transferring water from Songhua river to Chagan Lake. Water salinization, eutrophication, organic pollution were mitigated and the water environment improved considerably in the late 1980s, but the trend of alkalization and organic pollution has became serious since 2006 and the water quality evolved from Ⅲ category to IV category. The trend of eutrophication has been relieved since 2006. Agriculture drainage has relieved the water salinization and hasn't aggravated the level of eutrophication in Chagan Lake temporarily. The water quality of Chagan Lake is accross-affected by terrestrial emissions in the catchment, endogenous releases and hydrological regimes and exhibits a remarkable phosphorus limited middle nutrition. Sewage and animals' feces pollution should be controlled to protect the water environment health.