Appearance of Information and communication technology has set off a new wave of big data to promote a transformation of the traditional methods in urban studies. However, types of limitations of big data also make scholars rethink the role of small data in specific applications for research. We believe that the small data will not lose its value, instead, it can be combined with big data in urban study, which is needed to focus on relationship between urban and resident activity in the information era. Therefore, we should discuss a new framework for such combination on complicated urban problems and diversified resident demands. Firstly, we put forward to three methodologies including combination between physical space and activity space, combination between correlativity and causality, and combination between macro-scale analysis and micro-scale analysis. Secondly, based on above methodologies, we build three method frameworks for urban studies in the information era, namely ‘Spatial development evaluations for big samples+Spatial difference and connection discovery+Factors discussions for small samples’, ‘Model building for small samples+Factors discussions+Verifications and explorations for big samples’, and ‘Micro-analysis of activities+Delineations of activity space+Factors discussions’. Finally, we discuss applications of above three method frameworks.
基于职能与区位二元视角,构建综合评价指标体系,对2014年中国地级以上城市的门户性、门户等级体系、门户群以及门户城市的空间结构与意象进行研究,结果表明：① 中国城市门户性在地带性尺度上呈“东中西”三级递减空间格局,东部地区门户城市空间集群趋势明显,中部、西部地区缺乏明显的高值集群。② 中国门户城市划分为4个等级,高等级门户沿海、沿江、沿边指向性明显,低等级门户广泛分布于中、西部内陆地区。③ 中国门户城市可划分为辽东半岛、京津秦唐、山东半岛、长江三角洲、海峡西岸和珠江三角洲六大门户群,六大门户群的腹地范围差异较大且区域分工明显。
Under the background of economic globalization, gateway cities has become the sink and jointing area of all kinds of flow, the nodes of world as well as the control center of economic system. Gateway cities play a substantial role in socioeconomic exchanges between neighboring countries and regions. In recent years, our country has been implementing the Belt and Road Initiative actively. The “Belt and Road Initiative” is and will continue to be an overall strategy of China’s all round opening-up for a long time into the future. It targets at enabling the countries along the Belt and Road to achieve economic policy coordination and carry out broader, deeper, and more efficient economic cooperation. In this process, gateway cities play an important role. So it is very meaningful to analyze the gateway property and gateway-city groups of China. From the perspective of function and location, taking 343 prefecture cities of Chinese mainland as examples, this article constructs the coupling evaluation index system about gateway city property. The evaluation system mainly contains four aspects: scale, installation level, convenience and external dependence. The main conclusions of this study are as follows: Firstly, geographically, the gateway city property indexes of China progressively diminish in scale from eastern to central and western China. There are four high value cluster in eastern region, and they are Beijing-Tianjin-Tangshan area, Yangtze River Delta, Pearl River Delta and Shandong Peninsula. But there is no obvious high value cluster in the middle western areas of China. And the gateway functions, location conditions and regional spatial structure are the main factors influencing gateway city property distribution. Secondly, based on the chart criterion and K-means cluster, we can divided all gateway cities into four grades. The number of each grade is 10, 25,70 and 238. High grade gateway cities tend to distribute along the river and coast. Lower grade gateway cities are widely distributed in the middle and west inland. Thirdly, based on the above research, we mark out 6 gateway-city groups of China, and we identified the hinterland range of them by using the field model. The hinterland range of every gateway-city groups are variable in scale, and they have formed obvious regional specialization. Lastly, we combed the relationship between the gateway city property and China's open system, and we find that they influence each other. Besides, we refined the structural figure for the main gateway of China in new period. We hope our research can provide a comprehensive measure system to measure the gateway function of city and a new perspective to cognitive the structure features of Chinese urban system.
构建基于环境污染的人口健康压力指数模型,引入空间集聚和收敛性检验方法,对中国各省区2005~2014年的污染健康压力的时空差异特征进行研究,结果表明：① 2005~2014年各省区的污染健康压力指数发生明显下降,省际差异程度有所降低,但“东高、西低、中部居中”的基本格局没有变化。② 各省区健康压力指数的空间分布在宏观上呈现出一定的空间集聚性,集聚趋势随时间有所弱化。③ 在控制城市化率、人均GDP、人口死亡率、森林覆盖率等变量的条件下,考察时段内各省区健康压力指数变化存在微弱的收敛性,各省区的健康压力预期将逐步趋同于某一较低水平。
Health is the basic right of human beings, and is also one of the important goals of the construction of well-off society in China. Nowadays, the rapid urbanization and industrialization have resulted in serious environmental pollution, which did harm to human health. To harmonize the relationships between economic development, environmental conservation and population health, it is necessary to measure the health pressure caused by environmental pollution at macro level to explore the spatial distribution pattern and changing rules of pollution’s health pressure. This paper established the population health pressure model based on environmental pollution, and used the spatial agglomeration and convergence test model to study the temporal and spatial differences characteristics of health pressure caused by pollution in China in the recent decade. At first, this paper built the index system of pollution health pressure. And then, the analytic hierarchy process based on expert knowledge was employed to determine the weight of index. And the findings showed that: 1) The pollution health pressure of each province decreased from 2005 to 2014, as well as the provincial differences, while the spatial pattern of “high in the east, middle in the central and low in the west” still existed; 2) The spatial agglomeration was one of the main characteristics of health pressure distribution, which could describe the spatial relations of geographic position and pressure index. This paper used the spatial autocorrelation and the global exponential of Moran’s I to study the spatial agglomeration. The spatial distribution of provincial pollution health pressure was not completely random. But instead it present the trend of spatial agglomeration, which meant that the high (low) pressure provinces were tend to adjacent high(low) level provinces. And compared with 2005, the space agglomeration in 2014 of pollution health pressure decreased; 3) Studying the convergence of temporal and spatial changes of health pressure helped learning the changing trends of health pressure, which could provide references for the formulation of relevant optimization policy. And the statistical test shown that the provincial pollution health pressure in 2005-2014 present the weak convergence trend while controlling the variables (urbanization rate, per capita GDP, population mortality and the forest coverage rate). And it meant that the provincial health pressure would be tend to the low-level convergence, in accordance with the continual decrease of health pressure difference and the weaker tendency of spatial agglomeration. Obviously, this article aimed at exploring the temporal and spatial differences characteristics of health pressure caused by environmental pollution in China, and the findings could provide references for government to optimize and coordinate the complicated relationships between environment and health.
基于土地出让视角,构建产业发展驱动力评价体系综合测度2009~2013年全国装备制造业的发展态势,借助ESDA分析方法和空间计量模型分析装备制造业发展的空间特征及其影响因素。研究表明：① 全国装备制造业的总体发展格局与宏观经济发展格局基本一致,呈现由东部沿海向西北内陆逐步递减的态势;② 依赖用地规模扩张的产业驱动结构仍有待突破,东部应进一步强化产业结构分工和土地资源市场配置;③ 国家政策扶持是装备制造业驱动格局形成的重要推动因素,城市化发展、企业集聚水平和基础设施优势对其发展亦具有积极作用。
The orderly spatial pattern of industrial development is an important driving force for the achievement of new-typed urbanization and industrialization in China. In view of industrial land transaction, the article derived a general evaluation system of industrial development driving capacity, and measured the developing status of China's equipment manufacturing industry during 2009-2013. The basic data for analysis were collected from the national dynamic monitoring system of urban land price. Then based on the ESDA analysis method and spatial econometrics modes, we further revealed the spatial characteristics of equipment manufacturing industry development and its influencing mechanism. Several results were acquired:1) The comprehensive evaluation system of industrial development driving capacity was composed of six transfer parameters and three driving indicators, respectively, including the degree of dominance, activity, agglomeration, association, marketability as well as premium of industrial land transaction, and the development level of industrial scale, industrial structure, market efficiency. On a macro scale, the above measuring method targeted land use mode and industrial development into an integrated analysis framework. It can reflect the industry developing trend through the mapping of industrialland supply pattern, and provide decision basis for industrial space organization and relevant resources regulation. 2) The general developing status of equipment manufacturing industry was consistent with the macroeconomic development pattern, presenting gradually decreasing trend from eastern coastal to northwest inland. The high-value area of industrial development driving capacity were distributed in the Bohai Rim region, the Yangtze River Delta and other comprehensive industrial base. The development drivingstructure of equipment manufacturing industrial should be further optimized that used to rely on the land use scale expansion. The eastern regions in China should strengthen industrial structure and regional division as well as the market allocation of land resources, meanwhile the central and western regions should speed up the industrial radiation. 3) The spatial-temporal differences of industry development was a synthesis result that affected by operating of land market and local conditions. The national policy support played an significant role in boosting the formation of the industrial pattern, and urbanization development, enterprise agglomeration, infrastructure advantage also had positive effect on China’s equipment manufacturing industrial development. More specifically, equipment manufacturing industry can be developed in an orderly pattern by propelling some effective national strategies, accelerating industrial transformation and upgrading in eastern area, and promoting infrastructure construction and expanding investment of major manufacturing enterprises in central and western areas.
The spatial structure of urban residence and employment is a classic topic in the geography and planning subject in that reasonable spatial structure can reduce spatial mismatch and improve urban livability of the city. However, limited studies have examined both residential and employment spatial structure together. Based on Beijing industry and commerce enterprise registration data and the sixth census data in 2010, we use factor ecological analysis method to evaluate urban residential and employment structure in Beijing and identify its area types from the perspective of various industries types. Results show that the spatial structures of employment and residence are both composed of three principal component factors in Beijing. The main factors of employment spatial structure include comprehensive services industry, circulation and real estate services, high-tech industries while residential spatial structure covers general services, circulation and consumer services, science technology and education industries as the main factors. In addition, there are obvious differences in spatial autocorrelation effect of each main factor. Residence and employment spatial forms in Beijing can be divided into 5 region types by grouping analysis method, that is residential clusters of the circulation and consumer services, compound types of the circulation and consumer services industries, compound types of general services, weak employment-strong residential compound types of science technology and education industries, strong employment-weak residential compound types of science technology and education industries. At last, we find that driving forces of spatial structure of urban residential and employment space in Beijing are related to history route dependence, market power, government forces and individual preference factor.
运用旅游空间相互作用理论,以旅游人数、旅游总收入为基础数据,利用旅游空间相互作用模型,测算辽宁省14市、长山群岛与辽宁省14市及长山诸岛3个层次的旅游空间相互作用强度、经济联系度及经济隶属度。得出结论：① 各层级间空间相互作用强度、经济联系度及经济隶属度与距离呈负相关,区域间的空间相互作用强度、经济联系度及经济隶属度随距离增大逐渐减小;② 城市间经济联系度越强,旅游空间相互作用越大,与海岛旅游空间相互作用就越频繁;③ 通过对长山群岛旅游断裂点测算,得出其主要潜在客源地为大连、沈阳、丹东市。
Land is the premise and guarantee of island tourism development, ocean exploration and development of space new land, so the island tourism interactive development has become one of the hot issues in academic circles. In recent years, with the development of marine economy, experts and scholars in various fields pay more and more attention to the sustainable development of marine economy. So island tourism has become an indispensable part. “land-island tourism integration” not only promotes the objective needs of the island's economic development, but also realizes the actual requirements of the development concept about “innovation, coordination, green, open, and sharing”. As is well known, with the economic globalization and regional economic integration becoming deeper, the economic relation and cooperation between regions also become stronger. Every region can not obtain any development in the state of isolation, except for the development of island tourism , so island tourism needs the powerful economic support of the country. Taking Changshan Islands and the 14 cities in Liaoning Province as an example, the author analyzed the relationship of tourism spatial mutual effects between islands and cities in mainland . These relationships have three basic conditions: tourism function complementary, the transferability of tourism elements and the opportunity to intervene. Using the spatial interaction intensity, the economic connection degree and the economic membership degree and other quantitative methods, the author drew the interaction and economic membership degree of different characteristics between the 14 cities, Changshan Islands and the 14 cities and Changshan islands in Liaoning Province. In order to clarify the relationship between the three in tourism development, this article gave some advice for their different relationship. The author suggested that fistly Changshan Islands and 14 cities in Liaoning Province should be implemented land-island Interaction and mutual benefit; secondly, the 14 cities in Liaoning Province need to cooperating with tourism industry each other, formed Point-Line-Surface comprehensive development; thirdly, the Changshan Islands must establish system to combinated and layer characteristic development of each island. The author summarized this part and gave opinions: 1) the interaction of tourism space, with the increase of the distance between the tourism economic link degree, the 14 cities in Liaoning Province and Changshan Islands showed negative correlation; 2) the greater between the city tourism economic link degree and the stronger interaction of tourism space, mutual and island tourism spatial effect more frequently; 3) according to the travel breaking point formula, Shenyang, Dalian and Dandong are the potential resources of tourism in Changshan islands. As is shown above, the author thought that the island tourist development need depending on land economical development, playing with land economy power and radiation force, and achieving mainland-island tourism integration.
In the context of both contemporary human development transformation and humanism booming, ‘living space’ has become a new perspective for human geographers to investigate the change of human-environment relationship, and the spatial view of integrating ‘pattern-connotation-implication’ has also become a new thinking to interpret the interaction of human activities and environment. So far, the researches on living space have focused mainly on the urban areas and their element space and space form. In contrast, little attention has been paid on the rural areas, juxtaposition space and three-dimensioned research. Rural living space refers to a polymer formed by the overlapping of everyday activities for rural residents in a certain territory, such as dwelling, employment, consumption and leisure, and also an organic body where spatial form, spatial implication and spatial meaning are inherently associated with each other. Due to differences in development environment and concrete national situations, post-modernization and counter-urbanization in developed countries has contributed to the post-rurality in rural space. There have been two highlights on rural living space in western academic circles. One indicates the diversification of living subjects in rural area in the context of post-productivism and the heterogenization of living space, and the other refers to life experience and spatial construction with respect to vulnerable groups who are “otherized” by urban social living or marginalized in space. Rural region in China has kept going through function transformation and spatial reconstruction, so it is a unique significance for the livable construction of rural living space. At the present stage, there are also two distinct characteristics studying on rural living space at home. From the view of contents, studies on changes in dwelling space and employment space of rural residents have been played more attention, while studies on consumption space and leisure space are as sparse as morning stars. From the view of methods, the empirical analysis in spatial forms has occupied a leading position, while the structural analysis in spatial implication and humanistic analysis in spatial meaning are expected to carry forward. Notably, it is hard for western studies on rural living space to be standardized. Studies on China’s rural living space own their distinct context. Effective analysis framework can be made from the view of space mutually unified by form, implication and meaning, applying the rational of deconstructing spatial pattern by environment, perceiving spatial connotation by relationship and interpreting spatial implication by impacts, and powerful analysis tools can be created based on various methods of spatial behavior analysis, employing the research methods of combing quantitative analysis and qualitative analysis, spatial analysis and statistical analysis; Which will focus on mainly exploring the features, mechanism and effects of the changes of the rural living space to reveal the change laws of rural human-environment. The expected achievements might amplify the research viewpoints, contents and methods of rural geography, and provide theoretical support for the sustainable development of the rural areas.
借助DEA模型和ArcGIS空间分析模块,对中国2002~2013年景区、酒店和旅行社三大行业效率的时序变化及空间格局演变过程进行系统分析。结果表明三大行业效率时空演变特征各不相同：① 无论是综合效率还是分解后的纯技术效率和规模效率,酒店行业平均效率值均最高,旅行社行业规模效率值最低,而景区行业纯技术效率值最低;② 从时序变化上看,酒店行业效率稳定性最高,景区行业波动性最强,旅行社行业最近几年下降趋势明显;③ 三大行业的旅游效率在空间分布上均存在东西差异,但酒店行业地区间差距在缩小,景区行业东西部间差异在缩小,而旅行社行业东西部间差距则在扩大。
Tourist attraction, travel agency and hotel are the three mainstays of the tourism industry. It is generally acknowledged that there should be a strong correlation between the three mainstays of tourism industry and a balanced, complementary relationship will benefit the overall development of regional tourism industry since every trip will inevitably involves the six elements which includes sightseeing, shopping, entertainment, food, accommodation and transportation. By using DEA model and ArcGIS spatial analysis model, this paper analyzes the spatial and temporal differentiation of efficiency of the three mainstays of tourism industry in 2002-2013. The results can be obtained as follows: 1) Tourist attraction industry has the lowest efficiency in the three mainstays, both in comprehensive efficiency, pure technological efficiency and scale efficiency. It shows that the input and output return of the Chinese tourist attraction industry is not stable and there is a certain investment risk on it. This is due to the large land area and higher initial infrastructure investment of tourist attraction. Therefore, more attention should be paid to avoid investment risks, and more effective benefit analysis should be done in the early stage of investment. 2) The spatial and temporal differentiation in the scale efficiency of the three mainstays is smaller than other two pieces of efficiency. This explains that the pure efficiency is still the dominant factor of the differentiation to comprehensive efficiency up to present. The benefits brought by technological innovation are still far smaller than the benefits of scale agglomeration. However, due to the decline in the scale efficiency in recent years, the technology innovation and application represented by information technology is very important to the future development of China’s tourism industry. 3) The spatial distribution of efficiency is different between east and west regions which shows that east regions are more efficient than west regions. The distribution of the standard deviation ellipse and the center of gravity are in favor of the eastern region, but differences between the three mainstays exists. The spatial pattern of attraction industry efficiency is influenced by the tourism resources and transportation factors. Its direction changes from northeast-southwest to the east-west, and further changes to the weak pattern of northwest-southeast direction. The spatial pattern of the hotel industry changes less because of its high stability. Affected by the overall economic and tourism industry development in the Midwest, the gap of hotel industry efficiency between west, middle and east is narrowing. Evolution of spatial pattern in travel agency industry efficiency shows the opposite trend. Middle and western regions are affected greatly by the changes in the demand for e-commerce and tourist demand compared with east part. The efficiency of travel agency industry has been impacted substantially and the gap is expanding between the three regions.
It is of significance in theory and practice to make a thorough study on dynamic mechanism of urbanization for the construction of new urbanization. However, nowadays researchers ignored the theoretical analysis on dynamic mechanism of urbanization, but turned to put the key point of research on statistical analysis. Based on Cobb-Douglas production function, this article establishes a new dynamic model of urbanization and its main influence factors: employment, capital and per capital technological progress, and takes social and economic data of China in 1990-2011 for the empirical study. The empirical results proved the rationality of the model put forward in this article, in which 98.83% of the change in China’s urbanization can be explained by the change of employment, capital and per capital technological progress. The result shows that capital is the most influential factor on urbanization, for each 1 % increase in capital will lead to a 0.656 5% increase in urbanization level from 1990-2011, twice more than that of employment. The result also shows that the employment plays an important role in China’s urbanization, with employment output elasticity increasing, the development of China's urbanization also speed-up, which could be concluded that the impact of employment is more and more evident over time. This research indicates that the result of urbanization varies with economic development model, and an economic development model dominated by heavy industry could lead to the lag of urbanization level. Thus, it is of equal importance between changing economic growth mode and keeping economic growth rate for the sustainable development of China’s urbanization. Differentiated economic development model is needed in different stages of the urbanization process. In the eastern China, economic development should be based on knowledge, technology-intensive industries, and more attention should be paid on technical progress, which will help to improve the quality of urbanization. In the central and the western China, economic development should be based on knowledge, technology-intensive industries, and more attention should be paid on the improvement of opening up, which will help to accelerate urbanization directly. What’s more, the status of employment should be elevated in economic development. A number of measures need to be instituted in order to promote the development of people-oriented urbanization, which include bring employment increase into government official promotion evaluation mechanism, carrying out labor skill training and increasing workers’ income. More efforts need to be made in changing economic growth mode and enhancing the statue of employment in economic development in order to keep rapid and healthy development of China’s urbanization.
以图们江下游跨国界地区圈河流域河岸沙丘为研究对象,运用遥感与GIS技术,结合遥感影像、地形图等资料,分析该区1984~2015年河岸沙丘空间分布与格局演变,计算河岸沙丘分维值与稳定性指数。结果表明：该区河岸沙丘主要分布在弯曲型河道东岸,呈WNW-ESE向带状展布,面积15.71 km2。近31 a沙丘面积总体呈减少态势,净减少0.09 km2,其中,较少有人类活动的A区,沙丘面积呈减少趋势,减少幅度为8.21%;而受人类活动影响较大的B区,沙丘面积持续增加,尤其近5 a增幅达32%。河岸沙丘分维值虽总体高于内陆沙漠沙丘,但变化不显著,说明河岸沙丘处于相对稳定的发育演化过程中。该研究为图们江下游跨国界地区生态环境可续持发展提供科学依据。
This article takes the riparian dune of the Quanhe River Basin as the research object which is in trans-boundary area of Tumen River downstream. Based on remote sensing and GIS technology combined with data of remote sensing images and relief map in this area during 1984 to 2015, the spatial distribution and pattern change of riparian dune were analyzed, fractal dimension value and stability index of riparian dune calculated and the formation mechanism and development mode of riparian dune discussed. The results show that the riparian dune of study area is distributed in right coast of the river mainly. The main aeolian landform type include parabolic dunes, barchan dunes and longitudinal dunes, covering an area of about 15.71 km2 and extending as a strip in WNW-ESE direction. On the whole, the aeolian sand landform area of A region is 7.06 km2, and the landform type is mainly composed of fixed parabolic dune. The area of aeolian sand landform in B is 8.65 km2, which is dominated by barchan chain. In resent 31 years, the area of sand dunes in the study area slightly decreased on the whole with a net decrease of 0.09 km2. Besides, the A region that is far away from human activities continued to decrease with a range of 8.21% by now. There appears a trend of continuous reduction during the period of 1984 to 2010 with a decrease of 0.67 km2 with the main performance being the fixed dunes because the vegetation was fixed with an increasing trend during the period of 2010 to 2015. The riparian dune of study area moves toward ESE-SE on the whole which is consistent with the main regional wind direction. The longitudinal section line of parabolic dune in A region extends as a strip in WNW-ESE direction; riparian dune appears as a forward migration in a way that spreads as the tongue shape at the leading edge, with an annual average moving rate of 1.8 m. The B region which is affected by human activities has a significant continuous increasing trend, and the increasing extent reached up to 32% in resent 5 years. It increased by 31% compared with the same period in A region, which also shows that the intensity of human activities greatly influence the development of sand dunes under the background of the same climatic change. The fractal dimension value of riparian dune is higher than that of desert dunes of inland area on the whole. However, there are no significant changes, which shows that riparian dune was in a relatively steady development and evolution process. The research provides scientific basis for sustainable development of ecological environment in trans-boundary area of Tumen River downstream.
With the appearing of new industry formats, the star-rated hotels have become an important driving force for the tourism industry development, and there is important practical significance to explore the management efficiency of star-rated hotels for the upgrading and innovation of tourism industry in China. Using panel data of the star-rated hotels of 31 provinces in China in 2004-2014, the article empirically analyzed spatial and temporal evolution characteristics of comprehensive technical efficiency and Malmquist indexes on the star-rated hotels by constructing the DEA-Malmquist model, and analyzed the influencing factors of their technical efficiency through building panel TOBIT regression model. The results showed that: Comprehensive technical efficiency of star-rated hotels increased year by year, but the efficiency value was still relatively low, and the low pure technical efficiency was the main constraints because of the scale efficiency changed little; Technology efficiency in 2013 and 2014 had significantly fallen compared to previous years, but the descent degree of 2014 had become smaller; Comprehensive technical efficiency in Eastern China was significantly higher than that of the Central and Western China, which was mainly because of its higher pure technical efficiency. The Malmquist indexes of star-rated hotels was overall enhancing in 2004-2014, and the technical progress change index was the main driving force to the ascension, though there were also violent annual fluctuations in some period; The Malmquist indexes in 2004-2010 was in a steady growth stage, and that of 2010-2014 was in a volatile fluctuation stage, especially the sharp decline in 2012-2013; Malmquist indexes in Eastern China was higher than that of the Central and Western China, which was mainly because of its significant advantages in technical progress. The technical efficiency of star-rated hotels was affected by many factors in China. The effects of the economic development level, the tourist number, the industry structure and the regional opening degree on the efficiency were significantly positive, while the impacts of the tourism income, the population urbanization, the infrastructure level and the informatization level were significantly negative. Therefore, in order to enhance the technical efficiency level of star-rated hotels, it needs to improve the tourism development quality, and adjust the industrial structure, and pay attention to the soft environment optimization for regional development, and deal with the challenges of informationization and other factors. To the development problems of the technical efficiency of star-rated hotels under the “New Normal Economy”, it needs to focus on improving the hotels’ development quality, effectively improve hotels’ operational efficiency, pay more attention to the advanced technology application, continuously optimize hotels’ development environments and so on.
Shanxi is one of the provinces with the highest density of ancient villages in China, and the spatial-temporal process of its ancient villages has typical meaning for research. This article studied the distribution and evolution of Shanxi’s ancient villages (303 famous traditional villages approved by national and provincial departments) by using such methods as historical time section analysis, historical documental analysis and GIS spatial analysis. We obtained the following conclusions: 1) The formation of Shanxi’s ancient villages has closely relationship with its regional development process, in which, the villages formed before the Song Dynasty (i.e. before A.D.960) mainly distributed in southern Shanxi, those formed during the Song and Yuan Dynasties (A.D.960-1368) mainly distributed in the central Shanxi, and those formed during the Ming and Qing Dynasties (A.D.1368-1911) still mainly distributed in central Shanxi but significantly increased in the northern Shanxi. Overall there was a trend of regional development from south to north. 2) As for the spatial characteristics of 303 ancient villages of Shanxi, of them, 63.70% located in basins; 67.66% distributed within the range of 10 km away from the rivers; 50.50% distributed along provincial boundaries; 41.58% and 43.89% respectively gathered in central Shanxi and the southern Shanxi. 3) Shanxi’s ancient villages could be divided into 4 types: agricultural, commercial, military and mining. Both the agricultural and commercial ones had the similar spatial distribution quantitatively decreased from the southern Shanxi to the northern Shanxi, instead, the military ones had a spatial distribution decreased from the northern Shanxi to the southern Shanxi, and mining ones were mainly distributed in the southern Shanxi. Of 303 ancient villages, 46.53% have been transformed, which mainly happened in the Ming and Qing Dynasties. And the most transformation happened from agricultural to commercial, military and mining as well as from military to commercial and agricultural. 4) In brief, the spatio-temporal evolution of Shanxi’s ancient villages revealed the regional exploiting and developing process of Shanxi Province from south to north, from plains to mountains and from the Central plains to beyond the Great Wall of China.
Urban ecological land plan in cities is an important foundation and premises for the protection of urban ecosystem. Rational planning and protection of the land for ecological use is an effective way to address ecological environment problem. In addition, they are also of strategic importance to safeguard the health and balance of ecosystem, and to establish ecological security pattern and spatial extension in cities. Ecological land plan does not only require the guarantee of index area and target amount, it also involves the insurance of a series of spatial objectives and limitation such as maximization of ecological interests, the integrity, intensiveness and compactness of ecological land, and urban spatial development. This article will propose Urban Ecological Land Plan Model (UELPM) based on Ant Colony Optimization. The article makes improvements in the taboo strategy, site selection mechanism. Additionally, it introduces the ecological suitability, spatial compactness and the index of nearest neighbor distance in the process of establishing plan objectives function. Furthermore it designs Trellis Algorithm of the nearest neighbor distance index. For instance, Guangzhou simulates its ecological land plan in different situation when ecological land takes up 15%, 30% and 50% of the city’s total area, which has achieved satisfying result. According to the research, UELPM which based on Ant Colony Optimization can not only set up objectives function and spatial limitations in line with different plan destinations and requirements, but also reasonably allocate the spatial distribution of ecological land. Compared to the scheme of plan ecological control line, the average suitability, spatial compactness and the nearest neighbor distance index are greatly improved in accordance with the spatial simulation result. In addition, all other indexes are superior to the traditional method like plan ecological control line. Therefore, it is meaningful to provide scientific support and reference to urban ecological land use and it also can find itself broad application prospect.
基于时间分辨率为逐月、空间分辨率为1 km的MODIS/NDVI数据,利用WS、S-G、A-G和D-L这4种重建方法对重庆市2010~2014年间历年逐月的NDVI时间序列数据进行重建,并采用视觉对比、分地类像元对比、相关系数（R）、均方根误差（RMSE）、赤池信息准则（AIC）和贝叶斯信息准则（BIC）对4种重建结果进行了评价。结果表明：S-G和WS重建后噪声少,S-G的曲线最为平滑,A-G与WS保真性较好。其中,A-G的R>0.8和RMSE<0.05的分布面积最大,分别占总面积的89.41%和66.40 %;WS次之,占72.76%和59.37 %。此外,在模型效果分析中A-G的AIC和BIC评价结果最佳,WS在其他3种方法BIC评价结果较差的渝西地区也有较好的评价结果。
Chongqing is located in mountainous area where the vegetation is rich. It is greatly affected by the fog all year round. As a result, the noise of remote sensing image is serious and the affected area is large which have a great influence on the accuracy of related application.NDVI is one of the most important vegetation index which has an important role in the study of global climate change, vegetation change etc. In this paper, the MODIS/NDVI data are used, the time resolution of the data is monthly and the spatial resolution is 1km. The NDVI data of Chongqing city from 2010 to 2014 are reconstructed by four smoothing techniques: WS, S-G, A-G and D-L. The results are evaluated by visual comparison, pixel contrast of different land use types,correlation coefficient(R),the root mean square error (RMSE), Akaike Information Criteria (AIC) and BayesianInformation Criteria (BIC). In the visual contrast analysis, the results indicate that the noise of S-G technique and WS technique is lower than the others. In the pixel contrast of different land use types, the curve of S-G technique is the smoothest.In the fidelity analysis, R and RMSE are used to evaluate of the original data and data reconstructed by four technique, the result of A-G technique and WS technique is better. It also indicates that the A-G technique have the widest distribution, the value of R larger than 0.8 accounts for 89.41% of the total area and the value of RMSE smaller than 0.05 accounts for 66.40% of the total area. The WS technique is better than the other two techniques, accounting for 72.76% and 59.37% of the total area respectively. In the model effect analysis, the AIC and BIC evaluation results of the A-G technique are the best. The evaluation results of WS techniqueis good in Western Chongqing where the BIC evaluation results of other threetechniques are relatively poor, the result of S-G method is the worst.
利用观测数据,运用非线性统计-动力学方法,反演系统各因子之间的相互关系,建立了东亚亚热带季风变化的动力方程,为研究东亚亚热带季风的驱动机制提供了量化参考。研究发现：过去2 000 a东亚亚热带季风是多因子通过反馈机制相互作用影响且具有耦合效应的复杂非线性动力系统,其驱动力主要来源于普若岗日冰芯δ18О代表的青藏高原热力作用强迫、太阳黑子活动、ENSO、温室气体单因子CO2和CH4浓度、北极温度和CH4及北极温度与7月太阳辐射的耦合作用机制;反馈调节作用主要源于7月太阳辐射与太阳黑子活动、CH4浓度、中国陆地地表温、CH4与7月太阳辐射以及CO2和CH4的耦合调节作用。并通过动力反演机制推论热带西太平洋对亚热带季风有一定驱动作用,但并不是主要驱动力,即驱动亚热带季风变化的主源地并不在热带西太平洋海区,石笋δ18О指代的也主要是夏季风信息。
In this article, a nonlinear statistical-dynamical model was used to inverse the interaction between different factors and the dynamic equation of the East Asian subtropical monsoon is established by using the observed data. It provides a quantitative reference for study on the driving mechanism of the subtropical monsoon in East Asia. Research shows that the East-Asian subtropical monsoon is a complex nonlinear dynamical system with multi-factors interacting by feedback mechanisms and coupling effectsover the past two millennia. Its driving force mainly comes from the Tibetan Plateau thermal forcing with the Puruogangri ice core δ18О, sunspot activity, ENSO, greenhouse gas CO2 and CH4 concentrations, and the coupling mechanism between the Arctic temperature and CH4, as well as the Arctic temperature and the solar radiation in July. Feedback regulation mainly comes from the solar radiation in July and sunspot activity, CH4 concentration, land surface temperature in China, the coupling regulation mechanism between the solar radiation in July and CH4, as well as CO2 and CH4. It is inferred that the tropical western Pacific has a certain driving effect on the subtropical monsoon of East Asia through the dynamic inversion mechanism, but not the main driving force, namely the main source that drives the subtropical monsoon changes is not in the sea area of tropical western Pacific, and stalagmite δ18О is mainly referred to the features of summer monsoon information.
将国内外应用较广的数字滤波法和分布式水文模型SWAT相结合,在进行基流时间特征分析的基础上,通过修正基流退水系数α、模型效率评价、重新运行模型、GIS空间插值和趋势分析等方法,创新性地实现了基流空间特征的可视化表达。研究结果表明：① 2001~2012年灞河流域年均基流指数（BFI）为0.43,总体呈增加的趋势。年降水量与年径流、年基流均呈明显的正相关关系,与年基流指数呈明显的负相关关系;② 基流年内变化较为稳定,在时间上存在秋季>春季>夏季>冬季、汛期>非汛期的关系。枯水期的基流指数高达0.78,表明基流是枯水期河流的主要补给来源;③ 灞河流域基流在空间上表现为自东南向西北、自上游向下游逐渐增加的趋势,这种空间分异规律是由流域的地势和河流流向决定的。
Baseflow plays an important role in maintaining the health and the ecological functions of rivers. Baseflow separation is also a hot topic of hydrology all the time. The article combines the Digital Filter Method and SWAT which is a distributed hydrological model and widely used at home and abroad. It creatively realizes the visual representation of the spatial features of baseflow on the basis of analyzing the time characteristics of baseflow and by correcting baseflow alpha factor, evaluating the model efficiency, rerunning the SWAT model, GIS spatial interpolation and trend analysis etc. The results show that: 1) The annual average Baseflow Index (BFI) of the Bahe River Basin from 2001 to 2012 is 0.43, presenting an increasing trend on the whole. The annual precipitation has a positive correlation with annual runoff and annual baseflow; but it obviously shows a negative relation between annual precipitation and annual Baseflow Index (BFI); 2) The change of baseflow is relatively stable within a year, and the base flow in different seasons tends to be: Autumn> Spring> Summer>Winter, while flood season is bigger than that of the non-flood season. BFI is as high as 0.78 in dry seasons, which shows that baseflow is the main replenishment source of river in dry seasons; 3) The baseflow of the Bahe River Basin tends to be an increasing tendency from Southeast to Northwest and from upstream to downstream in spatial terms. Also, such a spatial variation law is determined by the terrain of the basin and the direction of the river.
基于岷江上游山区藏-羌-回-汉聚落生态位和植被生境适宜性的空间分布,借助分形和贝叶斯模型,定量刻画聚落生态位的民族属性对山区聚落生态位的空间分布特征的影响。结果表明：① 岷江上游藏-羌-回-汉聚落生态位间隙度维数分别为0.949、0.942、0.890、0.960,汉族聚落生态位的高间隙度维数,揭示了山区汉族聚落封闭性特点。同时,流域内1 667个聚落生态位间隙度维数（0.946）与藏族（0.949）相似,表明藏族聚落生态位空间异质性特征能够反映整个流域山区聚落生态位空间分异程度。② 岷江上游藏-羌-汉-回聚落生态位内的植被生境适宜性指数均值分别为：2.816、2.622、2.529、2.644,说明山区聚落生态位的空间分布与植被生境相适宜。同时,流域内1 667个聚落生态位几何特征对植被生境的敏感程度（0.601）与羌族（0.610）相似,表明羌族聚落生态位的几何特征具有典型性。③ 藏-羌-回-汉聚落生态位的空间聚簇性地域分异明显、地理边界清晰,说明聚落生态位的民族属性对聚落区位、规模和形态具有显著影响。
The settlement ecological niche is the basic element for studying human-land relationship in the mountainous area, which could reflect located spatial position of the settlement vertically along the mountain and resources space available to the settlement for sustenance. It is an effective approach of studying mountainous environmental change and how the human adapted to its change by revealing inner mechanisms about spatial structure of settlement ecological niche and vegetation habitat suitability. Based on the spatial distributions of mountainous settlement ecological niche of individual nationality categories and vegetation habitat suitability in the Upper Reaches of the Minjiang River, this study quantified the affect of nationality category on spatial distributed characteristics of mountainous settlement ecological niche by use of Fractal and Bayesian Models. The detailed results are as following: 1) The values of lacunarity dimensions of Tibetan, Qiang, Hui, and Han nationalities settlement ecological niches were 0.949, 0.942, 0.889, and 0.960, respectively. The maximum value of lacunarity dimension appeared in the Han nationality settlement ecological niche, and indicated that its spatial cluster was lowest and spatial differentiation was highest. The minimum value of lacunarity dimension occurred in the Hui nationality settlement ecological niche, and indicated that its spatial structure was highest and spatial differentiation was lowest. It also suggested that spatial distribution of Hui nationality settlement ecological niche possessed closeness characteristic. Meanwhile, the lacunarity dimension of all 1 667 settlement ecological niches in the studied watershed was 0.946, which approximated to the lacunarity dimension of Tibetan nationality settlement ecological niche (0.949). It indicated that the spatial heterogeneity of Tibetan nationality settlement niche played an important role in the spatial differentiation of all mountainous settlement ecological niches. 2) The average values of vegetation habitat suitability index of Tibetan, Qiang, Han, and Hui nationality settlement ecological niches were 2.816, 2.622, 2.529, and 2.644, respectively, which revealed that the harmony between spatial distribution of mountainous settlement ecological niche and vegetation habitat suitability was high. The sensitivity of all 1 667 settlement ecological niches in the studied watershed to vegetation habitat suitability (0.601) was close to that Qiang nationality settlement ecological niche (0.610), which indicated that Qiang nationality settlement ecological niche can reflect the whole geometrical characteristics of all settlement ecological niches in the studied site. 3) Nationality type significantly impacted on the spatial location, scale, and pattern of mountainous settlement ecological niche, which led to stronger spatial differentiation, and clearer geographical boundaries of Tibetan, Qiang, Hui, and Han different nationality settlement ecological niches. In summary, the study on quantifying of mountainous settlement ecological niche in the upper reaches of the Minjiang River could provide the data support for spatial reconstruction and ecological construction of mountainous settlement. The proposed research framework in this study could be extended to other coexistent area of multiple nationality categories to identify spatial distributed characteristics of settlements.
对距高速公路不同距离样点中小型土壤动物多样性、相似性进行统计及典范对应分析（CCA）。共捕获中小型土壤动物9 994只,隶属3纲6目15科。研究发现：① 高速公路旁林地中小型土壤动物个体数高于农田;林地和农田中小型土壤动物多样性在样点和季节间存在显著差异（P<0.05）。② 林地距离高速公路5 m和1 600 m样点、农田距离高速公路5 m和800 m中小型土壤动物群落相似性较低。③ 土壤有机质含量是影响高速公路林地和农田中小型土壤动物群落分布的重要土壤环境因子。距离高速公路远的林地和农田样点（800 m和1 600 m）中小型土壤动物多样性高于近距离样点（5 m）中小型土壤动物多样性,与公路的运营对周边地区土壤理化性质、地表植被等的影响有关。
In the present study, an investigation of the composition, structure and diversity of the soil meso-microfauna was conducted in the Beijing-Harbin highway with Dehui city region. Sampling sites of 5 m, 200 m, 400 m, 800 m and 1 600 m away from the highway region were conducted in shelter forest and cropland habitat in May, August and October 2013. Diversity, similarity index and canonical correspondence analysis of soil meso-microfauna were statistically analyses. The results showed that we collected 9 994 individuals belonging to 3 classes, 6 orders, 17 families. Isotomidae, Mesostigmata and Oribatida were the most dominant groups in shelter forest and cropland habitat. Abundance of shelter forest soil meso-microfauna is higher than cropland. The results from the repeated measures ANOVA showed a significant sampling sites and sampling period influence on soil meso-microfaunal diversity in shelter forest and cropland habitat (P<0.05). The similarities of soil meso-microfaunal community between 5 m and 1 600 m sampling sites were lower than the other sampling sites in shelter forest habitat. The similarities of soil meso-microfauna community between 5 m and 800 m sampling sites were lower than the other sampling sites in cropland habitat. The canonical correspondence analysis results showed that the soil meso-microfaunal diversity was significantly correlated with content of soil organic matter in shelter forest and cropland habitat. Our results illustrate that diversity of soil shelter forest meso-microfauna is higher than cropland. Diversity of soil meso-microfauna of 800 m or 1 600 m sample points is higher than 5 m sample points in shelter forest and cropland habitat. The mechanism can be explained by vegetation type, human disturbance and environmental pollution.