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  • 地理科学
      2017年, 第37卷, 第10期 刊出日期:2017-10-20 上一期    下一期
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    精准扶贫视角下中国东北农村贫困地域性特征及成因
    王士君,田俊峰,王彬燕,程利莎,杜国明
    地理科学. 2017, 37 (10): 1449-1458.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2017.10.001
    摘要   HTML   PDF (676KB)

    基于结构性问卷,采用入户访谈及问卷调查的方法,解析中国东北地区农村贫困空间格局与地域性特征,并对区域内部典型农村贫困区贫困问题的形成机制进行探讨与解构。研究认为: 东北地区农村贫困人口与贫困县集中分布在大兴安岭南麓和黑、吉、辽三省与内蒙古东部交界地区以及中俄、中朝边境地区,形成东、西两大片区,西部片区呈带状自北向南延伸,东部片区内存在两个团块状贫困人口集聚区,整体表现出“大集聚,小分散”的空间分布特征。 区域内部存在5个农村贫困高发区,分别为中俄北部边境贫困高发区、中俄东部边境贫困高发区、松嫩平原贫困高发区、西部贫困高发区、中朝边境贫困高发区;农村贫困发生率“北高南低,西低东高”的特征明显。农村贫困群体以中老年人为主,文化水平整体较低,吃穿与医疗保障问题突出;罹患疾病以及耕地不足、耕地利用率低是导致东北地区农村贫困的主因,发展现代农业和外出务工是消除贫困的重要途径。 区域内部存在西部农牧交错区、东部边境山地朝鲜族聚居区、东部平原与丘陵过渡区三大典型农村贫困区,西部农牧交错区农村贫困问题的产生主要受农业生产结构单一、农产品市场价格下行、农户自身思想认识落后、基础设施建设滞后、区域自然生态条件不利等多种因素的协同影响;东部边境山地朝鲜族聚居区农村贫困问题主要由劳动年龄人口的持续性外流所引发的系列效应导致;东部平原与丘陵过渡区农村贫困问题的出现主要受地理位置偏远、地形复杂导致自然灾害多发、耕地资源不足的影响。


    Based on the structured questionnaires, this article uses the methods of questionnaire investigation and interview to analyze the spatial pattern and regional characteristics of rural poverty in Northeast China, and then the formation mechanism of poverty problems in the typical rural poor areas is discussed and deconstructed. The main conclusions are as follows. 1) The rural poor population and poor counties in Northeast China are centrally distributed in the southern piedmont region of the Da Hinggan Mountains, the provincial boundaries between three provinces and the eastern part of Inner Mongolia, and the border areas of Sino-Korean and Sino-Russian. At the same time, there are 2 major poverty areas in the east and the west: the west area extends from north to south in a belt, and two mass poverty population concentrated areas are in the east area. On the whole, the poor population shows the spatial distribution characteristics of “big agglomeration and small dispersion”. 2) There are 5 high incidence areas of rural poverty in Northeast China, including the northern and eastern border of Sino-Russian, the Songnen Plain, the west, and the border areas of Sino-Korean. The incidence of poverty is high in the north and east, low in the south and west. 3) The poor are mainly consisted in the middle-aged and elderly people with a low educational level. At the same time, their food and clothing and medical security problems are severe. Disease, lack of cultivated land and low utilization rate of cultivated land, are the main causes of rural poverty in Northeast China, thus developing modern agriculture and going out to work are important ways to eliminate poverty. 4) In Northeast China, there are 3 typical rural poverty areas: the farming and pastoral transitional zone of the western region, Korean nationality community of the eastern border mountainous region, and the eastern plains and hills transition zone. The poverty in the western region is mainly affected by the single agricultural structure, low agricultural product market prices, backward farmers' understanding of their own ideas, weak infrastructure construction and harsh natural ecological conditions. While the rural poverty in the Korean nationality community in the eastern border mountainous areas is mainly caused by the continuous outflow of the working age population. And the emergence of rural poverty in the transition areas of the eastern plain and hilly areas is mainly affected by the remote location and complicated topography, which leads to natural disasters and the shortage of cultivated land resources.

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    徐州都市圈产业结构转型城镇空间响应的时空异质性
    仇方道,金娜,袁荷,单勇兵,白亮宇
    地理科学. 2017, 37 (10): 1459-1468.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2017.10.002
    摘要   HTML   PDF (693KB)

    整合ESDA和GWR 模型,以徐州都市圈为例,分析了2005~2014年成长型都市圈产业结构转型城镇空间响应强度及其影响因素的时空异质性特征,发现:① 研究期内徐州都市圈产业结构转型城镇空间响应程度不断增强,同期各县域间差异呈持续增大趋势;② 徐州都市圈产业结构转型城镇空间响应强度差异格局的多尺度性特征显著。城乡尺度上,呈现以地级市市区为中心向外围降低的圈层式区域格局;省际边界区域尺度上,呈现向鲁南>皖北>苏北>豫东的区域格局演变趋势;③ 强响应县域主要向京沪铁路沿线地区集聚,城镇空间扩展轴线正在形成。弱响应县域在皖苏、豫皖边界地区集中,形成了产业结构转型城镇空间响应强度较低走廊;④ HH型县域主要集中于地级市市区及其周围地区,LL型县域在豫皖苏边界区域的黄河故道沿线地区集聚,表明南北差异正成为徐州都市圈产业结构转型城镇空间响应强度关联性差异的主要表征;⑤ 徐州都市圈产业结构转型城镇空间响应的主要影响因素作用程度呈现对外开放>经济水平>创新能力>政府调控能力的特征,且空间不均衡性显著。


    using the methods of Exploratory Spatial Data Analysis (ESDA) and Geographical weighted regression model (GWR), the article analyzes the spatial-temporal characteristics of urban space response to industrial structure transformation and its influencing factors of Xuzhou metropolitan area, a growing metropolitan, from 2005 to 2014. There are five main findings: First, the strength of urban space response to industrial structure transformation showed an upward trend in Xuzhou metropolitan area, and the difference among the various counties increased continuously at the same time. Second, The difference pattern of the strength of urban space response to industrial structure transformation in Xuzhou metropolitan area had significant multi-scale characteristics. In urban and rural scale, it showed a circle distribution pattern which gradually reduced from the center of prefecture-level city to the surrounding country; in inter-provincial border region scale, South Shandong had the highest urban space response, followed by North Anhui, North Jiangsu and East Henan. Third, The counties with high urban space response mainly distributed along the Beijing-Shanghai Railway (Xuzhou-Jining), and urban space expansion axis was forming. The low urban space response area mainly agglomerated in the border between Anhui and Jiangsu, Henan and Anhui. Fourth, the H-H counties mainly distributed in the center of prefecture-level city and its surrounding area, and the L-L counties mainly located in the old course of Yellow River area through the North Jiangsu, East Henan and North Anhui, which showed that the difference between the South and the North of Xuzhou metropolitan area are becoming the main characteristics of urban space response level to industrial structure transformation. Finally, we found that the level of opening had the greatest effects on urban space response, followed by economic development, innovation ability and government management; furthermore, the spatial imbalance was significant.

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    基于创新“二分法”的中国装备制造业创新网络研究
    林兰,曾刚,吕国庆
    地理科学. 2017, 37 (10): 1469-1477.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2017.10.003
    摘要   HTML   PDF (487KB)

    从创新“二分法”的研究视角出发,研究知识学习(STI)和经验学习(DUI)对中国装备制造业创新网络构建的影响。研究表明:① 从网络结构看,DUI是装备制造业创新结网的主要方式,产业伙伴比知识伙伴更重要。② 从空间尺度看,STI和DUI的区域合作均重于本地合作;国家层面是中国装备制造业创新合作的最佳空间尺度。③ 从环境需求看,优化本地创新资源并不能有效增强网络创新能力。研究指出,培育DUI创新绝对优势、重视区域创新协同合作、推动符合产业创新特点的环境建设与制度安排将有助于中国装备制造业创新能力提升。


    Innovation network, which can utilize internal and external resources, has become the hot spot in the research field. From the perspective of economic geography, there are two main research branches, namely new regionalism and global production network. To be brief, the former emphasizes local network and the embeddness of innovation linkage, while the latter underlines the global connection and the great power of leading Multinational Corporation. Since 2000, more and more scholars have paid more attention to one-sidedness of single scale. Hence, some new theories on the dynamic and the spatial character of innovation network have begun to emerge, such as the “local buzz-global pipeline”, “beyond new regionalism”, “GPN2.0” etc. Most research, however, didn't notice the different composition and spatial of network derived from the diverse types of industry and their innovation mode. Inspired by the Innovation Dichotomy, namely STI (Science, Technology, Innovation) and DUI (Doing, Using, Interacting), which is related with different approaches, techniques, and scales where the partners located, this article takes China equipment manufacturing industry as the empirical case and focuses on how STI/DUI influences the construction of innovation network and the development of innovation capability. By means of 388 questionnaires, the article employs descriptive statistical analysis, clustering method and regression analysis to reach the following three conclusions: Firstly, as the typical producer-driven and technology-driven industry, DUI works as the dominant way on the construction of innovation network, which results in the industry partner is more important than knowledge one; The objective of a start-up firm is existence to choose DUI-mode partners, and the cooperation with STI-mode partners will rise along with its innovation development. Secondly, from the side of spatial scale, regional cooperation happens more frequent than local cooperation either in STI or DUI, and hence ‘cluster illusion’ exists; Meanwhile, national partners turn to be the optimal choice for the firms and the effect of administrative boundary, namely province and city is waning. Thirdly, state-owned and the big privately owned enterprises, generally speaking, can get the dominant or recessive government supports to be more innovative. The results of innovation atmosphere are consistent with the expectation that firms benefit from interacting with a wide range of trans-local partners, particularly international, both for scientific and technological network. While government support, the level of R&D investments or education in the city in which the firm is located are related with radical innovation, does not have any direct effect on its potential for innovation network. At last, the article raises some corresponding policy suggestions to optimize and enhance the innovation of China equipment manufacturing industry, which respectively are cultivating the superiority of DUI, weakening local networking while encouraging regional innovation cooperation, establishing the institution system to meet the need of the industry.

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    中国普通高中教育均等化及障碍因素分析
    苏飞,莫潇杭,魏敏,李博
    地理科学. 2017, 37 (10): 1478-1485.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2017.10.004
    摘要   HTML   PDF (460KB)

    以中国31个省级行政单元为研究对象,从教育背景、教育投入、教育过程和教育结果4个方面构建指标体系,采用集对分析模型测度各省份普通高中教育均等化水平,运用障碍度分析法揭示阻碍各省份普通高中教育均等化水平提升的主要因素。研究表明:从综合均等度来看,普通高中教育均等化水平较高的省份集中在环渤海地区和江浙沪地区,其中北京市最高,河南省最低。从空间格局来看,各省份普通高中教育均等化水平有显著差异,总体上呈现“东-西-中”递减趋势。分析表明,P1(高中阶段毛入学率)、S3(高级职称专任教师比例)、S2(本科学历及以上专任教师比例)、P2(学校数量/万名学生)是影响各省份普通高中教育均等化水平提升的主要因素。


    This article established an index system for the equalization of the general high school education from four aspects, including education background, education investment, education process, and education outcomes. The equalization of the general high school education of China’s 31 provincial level administrative units was assessed by using set-pair analysis. The results show that: from the perspective of the overall equalization degree, provinces and regions with higher education equalization are concentrate in the central Bohai area and the southeast coastal areas, in which Beijing is the highest, and Henan is the lowest. The spatial distribution of the general high school education equalization level presents a decreasing trend from east to west part then to central. According to the factor analysis of obstacle degree of each provinces’ general high school education, P1 (high school gross enrollment rate), S3 (proportion of full-time teachers with senior title), S2 (Bachelor degree and above proportion of full-time teachers), and P2 (school number/ten thousand students) are the main four obstacles to affect the level of education equalization in the general high schools in all provinces. Finally, this article puts forward some countermeasures and suggestions to improve the level of equalization of the general high school education.

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    中国县域市民化需求人口分布时空格局演变
    闫东升,杨槿
    地理科学. 2017, 37 (10): 1486-1496.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2017.10.005
    摘要   HTML   PDF (3916KB)

    在提出基于流动人口定居意愿的市民化需求人口测度方法的基础上,采用第五、六次人口普查数据,并借助ESDA等分析方法,对中国县域流入人口及市民化需求人口的时空格局演变规律进行探析。结果表明:① 整体格局上,流入人口比重及市民化需求人口比重均表现为东西部高于中部,区域差异明显且具有较强的经济指向性。② 时空演变方面,2000~2010年,中国县域市民化需求人口时空格局发生显著变化,三大区域之间的差异有所扩大,且不同城市群之间也存在显著差异。


    Since the reform and opening up, the process of urbanization in our country is accelerating, however the urbanization patterns which light the quality and weight the speed as well as inperfect household registration system and financial system or the like result in the process of rapid urbanization accompanied by a significant semi-citizenship and enlargement of the gap between urban and rural areas. In order to improve the quality of urbanization ,the State Council of our country promulgates “national new urbanization planning (2014-2020)” which devotes to promoting the “people-oriented” urbanization’ in 2014.The plan pointes out building the rural areas and promoting urbanization actively and steadily, and meeting the citizenization demand for floating population. Accurately grasping the temporal-spatial pattern evolution of citizenization demand population is the basis of promoting the construction of new urbanization. Based on the existing relevant research results, this article proposes a measurement of the citizenization demand population based on inflow population’s settlement willingness. We study the distribution evolution patterns of the citizenization demand population in county according to the fifth and sixth census data as well as the ESDA method. The results show that the distribution of inflowion population and the proportion of citizenization demand people accounting for the resident population performance that the east and west are higher than the central, as well the regional differences are significant and have a strong economic directivity. Spatial distribution patterns of the citizenization demand peopulation have a significant change from 2000 to 2010, and also significant differences among the east, the central and the west as well as the urban agglomerations. This research has some theoretical significances and can provide some references for the classification and difference construction of new urbanization.

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    海洋资源约束与中国海洋经济增长——基于海洋资源“尾效”的计量检验
    王泽宇,卢雪凤,韩增林
    地理科学. 2017, 37 (10): 1497-1506.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2017.10.006
    摘要   HTML   PDF (571KB)

    通过构建海洋资源“尾效”模型,运用面板数据分析方法对中国沿海11省份(不含港澳台)海洋资源“尾效”进行实证研究,结果表明:① 中国海洋资源“尾效”的平均水平为0.032 2,海洋资源对海洋经济增长的约束程度较高,资源利用方式整体呈粗放型。② 沿海各省份海洋资源“尾效”差异显著,其中广东、上海为海洋资源低约束型,海洋资源“尾效”值分别为0.009 4、0.009 8;山东、浙江、江苏、福建、天津、辽宁、河北为海洋资源高约束型,海洋资源“尾效”值介于0.010 0~0.050 0之间;广西、海南为海洋资源强约束型,海洋资源“尾效”值均大于0.050 0。海洋资源“尾效”与涉海从业人员增长率、海洋资源消耗增长率、海洋资源弹性系数、资本弹性系数呈正相关关系,海洋资源消耗速度越快,对海洋经济增长的阻力越大,而劳动力、资本的过度供给会加大海洋资源消耗对海洋经济增长的阻碍力度。因此合理利用海洋资源、优化资源利用方式,合理分配区域人力资源、提高涉海从业人员的科技素质,并推动海洋产业结构优化调整是降低海洋资源“尾效”的关键。


    Based on Romer’s ‘drag effect’ hypothesis and neo-classical theory of economic growth, the article puts forward the model of marine resources consumption drag with the growth of marine economy, and measured the influence degree of the marine resources on the growth of marine economy based on the model of marine resources consumption drag. The aim is to maintain the balance between sustainable development of marine economy and the lowest consumption of marine resources. It is of great and far-reaching significance to realize the sustainable utilization of marine resources, improve the quality of marine economic development and reduce the difference of regional marine economic development. The article has carried on the empirical research on the resources consumption drag of 11 coastal provinces (excluding Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan) in China using the panel data analysis method and the GIS spatial analysis technology. The following conclusions can be reached: 1) The average of the marine resources consumption drag in China is 0.032 2, and the restraint of marine resources with marine economic growth is high. The utilization of resources presents the extensive investment on the whole. 2) The marine resources consumption drag has significant difference of 11 coastal provinces. The value of resources consumption drag of Guangdong and Shanghai is 0.009 4, 0.009 8 respectively. The smaller restriction of marine resources to marine economic growth is displayed in these provinces. The value of resources consumption drag of Shandong, Zhejiang, Jiangsu, Fujian, Tianjin, Liaoning and Hebei are between 0.010 0 and 0.050 0, they belong to high constraint. The most significant restriction of marine resources to marine economic growth is displayed in Guangxi and Hainan. The value of marine resources consumption drag of these provinces are greater than 0.050 0, they belong to strong constraint. 3) The labor growth rate, the growth rate of marine resource consumption, the output elasticity of marine resources, the capital elasticity are proportional to marine resources consumption drag. The faster the marine resource consumes, the greater the resistance of marine economic growth is. The capital and labor inputs will increase the hinder of marine resource consumption to economic growth. Therefore, using marine resources rationally and optimizing resource utilization, controlling population scale appropriately and improving the quality of the labor of marine economy, promoting the optimization adjustment of marine industrial structure is the key to reduce the marine resources consumption drag.

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    海南交通可达性的测度与空间分异格局分析
    宋洁华,李敏纳,蔡舒,王平
    地理科学. 2017, 37 (10): 1507-1516.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2017.10.007
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    设定交通可达性指数及交通区位优势度、内部交通连通度和对外通达性3个分指数,全面测度海南各县级行政区的交通可达性,在此基础上,采用Global Moran’s I和Getis-Ord Gi*指数分析与全局趋势分析方法,从多个维度系统研究海南交通可达性空间分异现状格局。结果显示,目前海南各县级行政区交通可达性差异很明显;海南岛交通可达性总体呈沿海内陆分异与北南方向类似U型分异格局,交通可达性的3个分指标均存在鲜明的空间分异特征,即交通区位优势度与交通可达性总体分异格局基本一致,内部交通连通度呈北部较高、中部内陆到西南沿海较低而东南沿海居中的分异格局,对外通达性呈沿海内陆分异及北南和东西方向双重类似U型分异格局;三沙市是海南一个特殊的沿海地级市,其交通可达性很差。地形地貌、经济发展水平、人口和政治因素对海南交通可达性空间分异产生了明显的影响。推进海南经济发展需要充分利用交通条件进行经济空间布局引导,并逐步增强交通布局的空间均衡性。


    By constructing traffic accessibility index and three subindices (traffic location advantage, internal transport connectivity and external accessibility), this article makes a comprehensive measurement of the traffic accessibility levels of counties in Hainan Province in PRC (People's Republic of China). With the method of Global Moran’s I index, Getis-Ord Gi* index and global trend analysis method to find out the current spatial differentiation pattern of traffic accessibility in Hainan from multi-dimensions. The result shows that counties' traffic accessibility shows significant spatial differences. For Hainan, the traffic accessibility is different between coastland and inland, and presents similar U-shaped differentiation pattern in the north-south direction. The three subindices of traffic accessibility are significant spatial difference features, that is: the spatial difference pattern of traffic location advantage is similar to overall differentiation pattern of traffic accessibility; the internal traffic connectivity is relatively high in north coastland, but low from central region of inland to southwest coastland and southeast coastland is in the middle; the external accessibility is different between coastland and inland, and presents double similar u-shaped differentiation characteristics in north-south direction and east-west direction; Sansha, a special coastal city in Hainan, has a rather poor traffic accessibility. Topography, economic development level, population and political factors have significant impacts on the spatial differentiation pattern of traffic accessibility in Hainan. Specifically, the spatial differentiation pattern of Hainan Island's traffic accessibility level, the internal traffic connectivity and the external accessibility are significantly affected by the spatial differentiation pattern of topography, and the spatial differentiation of economic development level and population are closely related to the similar u-shaped pattern in north-south direction of traffic accessibility, and Shashi's poor traffic accessibility is mainly due to the small land area, sparse population and political factors. It is suggested to take full advantage of the traffic conditions to lead economic spatial layout and gradually enhance the traffic layout balance, so as to promote Hainan economic development. First, the construction of road network in the region from central inland to southwest coastland in Hainan Island should be strengthened so as to improve the internal traffic connectivity of this region. Second, the construction of major transportation facilities in the region along the line from Chengmai via Tunchang, Qiongzhong, Wuzhi Mountain to Baoting in Hainan should be strengthened so as to improve the external accessibility of this region. Third, the traffic accessibility of the Sansha should be strengthened, and an important measure that can be implemented at present is to promote the tourism traffic infrastructure construction and tourism transportation route development in Sansha so as to improve the air and sea traffic in Sansha.

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    大陆台资跨界生产网络的空间组织模式及其复杂性研究——基于大陆台商千大企业数据
    陈艳华,韦素琼,陈松林
    地理科学. 2017, 37 (10): 1517-1526.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2017.10.008
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    基于中华征信所数据库中大陆台商千大企业数据中1988~2014年的台资母子企业注册时间、详细地址、行业类型、主营业务等数据,运用复杂网络分析方法,采用GIS、Matlab和Gephi等技术手段,考察大陆台资跨界生产网络的空间组织模式及其复杂性拓扑结构特征。研究结果表明:1)台商千大企业的时空演进具有明显的区域差异性和行业指向性,即整体上呈“南密北疏”“东高西低”的格局,集中分布于以上海、广东、福建、重庆为代表的长三角、珠三角、海西区、西三角等地区,分别以制造业中的电子信息、机械和石化产业、以服务业中的一般批发零售业和信息传输、计算机服务与软件业等生产性服务业为主;2)大陆台资跨界生产网络的空间结构特征表现为:网络联系覆盖地域广泛;呈三轴放射状空间结构;网络联系键的空间异质性显著;3)大陆台资跨界生产网络处于随机网络向无标度网络分布的过渡期,并表现为出明显的小世界网络特征。


    This article examines the spatial organization pattern and its complexity structure characteristics of cross-border production networks of Taiwan-funded enterprises in mainland China with the aid of GIS, Matlab and Gephi, based on firm-level data such as registration time, addresses, industry types, main businesses of Top 1 000 Taiwan-funded enterprises in mainland China during 1988-2014. The results show that: 1) There are obvious regional differences and industrial directivity in the spatio-temporal evolution pattern of Top 1 000 Taiwan-funded enterprises in 1988-2014, namely, “south dense north sparse” and “east high and west low” on the whole. They concentrate in the Yangtze River Delta, the Pearl River Delta, the West Sea, the West Triangle Economic zoo, respectively represented by electronic information, machinery and petrochemical industries in all the manufacturing industry and by the producer services industry such as wholesale and retail services and information transmission, computer services and software industry 2) Spatial structure features of cross-border production networks of Taiwan-funded enterprise in mainland China are showed as: a. Network contact covers a wide range; b. Network contact presents a three axis radial space structure which was taken Taipei as the core, along the Yangtze River Delta, the Pearl River Delta and the West Triangle; c. The spatial heterogeneity of the network connection keys is significant; 3) The cross-border production network of Taiwan-funded enterprises in mainland China is in transition from the random network to the scale-free one, characterized by small world network, and forms six big city communities. But there are still some shortcomings, which are also our further research direction.

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    人海关系地域系统的构成及其研究重点探讨
    刘天宝,韩增林,彭飞
    地理科学. 2017, 37 (10): 1527-1534.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2017.10.009
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    在全球化和人类活动向海洋扩张的背景下,作为总体性人地关系一个组成部分的人海关系正变得日益复杂和重要,亟需对其进行基础性的理论解读,以整合和指导具体研究的展开。人海关系地域系统包括人类、海洋和陆地3个基本组成部分。其中,人类具有自然和社会2种基本属性,受人类活动影响的海洋和陆地具有自然、社会和关系3种基本属性。人类与海洋、人类与陆地和海洋与陆地之间的互动构成了人海关系地域系统中最基本的相互关系,其不同组合和演变塑造出了具体、多样的人海关系地域系统。当前人海关系地域系统的研究重点包括海洋观、海洋的开发与保护、国际海洋关系、陆海统筹和海洋社会5个方面。


    As a part of general human-land relation, human-ocean relation is becoming more complicated and important, requiring basic theoretical understanding to guide specific researches in the field. Human-ocean regional system is composed of three basic parts, human, ocean and land. Human attribute includes natural and social aspects. Human participates in, affects and even dominates the development of human-ocean regional system through four types of human activities, namely safety, reproduction, gaining surplus and developing culture. Ocean and land have three kinds of attributes, natural attribute includes material resources, space and landscape; social attribute includes knowledge system, science & technology and population size; relational attribute includes political & military relation, economic & business relation and social & cultural relation. The interactions between human and ocean, human and land, ocean and land form the basic relationships in human-ocean regional system. Their different combinations and evolutions produce concrete and diverse human-ocean regional systems. According to the spatial attribute of human activities, human-ocean regional system can be divided into four types, namely local human-ocean regional system, land-open human-ocean regional system, ocean-open human-ocean regional system and total-open human-ocean regional system. At present stage, important research issues concerning human-ocean regional system include ocean view, ocean development and protection, ocean-land relation, ocean society and international ocean relationship.

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    合肥市商业地价驱动因素的空间非平稳性分析
    王爱,陆林,包善驹
    地理科学. 2017, 37 (10): 1535-1545.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2017.10.010
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    基于微观因素的视角,对合肥市商业地价的空间格局、空间异质性进行空间插值和回归分析,研究发现: ① 商业地价空间格局呈现多中心的结构,峰值区集中分布在城市中心,低值区分布在二环线以外的地区;② GWR模型能清晰地反映出各因素对地价影响力的空间差异,容积率、交通站点、CBD和公园是研究区商业地价的关键驱动因素;③ 较之外在因素,内在因素对商业地价的边际作用效率较大,其中尤以容积率最为突出; 相较于欠发达地区,容积率在高度发达的区域对地价的正向效应更为显著,而交通站点和CBD对地价的作用正好相反。商业开发更愿意为小型公园支付更高的价格。


    Land is a kind of scarce non-renewable natural resources. Price mechanism plays a key role in the rational allocation and effective utilization of land resources, especially in the rapid development of large cities where land use changes frequently. Therefore, quantitative study on the spatial characteristics between land price and its driving factors is critical. Based on the perspective of micro driving factors of land price, the spatial pattern and spatial heterogeneity of commercial land price in Hefei are analyzed by Inverse Distance Weighted(IDW) and Geographically Weighted Regression(GWR). The study shows that: 1) The spatial pattern of commercial land price presents a multi-center structure, the peak district of land price in the central area of the city, and the low value area outside the second ring road in the city. 2) The GWR model based on the local statistical analysis can clearly reflect the spatial difference of the influence of driving factors on land price. Floor area ratio, Dtraf, Dpark and DCBD are the key driving factors of commercial land price in the study area. 3) Compared with the external driving factors of commercial land price, the marginal effect of internal factors on commercial land price is greater, especially the influence of the floor area ratio on commercial land price is the most prominent. 4) Compared with the less developed areas, the effect of floor area ratio in highly developed areas enhancing the land price is more significant. However, the role mechanism of Dtraf and DCBD on commercial land prices is just the opposite. In addition, business development and construction are more willing to pay a higher price for a small park. However, the infrastructure’s imperfection, as well as ecological conservation requirements(close to some large parks) will have a negative impact. The outputs of this article, that provide detailed information on the relationships between commercial land price and driving factors in study areas, are promising for urban planners to scientifically evaluate land price and make area-specific strategies.

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    中国农民收入区域差异及影响因素分析
    姜会明,孙雨,王健,吉宇琴
    地理科学. 2017, 37 (10): 1546-1551.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2017.10.011
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    利用2004~2015年全国31个省(市)农民收入的有关数据,采用泰尔指数(Theil Index)测算出全国农民收入差距,将中国分为粮食主产区、粮食主销区、粮食产销平衡区三大功能区域,分解出三大功能区域组间差距和组内差距,并计算组间差距和组内差距分别对总收入差距贡献率。结果表明:2004~2006年全国各省农民收入差距变大,而2007~2015年逐渐缩小。经过进一步计算,组间差距对全国农民收入差距的贡献率达到70%,组内差距达到30%,可以看出,中国农民收入在粮食主产区、粮食主销区、粮食产销平衡区中区域间差距远大于区域内差距。用多元回归模型分析全国农民收入差距的影响因素,得出第一产业占GDP的比重、城镇化率、农村金融发展规模等指标与泰尔指数呈负相关,工业化率、比较劳动生产率与泰尔指数呈正相关,据此提出相应对策建议。


    Based on the data of 31 provinces (cities) farmers' income from 2004 to 2015, this article uses the Theil Index to measure the income gap of farmers in China, divides China into the main grain producing areas, the main grain sales area, grain production and marketing balance area. The article decomposes the gap between the three functional regional groups, and calculates the gap between the group and the gap within the group on the total income gap contribution rate. The results show that the income gap between the peasants in the provinces of China was increasing from 2004 to 2006, and in 2007-2015 it is gradually reduced. After further calculation, the contribution rate of gap between the groups to the national income gap is 70%, and that of the gap within the group to the national income gap is 30%. It can be seen that the gap of China's farmers’ income among the main grain producing areas, grain sales area, grain production and marketing balance area is much larger than the regional internal gap. The article analyzes the influencing factors of the income gap of the peasants by using the multiple regression model. It is concluded that the indicators of the primary industry, such as the proportion of GDP, the urbanization rate and the scale of rural financial development, are negatively correlated with the Theil Index, while the industrialization rate, the comparative labor productivity are positive. For this reason, the government for the policy formulation should coordinate the main grain producing areas and the main sales area, enhance the support for the development of the main grain producing areas, improve the strong agricultural policy further to the main grain producing areas, to accelerate the urbanization and industrialization process of main grain producing areas, develop the modern agriculture and industrialization, urbanization.

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    中国入境旅游的经济增长效应与空间差异性研究
    李秋雨,朱麟奇,刘继生
    地理科学. 2017, 37 (10): 1552-1559.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2017.10.012
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    在旅游业与经济增长作用关系分析基础上,探究了旅游溢出理论,将其产生机制归纳为知识溢出、市场溢出和竞争效应3个方面。实证分析中,构建了包括入境旅游、物质资本、人力资本、科技创新和对外开放的分析框架,运用中国大陆31个省域2000~2014年面板数据对入境旅游的经济增长效应进行实证检验。全局分析得出中国入境旅游在邻近省市以集聚与合作为主,邻近省域入境旅游发展对本地经济增长具有辐射带动作用,且这种空间溢出效应大于直接效应;入境旅游业发达的地区,入境旅游的经济增长效应更大。局部分析发现,随着入境旅游的发展,入境旅游的经济增长效应不断强化,中部部分地区提升幅度最大;入境旅游的经济增长效应存在空间差异性,东部沿海地区贡献最大,西北地区相对最小。


    This article explores the tourism spillover theory and summarizes its generating mechanism into three aspects, respectively, knowledge spillover, market spillover and competitive effect. In empirical analysis, this article constructs a framework including inbound tourism, human capital, material capital, technology innovation and opening to analyze the spillovers of tourism on economic growth, and the empirical test is carried out by using the panel data of 31 provinces in mainland China from 2000 to 2014. Global analysis reveals that the inbound tourism in the neighboring provinces is mainly concentrated and in cooperation state, with a significantly positive spillovers on local economic growth, and the spatial spillover effect is greater than the direct effect; the economic growth effect of inbound tourism is greater in inbound tourism industry developed area than less developed area. Local analysis finds that, the economic growth effect of inbound tourism is constantly strengthened with the development of inbound tourism, the largest increase appear in part of central region. Then, we imply heterogeneous production functions geographically weighted regression model to analyze spatial difference for the impact of inbound tourism on economic growth. It can be learned that the impact of inbound tourism on economic growth has spatial difference. It can be divided into four intervals and presents spatial distribution law of gradient decrement from the East to the West, of which the contribution of eastern coastal area is largest, and the northwest region is relatively small. At last, based on the above conclusions, we promote the corresponding policy recommendations for strategies of China’s inbound tourism and regional economic growth. For the future development of inbound tourism, on one hand the government should continue to vigorously develop inbound tourism, improve the tourism industry development level and the level of entry tourism development, accelerate transformation and upgrading of the structure of inbound tourism industry, and further reform to stimulate its huge development potential. It should be done to encourage inbound tourism from the fusion industry to cross-border integration, through integration with other industries to absorb new mode of operation, management ideas and capital strength, break the traditional profit pattern of only relying on the internal tourism. At the same time, we should encourage strong tourism enterprises, travel management company and tourism brand to carry out provincial operations, improve inter product competitiveness of provincial tourism and comprehensive strength, and make more contribution to economic growth in China. On the other hand, the development of Chinese inbound tourism must be carried out to a more comprehensive and in-depth analysis from the perspective of new economic geography, further eliminate market barriers between different provinces, accelerate cooperation and docking of China's inbound tourism market, and open up more space for the rise of spatial spillover effect of inbound tourism.

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    跨区域线性文化遗产类旅游资源价值评价——以长安-天山廊道路网中国段为例
    任唤麟
    地理科学. 2017, 37 (10): 1560-1568.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2017.10.013
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    跨区域线性文化遗产是一类特殊的旅游资源。基于其特殊性,以其各遗产点的价值评价作为整个遗产的价值评价;借助层次分析法、菲什拜因-罗森伯格模型,通过设定评分标准与评价等级,构建跨区域线性文化遗产旅游资源价值评价模型;实证分析认为提出的方法与模型能较准确地评价资源价值,长安-天山廊道路网中国段各遗产点价值均在优良等级及以上,其中27.3%为五级(特品级)资源,59.1%为四级资源,13.6%为三级资源,在旅游开发中应采取领先开发或重点开发、分区开发及加强遗产点历史文化挖掘与宣传普及等策略。


    The cross-regional linear cultural heritage is a kind of important tourism resource, as well as a special kind of tourism resource. But the whole value of the heritage tourism resource is difficult to evaluation, and hard to avoid fuzzy, so that the evaluation is lack of practical significance, because of the scattered resources, internal differences, and relatively loose connection between the heritage sites. Based on the particularity of cross-regional linear cultural heritage and the core resource meaning of its heritage sites, this article regards the value of its heritage sites as the value of the entire heritage from a certain extent. That is to say, “the Cultural Route recognizes and emphasizes the value of all of its elements as substantive parts of a whole”. The Chang’an-Tianshan Corridor Routes Network of Silk Road formed in the 2nd century BC ( Some people think that it had formed before Shang Dynasty ), and still in use to the 16th century. The Routes Network, span nearly 5 000 km, had played a very important role in business trade and cultural exchanges, and leaves a large number of cultural relics and remains. In June 2014, the heritage of the Routs Network with a total of 33 heritage sites, including 22 heritage sites in China, was included in the World Heritage List, as one of the longest linear cultural heritages in the world. Therefore, it is typical significance in exploring the value evaluation of tourism resource of cross-regional linear cultural heritage. The value evaluation of resource is the evaluation of connotation value, application value, social impact and so on from the feature, function of the resource itself and so on, not the comprehensive evaluation including resource environment and development condition. The article, with Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and Fishbein M- Rosenberg M Model, builds a model, which sets the score standards and evaluation grades, for the value evaluation of tourism resource of cross-regional linear cultural heritage. The empirical analysis shows that the proposed research method and evaluation model can more accurately evaluate the resource value. The value of heritage sites of Chang’an-Tianshan Corridor Routs Network in China is in good grade and above. The 5th grade resource, also known as special grade resource, accounts for 27.3% of the all resources, the 4th grade and 3rd grade resource account for 59.1% and 13.6% respectively. Those strategies, such as leading development, key project development and strengthening the historical culture mining and popularization of heritage sites, should be taken in tourism development of the Routs Network of Chang’an-Tianshan Corridor in China.

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    宗教文化旅游对游客的影响研究 ——以武当山道教文化旅游为例
    程绍文,李艳,张晓梅,李照红
    地理科学. 2017, 37 (10): 1569-1576.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2017.10.014
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    以武当山为研究案例地,通过游客问卷与访谈调查,采用SPSS18.0统计软件定量分析武当山旅游体验对游客认知、思想、行为意愿等的影响。研究结果表明,① 武当山游客的旅游动机有宗教朝圣、文化体验、娱乐放松及感情交流4类;② 宗教文化旅游影响游客对目的地的形象感知及对道教文化的认知、态度及践行意愿;宗教文化旅游对游客的影响强弱因动机而不同,自强至弱依次为宗教朝圣、文化体验、感情交流及娱乐放松。


    International tourism academic community has been increasingly interested in studying tourists’ experience and benefits, as well as tourists’ perception, cognition, attitudes or behavior changes due to tourist-host social interaction and their experience. Scholars have also paid much attention to cultural tourism impacts on tourists’ values, cultural cognition and cultural difference tolerance, attitudes towards destination countries and destination people, emotional, psychological and behavior patterns. Religions have greatly impacted people’s ideology, thoughts, life styles even social systems. Religious tourism has developed dramatically all in the world, being regarded as the best way for disseminating religious culture and religious doctrine. But the research on religious tourism impacts on tourists still lags behind the impact research on destinations, as well as religious tourism practice. Taoism is China’s traditional culture and philosophy, and it has greatly impacted Chinese people for long years; but its impact has experienced dramatic decline in modern society, with the only exception of Taoism wellness culture. The increasing serious environmental and moral issues have provoked Chinese into rethink of Taoism philosophy. The Wudang Mountain is now the most sacred Taoism holy site in China. It is also a popular Taoism tourism destination and World Cultural Heritage site for its sizable Taoism temples, historical constructions and wise Taoism culture by UNESCO in 1994. To explore the cultural, psychological, ideological impacts of Taoism tourism on tourists, face to face questionnaire survey and tourist interview were conducted for data collection during July to August in 2014 in the Wu dang Mountain. And statistical analysis including descriptive analysis, paired T test and factor analysis via SPSS software was then fully used to quantitatively analyze different impacts of Taoism tourism on tourist groups with different motivations. And it concluded that: 1) Tourists to Wudang Mountain are more likely to be young or middle-aged adults with good education background, and four groups including pilgrim, cultural tourists, pleasure-seekers, and affection-maintainers can be recognized based on their primary travel motivation to Wudang Mountain; 2) Tourists have different experiences and cognitions in Wudang destination by different travel motivations; and their image perceptions and cognitions of Wudang are intensified after their tourism experience here. But pilgrims to the Wudang Mountain perceive more on Wudang’s Taoism cultural landscape and Taoism doctrine rather than natural landscape; meanwhile the pleasure-seekers and cultural tourists have deeper perception on Taosim temples, and they both regard Wudang as a Taoism wellness destination. Besides, all non-pilgrim groups have great impression of the desirable weather in hot summer; 3)Taoism tourism experience in Wudang destination impact different tourist groups in different ways to different extents. Part of interviewed tourists admit that their values have been greatly changed by their tourism experience in Wudang Mountain. And pilgrims are proved to be most dramatically and positively impacted by their tourism experience in Wudang, followed by cultural tourists and affection-maintainers. And pleasure-seekers get least changes in their values, understanding and attitudes to Taoism doctrine and China’s traditional culture, as well as Taoism-style simple living patterns. This research offers a meaningful hint for traditional religious cultural diffusion and the significance of Taoism cultural tourism on reshaping people’s values and behaviors.

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    基于多源数据的中国地形海拔分级指标调整研究
    龙晓君,李小建
    地理科学. 2017, 37 (10): 1577-1584.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2017.10.015
    摘要   HTML   PDF (4582KB)

    使用SRTM DEM、土地覆被、冻融侵蚀、河流沟谷等多源数据,对区分海拔等级的指标地物作了具体分析,以指标地物的平均海拔为依据,通过分级指标对象(如冰川、林线)分布高程重合或贴近的多条等高线圈形成分级等高平面,对陆地地貌进行切割划分,用每组指标对象偏离等高平面的值作为控制量(控制点),插值重构分级参考曲面。该方案最大限度突出指标的地理意义,形成的海拔分级结果与中国地理系统分布特征更为贴近,可以为中国大尺度地貌基本形态的划分提供参考。


    Because of the complicated mountain land types in China, it is often difficult for the existing mountain land classification indexes to take all morphogenetic zones into account. As a result, indexes lose indicative significance in local regions. In order to establish altitude classification indexes with clear geographical significance, the altitude characteristics of index surface features that could distinguish between mountain land level was analyzed in the paper through multi-source data, including SRTM, DEM, land cover, freeze-thaw erosion and river valleys. Based on the average altitude of index surface features, the classification planes with equal attitude were formed through classification index objects (such as glacier and forest line) distribution elevation coincidence or adjacent multi-contour line circles. Besides, the mountain land was cut and divided. The values that each group of index object deviated from the plane with equal attitude were considered as the controlled quantity (control points). The classification reference surface was remonstrated via interpolation. The research highlighted the geographical significance of the indexes to the largest degree. The obtained results of mountain land classification was the most close to the distribution characteristics of mountain resources and environment system in China. It is hoped that the research can provide basic reference for the regionalization of mountain land that is oriented from the characteristics resource distribution.

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    丹霞山国家珍稀濒危保护植物丹霞梧桐空间分布的微地貌环境特征研究
    欧阳杰,彭华,罗晓莹,陈再雄,张安新,马育宣
    地理科学. 2017, 37 (10): 1585-1592.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2017.10.016
    摘要   HTML   PDF (29433KB)

    以广东丹霞山狮子岩—阳元山景区为研究地,以国家珍稀濒危保护植物丹霞梧桐(Firmiana danxiaensis)的空间分布为研究内容,通过实地考察获取其空间分布的数据(经纬度、海拔、坡度和坡向等),利用ArcGIS10.0在精度为1 m的DEM地形数据上进行空间分析,总结丹霞梧桐空间分布的微地貌环境特征。研究发现:① 研究区丹霞梧桐主要分布在海拔180 m等高线穿过坡度60o附近的土壤比较贫瘠的垂直节理或水平层理比较发育的崖壁上,并与圆叶小石积(Osteomeles subrotunda)、忽地笑(Lycoris aurea)、卷柏(Selaginella tamariscina)等植物伴生,属于比较耐旱的崖壁植物;② 丹霞梧桐的空间分布不受坡向因素的严格制约,坡度和海拔是影响丹霞梧桐分布的2个重要因素。根据以上分布规律,可以推测180 m等高线穿过坡度60o地带的丹霞山其他崖壁地带,亦可能会有丹霞梧桐的分布,并建议在目前已经发现丹霞梧桐分布比较集中的狮子岩东南坡,设立国家珍稀濒危保护植物丹霞梧桐重点保护带。


    The core areas Shiziyan-Yangyuanshan of Danxiashan of Guangdong Province are selected to study the spatial distribution of Firmiana danxiaensis which are the national rare and endangered plants. The micro-landforms environmental features of spatial distribution of Firmiana danxiaensis are summarized through the data (longitude, altitude, slope and aspect) which obtained by the investigation on-the-spot, and the space analysis on the DEM terrain data with 1 m resolution by using ArcGIS10.0. From the spatial distribution and slope morphology of Danxia, the Firmiana danxiaensis in the study areas are mainly distributed at the Danxia cliffs with vertical joints or horizontal beddings and the altitude of 180 m or so and the 60oslope with relative barren soil where always can be found some plants such as Osteomeles subrotunda, Lycoris aurea, Selaginella (revive grass), etc. They all belong to drought to lerant plants. The spatial distribution of Firmiana danxiaensis is not restricted by the factor of the aspect, but the slope and the altitude are the two important influencing factors. According to the above distribution rules, the Firmiana danxiaensis presumably distribute at the cliffs of the Danxiashan outside of the study areas with the altitude of 180 m and the slope 60o. We actively recomned that it is necessary to establish the important protected belt for the Firmiana danxiaensis of the national rare and endangered plants in the southeast of Shiziyan of Danxiashan as early as possible. Our study is useful for comparing with the other five China Danxia World Natural Heritage sites (Taining of Fujian Province, Chishui of Guizhou Province, Longhushan-Guifeng of Jiangxi Province, Langshan of Hunan Province, Jianglangshan of Zhejiang Province). We can analyze and summarize the spatial distributions and environmental characteristics of micro landforms related to the national rare and endangered plants, and establish China Danxia World Natural Heritage key protection belts in the future.

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    1979年以来南黄海辐射沙洲潮滩脊线时空变化研究
    曹可,李飞,高宁,张子鹏,温欣
    地理科学. 2017, 37 (10): 1593-1599.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2017.10.017
    摘要   HTML   PDF (7632KB)

    基于遥感和GIS技术,提取了南黄海辐射沙洲1979年、1990年、2002年和2014年4个时期的潮滩脊线,并对时空变化特征进行系统分析。研究显示:① 辐射沙洲潮滩脊线可分为主线和支线2级,滩脊主线为条子泥-高泥-东沙潮滩脊线,支线为滩脊主线两侧分支;② 辐射沙洲潮滩脊线空间组合形态总体稳定,条子泥段滩脊主线总体呈东西向,东沙段滩脊主线总体呈南北向,高泥段滩脊主线连接条子泥和东沙;滩脊线演变呈显著空间分异,条子泥段滩脊主线南向迁移显著,东沙段和高泥段滩脊主线总体向东迁移,迁移距离条子泥段滩脊主线>高泥段、东沙段,条子泥段滩脊主线中部>两侧、东沙段滩脊主线北段>南段,条子泥滩脊支线形态和位置变化均较东沙滩脊支线显著。


    The tidal flat ridge line is the typical geomorphic feature line of the tidal flat area in radiation sandbank, and it is important for understanding the temporal and spatial changes of the tidal flat with the analysis of the beach ridge lines changes. Based on remote sensing and GIS technology, the tidal flat ridges of radiation sandbank in 1979, 1990, 2002 and 2014 were extracted, and the spatial-temporal changes were systematically analyzed. The study shows that, the ridge lines of radiation tidal flat can be divided into main line and branch line, the main line of tidal flat ridge is the Tiaozini-Gaoni-Dongsha tidal flat ridge, the branch lines are located on both sides of the main line. The spatial pattern of the tidal flat ridge line is generally stable. The main line of Tiaozini section is generally east-west, Dongsha section is north-south, Gaoni section connects the Tiaozini and Dongsha. The ridge line evolution has significant spatial differentiation, the main line of Tiaozini section migrated southward obviously, Dongsha and Gaoni section mainly migrated eastward. The migration distance of the main tidal flat ridge line showed as Tiaozini section > Gaoni section and Dongsha section, the middle part >both ends in the main line of Tiaozini section, northern > southern in the main line of Dongsha section. The morphological and positional changes of branch lines in Tiaozini were more obvious than that in Dongsha.

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    基于TM影像的哈尔滨市主城区绿地降温作用研究
    袁振,吴相利,臧淑英,吴长山,李苗
    地理科学. 2017, 37 (10): 1600-1608.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2017.10.018
    摘要   HTML   PDF (7117KB)

    选取2001年、2005年、2013年和2015年的4期同季TM影像为数据源,利用单窗算法反演哈尔滨市主城区地表温度,以SPOT影像为数据源提取30块城市绿地斑块,将地温空间格局与城市绿地斑块进行空间耦合分析,以揭示绿地对城市热岛地温格局的干扰影响。结果表明:从空间上看,哈尔滨市主城区热岛效应显著,主城区分布着大面积高温区和次高温区,极高温区则呈点状、面状或带状孤岛型分布特点;从动态上看,城市热岛的空间格局呈现从城市中心的老城区逐渐向外围新开发建设区域扩展的特点。绿地斑块内部平均温度除与自身特征有关外,还与其空间布局和周边景观格局相关。绿地斑块降温程度和降温范围与绿地斑块面积呈正相关关系,与绿地斑块形状指数呈负相关关系,绿地降温范围与绿地斑块周长呈正相关关系。当绿地斑块面积为0.055 km2时,绿地斑块对周边温度的降温效率较好,当绿地斑块面积在0.070 km2时,绿地斑块对周边降温的面积效率较好。


    In this study, four years TM images(2001, 2005, 2013 and 2015) were selected as the data and the single window algorithm was employed to study the surface temperature of Harbin downtown city. 30 pieces urban green patches were extracted by using SPOT image. Surface temperature spatial pattern and urban green patches coupling relationship were analyzed, which revealed green patches have an interference effect on the surface temperature spatial pattern of the urban heat island. The results show that: Spatially, the heat island effect was significant in Harbin downtown city, the large area of high temperature region and second-rate high temperature region were distribution in downtown, and extremely high temperature region have point, planar or ribbon distribution characteristics. The urban heat island presents gradually from the old town to the new development and construction characteristics of regional extension from the dynamic. It indicated that the inner average temperature of green patches is associated with its own characteristics, and it have a certain relationship with the space layout and the surrounding landscape pattern. Green patches cooling level and green patches cooling range are positively correlated relationship with green patches area. Green patches cooling level and green patches cooling range are negatively correlated relationship with green patches shape index. Green patches cooling range are positively correlated relationship with green patches perimeter. When green patches area was 0.055 km2, make green patches for cooling efficiency of the surrounding temperature is better; When green patches area was 0.070 km2, make green patches for area efficiency of the surrounding cooling is better.

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