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ISSN 1000-0690
CN 22-1124/P
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  • 地理科学
      2008年, 第28卷, 第2期 刊出日期:2008-03-20 上一期    下一期
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    论文
    长江三角洲地区人口分布演化与偏移增长
    段学军, 王书国, 陈雯
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (2): 139-144.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.02.139
    摘要   PDF (922KB)
    随着经济社会的快速发展,长江三角洲地区各城市之间人口分布发生了明显的变化,人口的流动和迁移正在成为长江三角洲16个城市间人口发展最为集中的矛盾点。采用密度分析、不均衡指数法、重心分析以及偏移-分享分析(shift-share analysis)等方法,分析改革开放以来长江三角洲地区人口分布演化的特征和规律,发现这一时期该区域人口分布演化呈现明显的阶段性,人口分布重心总体南移,向省市首府集中的趋势明显,人口偏移增长在不同区域层面具有明显的差异,这种人口分布演化的趋势主要受经济社会发展的驱动,同时也受到区域人口政策的影响。
    With the rapid economic and social development, population distribution among cities in the Changjiang River Delta has undergone significant changes. Population mobility and migration has come into being the most concentrated contradictions with respect to the population development of the cities in the Changjiang River Delta. Using the methods of density analysis, uneven index, gravity centre analysis and shift-share analysis, this paper studies the characteristics and law of the population distribution evolution in the Changjiang River Delta since the beginning of the reform and open-up of China, and furthermore, sums up to the following four points: First, the population evolution of the cities in the Changjiang River Delta shows different characters in three periods of the year 1980-1990, 1990-1997, 1997-2003. In the first period, the population growth shift is very large, and population distribution is centralized quickly. In the second period, the population uneven index and the population growth shift among the cities are decreased, but the population growth shift among six great regions is increased obviously. In the third period, the population distribution among the cities is centralized, and the shift extent of the population growth is increased. Because the population growth shift among the cities in the south of the Changjiang River is higher than that among the cities in the north of the Yangtze River, the overall population distribution center moves southward. The population growth shifts among the regions on each level are different, the regions’ level is higher, the population growth shift is lower, and the population distribution is inclined to more stable. Since 1990, on the condition of the market economy, although competition to attract the population, especially the high quality population, is very heat among the cities in the Changjiang River Delta, the difference of the population growth speeds of these cities is decreased and the centralization of population distribution comes down. Because of the variety of the position and function in the whole region, the traffic condition, and the level of the economic and social development, etc., Shanghai City, the capitals of Jiangsu and Zhejiang Province get more population growth shift in the study period, and the population is continuously centralized to these cities in this period. Anyway, since the beginning of the reform and open-up of China, the distribution of population among the cities in the region of the Changjiang River Delta has come through the visible change, which are mainly droved by the economic and social development, and it is also significantly affected by the policy of the regional population management.
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    产业集群与区域经济空间的耦合度分析
    王琦, 陈才
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (2): 145-149.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.02.145
    摘要   PDF (767KB)
    在现代工业经济时代,大工业的生产方式导致了地区主导经济活动方式分异的出现。因此,分散与集聚的并存已成为信息经济时代的世界经济发展特点。产业集群正是无边界的信息经济中的"平滑空间上的黏滞点",这也是产业集群与区域经济空间耦合关联的前提与基础。从产业集群与区域经济空间含义的角度,阐述了产业集群与区域经济空间耦合的涵义。在此基础上,利用系统科学的协同思想及复杂系统涌现性理论构建了二者之间的耦合度及耦合协调度模型,并总结了产业集群――区域经济空间耦合协调度与系统涌现性的关系。
    In the modorn industry period,large-scale industrial production has induced the difference of regional leading economic activities.So,the coexistence of dispersion and agglomeration has become the character of world economic development in the information economy era.Industry cluster is a "viscous point on smoothing space" in the borderless information economy,which is the premise and foundation of coupling(and associaton) between industry cluster and regional economy space.This paper states the meaning of coupling between industry cluster and regional economy space based on the signification of industry cluster and regional economy space.Base on this,it constructs coupling degree and coupling(coordination) degree model between industry cluster and regional economy space by using the synergetic thought of system science and the emergence theory of complex system,and then it summarized the relationship between coupling(coordination) degree of regional economy space and emergence property of system.
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    辽中城市群县域综合发展水平差异的时空特征分析
    桑秋, 张平宇, 高晓娜, 辛馨
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (2): 150-155.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.02.150
    摘要   PDF (1244KB)
    经济发展规模水平、社会发展水平及产业结构水平是影响辽中城市群发展差异的主要因子,2000~2005年经济发展规模水平因子由第二主因子上升为第一主因子;以指数方法测度,县域综合发展水平差距要小于经济发展规模水平、社会发展水平和产业结构水平的差距;城市群县域综合发展水平呈双核结构,具有南北分异、东西分异、高值西南集聚、低值东北集中的空间正相关性特点,呈现南北分异的空间变动特征,使各县域空间正相关性增强;在市域范围内,基本上距离市域核心越远,县域综合发展水平下降越多;大多数县域协调度下降,城市群整体协调状况不理想。
    Based on factor analysis method and ARCVIEW technology, taking central Liaoning Urban Agglomeration as an example, this paper makes a comprehensive assessment on the socio-economic development at county level, and reveals the actual characteristics and evolving characteristics of spatial disparity of urban agglomeration from 2000 to 2005. The results are as follows. Firstly, factors that mainly influence the interior development differentiation of Central Liaoning Urban Agglomeration are economic scale, social development, and industrial structure. Their weighs are different, and the economic scale had changed from second factor to first one from 2000 to 2005, which indicates that these three factors are not in a harmonious condition and the economy scale had been the main factor to prompt the comprehensive development of the urban agglomeration. Secondly, at county level, estimated by indexes, the absolute differentiation of comprehensive development level is smaller than that of economic scale, social development and industrial structure. Thirdly, Shenyang City and Anshan City have been both centers of Central Liaoning Urban Agglomeration, and north-south disparity and east-west disparity are forming. Fourthly, variability of comprehensive development level of county is severe, and it shows north-south disparity. By and large, comprehensive development level of county decreases step by step from a central county to a marginal county in the administrative region of a city. Finally, most counties were not in the harmonious development condition, and the harmonious degrees of most counties had descended from 2000 to 2005.
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    中国东北地区资源型城市棚户区改造与反贫困研究
    郑文升, 丁四保, 王晓芳, 李铁滨
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (2): 156-161.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.02.156
    摘要   PDF (797KB)
    东北地区资源型城市的贫困居民、贫困棚户区与贫困城市问题揭示的是中国当前日益突出的城市贫困现象,相关研究有助于提高地理学解决社会问题的实践能力。通过总结资源型城市沉陷安置区社区建设、居民就业、社会保障、接续产业发展等诸多问题,讨论了在棚户区的改造方式与安置位置选择、政府的贫困救助能力以及城市经济转型中,存在的不利于城市反贫困的主要障碍,并提出应通过采用灵活适用的改造模式、改善安置住房的区位条件、扩大救助贫困居民的地区援助、支持资源型城市自生能力增强等措施,促进棚户区长效改造、克服城市贫困。
    The shantytown is the result of city poverty. The resources-dependent city in Northeast China is the representative city of the shantytown and city poverty. The paper puts forward that the emphasis of shantytown reconstruction is to construct the circumstance of antipoverty, and the geography can research slum governance and city antipoverty through the clew of poverty denizen, poverty city zone and poverty city. The allocation uptown moved from the caved-zone in resources-dependent cities brings many problems,for example, the denizen’s living burden is aggravated, the location and scope of allocation uptown is not appropriate, the assistance ability of antipoverty to needy denizen from local government is very poor, and the transformation foreground of city economic is not very affirmative, etc. On the bases of these, many measures should be used in the resources-dependent cities to realize the sustainable shantytown reconstruction and accelerate city antipoverty, which includes advocating the flexible reconstruction pattern, improving location condition of allocation residence, increasing the assistance to poverty denizen from central government, and sustaining to enhance the spontaneity progress ability of resources-dependent cities.
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    老工业城市产业转型及其就业变化研究——以沈阳市为例
    董丽晶, 张平宇
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (2): 162-168.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.02.162
    摘要   PDF (865KB)
    老工业城市产业转型是区域经济中的一个独特现象,其成功与否将直接影响区域经济的发展。文章在深入分析老工业城市产业转型与就业变化两者互动关系的基础上,以典型的老工业城市沈阳市为例,探讨了沈阳市产业转型过程中的产业升级、产业替代和产业融合,对城市就业结构、就业制度以及就业文化方面的影响。最后总结了老工业城市产业转型与就业变化的特征,讨论了沈阳市在产业转型过程中促进就业的对策措施,以此为东北地区老工业城市产业结构的调整和就业政策的制定提供科学依据。
    An important issue affecting state security and economic prosperity is industrial transformation of the old industrial city in China’s regional economy, yet it still remains uncompletely resolved. Here we investigated the changes in the interaction of industrial transformation and employment in the old industrial city. There are three critical regional features on the changes. Namely, most of the old industrial cities rely heavily on resources-intensive industries and traditional manufacturing industries. Affected by industrial transformation, the workforce allocation of various industries is changing, which is going step further to make a difference on industrial-occupational employment structure. Generally, with the hard condition of layoff and unemployment, it is required to resolve the employment and re-employed problem for the old industrial city, so there are some changes of employment policies and employment institutions during industrial transformation. In addition, regarding the large state-own enterprises (SOEs) as the main part in the old industrial city, the behavior and idea of employee are strongly subject to the restrictions of the unit of enterprise. With accelerating industrial transformation, the employment cultures transfer from conservative culture to enterprise culture, from industrial culture to commercial culture. As a typical old industrial city in China, Shenyang's industrial transformation is a representative one. Shenyang preferentially constructed in the early times of the P.R. China, which has put an emphasis on the development of the secondary industry in terms of economic structure. Moreover, it has been suggested that its employment structure focuses on the secondary industry. With the reform of enterprises deepened constantly, such industries established in the planned economy mode, especially state-owned enterprises (SOEs), have brought a series of problems, such as increased unemployment rates and laid-off employee. Shenyang has thus become one of the major cities in china, with severe employment problems. Based on those cases, this paper explores industrial transformation of Shenyang from perspective of industrial upgrading, industrial replacement and industrial convergence. Then, it analyses employment effect on industrial transformation, which include the change of employment structures, institutions and cultures. The results indicate that there are still structural contradictions of employment and re-employment, though Shenyang has reformed on the state-owned enterprises and urban economy from the mid-1990s. Finally, we discuss the countermeasures of employment enhancement during revitalizing the old industrial base in Northeast China, developing port cities, constructing the new northern developing area and the western industrial corridor of Shenyang, which involve in developing the tertiary industry and diverse nonpublic ownership economies, increasing labor-intensive industries and small and medium-sized enterprises, accelerating reformation of the state-owned enterprises and perfecting the social security system, etc.
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    基于引力模型的江西省经济区划与协调发展研究
    徐辉, 彭萍
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (2): 169-172.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.02.169
    摘要   PDF (772KB)
    根据江西省11个地区的区域经济发展的客观实际,基于国内生产总产值GDP、人口规模及空间距离等因素,运用引力模型和0~1整数规划模型对江西省进行经济区划,区划结果表明,江西省可划分为4大经济区。同时就各经济区的协调发展提出了相应的对策与措施。
    According to situations of regional economic developments of eleven cities in Jiangxi Province, based on the factors of GDP, population scales and spatial distance, using gravity model and 0-1 integral programming model, this text proprosed a view to the division of ecnomic regions in Jiangxi Province. The result of the division indicates that Jiangxi Province can be divided to four economic zones. At the same time,the paper put forward the cooresponding countermeasures and propositions on the coordinated development in the economic zones. The research of this paper provided a new quantitative analysis, with a good application prospect.
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    半城市化地区城乡一体化协调发展模式研究——以成都市双流县为例
    王开泳, 陈田, 王丽艳, 袁弘
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (2): 173-178.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.02.173
    摘要   PDF (1498KB)
    随着城市化的快速推进,城市对周边地区的影响力也不断增大。城乡之间的经济联系也越来越紧密,城乡互动发展的态势日益明显。在一些经济发达的半城市化地区,可以推进城乡一体化进程,不断提升城市化的质量,促进城乡协调发展。以成都市双流县为例,在充分认识城乡一体化协调发展模式内涵的基础上,深入分析双流县目前的城乡一体化发展特征,作为制定城乡一体化协调发展模式的依据和基础。在充分把握双流县与成都市的互补关系与一体化趋向的基础上,贯彻功能区的思想,制定了推进双流县城乡一体化协调发展的发展模式。对推进中国城市化进程,实现城乡一体化提供有益的参考。
    In the metropolis fringe area, as communications between urban and rural area are intensive, urban space develops rapidly and land use changes sharply. With the rapid urbanization, the effects of city on surrounding areas become more and more obvious. The economic communication between urban and rural area become more and more compact, and the interrelations between them are strengthened constantly. In some developed quasi-urbanization areas, the opportunity of realizing integration of urban and rural area is mature. As a case study, Shuangliu County is analyzed, which is a typical quasi-urbanization area, lying in the fringe area of Chengdu metropolis, and where many factors lead to its imbalance and circle—like spatial structure. Based on the concept of harmonious development of integration of urban and rural area, this paper analyzed the development characteristics of integration of urban and rural area in Shuangliu County, which can be come the base and gist to make harmonious development model of urban and rural integration. Based on the understanding of interrelated relationship and integration trend, it explored the harmonious development model of urban and rural integration in Shuangliu County, which is beneficial to the acceleration of urbanization and realizing the urban and rural integration.
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    劳动力跨地区流动与地区差距
    严浩坤
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (2): 179-184.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.02.179
    摘要   PDF (849KB)
    中国区域间的劳动力流动对地区差距有着重要的影响。但是,劳动力流动对地区差距究竟是起了扩大作用,还是缩小作用,已有的研究并没能形成一致的结论。基于中国的转型背景,认为中国特有的户籍制度及其相应的配套政策构成了劳动力区际流动的制度约束,这种制度约束使不同类型的劳动力流动方式不同。进而分析了劳动力流动方式对地区差距的影响。研究结论表明:转型期中国区域之间劳动力流动,尽管流动方式不同,但都在一定程度上扩大了中国地区差距和城乡差距。
    The labor interregional mobility in China has important effects on the interregional disparity of China. However, no common conclusion about the labor interregional mobility enlarging or shortening the interregional disparity is drawn from the present researches. Based on the background of institutional transformation of China, this paper suggests that the household register system and the supporting policies endemic to China constructed the system restraints on the labor interregional mobility. These characteristic systems, including the household resister system and the supporting policies, gradually became a kind of "permission system" for those labors who move from one region to another in China. There are two different modes of labor mobility restricted by the "permission system" of ingoing place during the period of institutional transformation of China. One is the mobility of labors qualified above the critical threshold of permission rules of ingoing place, and the other is under. Author calls the former one as the mode of labor migration mobility, and the latter the mode of labor wandering mobility. As the critical threshold of permission rules is mainly the requirement for labor's quality, the labors of high quality always use the mode of labor migration mobility while the labor of low quality can only use the mode of labor wandering mobility. This paper further analyzes the impact of mode of labor mobility on interregional disparity. This research result shows that high quality labors interregional mobility in the period of institutional transformation of China does enlarge the interregional disparity, which is in common with the conclusion of experience. The difference from previous research conclusion is that low quality labors interregional mobility in the period of institutional transformation of China can increase the average income level of comparatively undeveloped areas, and it also enlarge but not shorten the interregional disparity and the rural-urban disparity of China to some extent due to the characteristic system restraints in China.One significant attempt of this paper is to introduce the word "labor quality" into the analysis of the labor interregional mobility. It divides the labor mobility into high quality labor's interregional migration mobility and low quality labor's interregional wandering mobility on the base of the institutional transformation background of China, and further analyzes separately their effects on regional disparity. Therefore, it is probably much more close to the real situation of China, compared with those researches without considering the institutional transformation background of China and the quality differences of the labors who move interregionally. The significance of this paper also includes that author constructs a unified theoretically analytical framework aimed to analyze all kinds of labor mobility in China, which is different from most of the existing research documents.It is known that the rural-urban disparity and regional disparity of China are enlarging in recent years. There are many causes inducing this phenomenon. This paper explains the phenomenon from perspective of the labor interregional mobility, which is possible to help the governments make polices.
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    基于DEA方法的城市土地利用经济效益分析——以哈尔滨市为例
    宋戈, 高楠
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (2): 185-188.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.02.185
    摘要   PDF (516KB)
    以哈尔滨市建成区土地利用作为研究对象,结合哈尔滨市所处发展阶段及土地利用现状特点构建评价指标体系,以DEA方法为手段,用Matlab软件进行数学计算,对哈尔滨市2001~2005年城市土地利用经济效益进行定量分析和评价。哈尔滨市土地利用经济效益水平一般,且土地投入有冗余。提出加强城市存量土地利用、注重不同用地类型的投资比例、调整产业结构三方面入手提出提高哈尔滨市土地利用经济效益的建议。
    In recent years, the adjustment of administrative divisions has changed in the city land scale, the land utilization structure and its using way. Adopting scientific and effective methods in appraisal economic benefit of urban land utilization economic benefit become more important. This article takes landuse in Harbin built-up district as the object of research, combining Harbin development as well as the present situation of landuse and construct evaluating indicator system. It takes DEA (Data Envelopement Analysis) as method and operates with Matlab to appraise Harbin land utilization economic benefit from 2001 to 2005. According to the analysis result, it may be seen that Harbin City land utilization economic benefit level is ordinary and its land investment has been sufficient. Accordingly, the article proposes three facets to improve Harbin City land utilization economic benefit, such as strengthening the use of existing urban lands, as well as paying more attention to the investment ratio of different land types and the adjustment of the industrial structure.
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    区域土地资源人口承载力理论模型及实证研究
    哈斯巴根, 李百岁, 宝音, 乌敦
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (2): 189-194.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.02.189
    摘要   PDF (1062KB)
    在传统食物型人口承载力基础上,引进表征土地资源经济产出的货币型人口承载力来综合考虑土地资源人口综合承载力,建立了区域土地资源人口承载力模型。并以呼和浩特市域作为研究区域,运用系统动力学(SD)原理与方法,在不同情景下模拟了土地资源人口承载力,得出较优的发展方案,即到2020年呼和浩特市域食物型人口承载力为310万人,货币型人口承载力为1 723万人,综合人口承载力为1 000万人口,货币型人口承载力多出食物型人口承载力5.56倍,货币型人口承载力对综合人口承载力的贡献远超过了食物型人口承载力的贡献。
    Taking the territory of Hohhot City as the study area, and based on dissipation structure theory and the principle and method of system dynamics, a model of regional population carrying capacity of land resources was developed. The results of the simulation show that the medium scheme is the optimal one, then by 2020 the area of farm land will have been reached to 52.42?104 ha, the area of grassland 61.86?104 ha, the percentage of forest cover 35.04%, the value of GDP at 2789.01?108 yuan (RMB), the population 372.34?104, and all the indexes showed above are between the range of high scheme and low one. From the food-population carrying capacity, the result is low scheme> mudiem scheme>high scheme; from the currency-population carrying capacity, the result is high scheme> mudiem scheme>low scheme; from the population comprehensive carrying capacity, the result is high scheme> mudiem scheme>low scheme. The food-population carrying capacity, currency-population carrying capacity and population comprehensive carrying capacity will be 3.1?106 person, 17.32?106 person and 10?106 person respectively in 2020, which indicate that the contribution of the currency-population carrying capacity to the population comprehensive carrying capacity will exceed that of the food population carrying capacity greatly. The suggestions are taken seriously in development and protection of resources and environment while developing the economy, intensifying the rebuilding of the environment, harmonizing the relationship between the economic development and the environment, making up the insufficiency of food population carrying capacity by developing the economy, improving the population comprehensive carrying capacity and promoting social and economic sustainable development.
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    基于GIS的采煤塌陷区土地复垦项目规划设计研究
    王慎敏, 金晓斌, 周寅康, 张伟
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (2): 195-199.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.02.195
    摘要   PDF (1449KB)
    土地开发整理是现阶段中国实现耕地总量动态平衡的重要途径,采煤塌陷区土地复垦是其中重要的组成部分。受塌陷沉降的影响,采煤塌陷区具有地形破碎、微地貌起伏交错和土壤养分流失严重等特点,其在土地复垦项目的规划设计中面临的问题较一般区域复杂。在分析采煤塌陷区土地复垦规划设计流程与方法的基础上,借助GIS技术,将地形图中等高线进行栅格化处理,并根据得到的数据生成三维地形模型,对项目区地形进行模拟,并分别从复垦适宜性评价、项目规划择优以及项目工程设计三方面进行了实证研究。
    Land reclamation and readjustment play an important role in keeping dynamic balance of cultivated land amount, while mining subsided land reclamation is one of the important parts. Caused by mining, mining subsided land possesses special characters, such as terrain fragment, undulation of micro-topography, leanness of land nutrient, etc., which make it much more complexity in planning and designing of land reclamation project. Based on the principle and method analysis, we grid the contour lines on the topographic map, and build 3D regular data field based on digital contours to get 3D terrain model, modeling the terrain of the project area. And land reclamation suitability evaluation, project plan and selection and engineering design were discussed, aided by Geographic information system (GIS), to provide method for the planning and designing of the land reclamation project in the future.
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    长春高新技术产业开发区绿地景观生态规划
    付瑶, 汤洁, 梁喜波
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (2): 200-204.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.02.200
    摘要   PDF (1744KB)
    开发区作为中国工业化和城市化快速推进的主要增长极和载体,承受着城市经济和城市建设带来的巨大环境压力。结合长春高新技术产业开发区绿地建设现状,指出绿地数量少且分布不均,城市建设大量挤占绿化用地,绿地布局结构和网络体系不够完善,绿地建设特色不突出是开发区绿地系统存在的问题。在此基础上,确定了到2020年开发区绿地率为45%,人均绿地面积为35.97m2,人均公共绿地面积为29.24 m2等绿地规划总体控制指标;提出了点、线、面相结合的"一环、两带、流绿、线网、多园"的环网式的绿地系统空间模式;从基质、廊道、斑块等景观生态要素规划了不同尺度绿地系统建设思路。
    Development area endures big environmental press which comes from urban economy and urban construction as mostly increase pole and carrier of Chinese industrialization and urbanlization advancement. Considering the green land construction status quo, the article indicates that urban construction impropriates green grass land and green land distribute unbalanced, and that green land layout and network are not perfect and characteristic of green land construction do not stand out in development area. Based on this, we set green land rate as 45%, green land area as 35.97m2 per capita, public green land area as 29.24m2 per capita, and green land commanding index of general plan before 2020. We bring green land system space mode of "one ring, two strip, flowing green, line net and gardens" which unites dot, line and side of plan. From landscape ecology factors such as base, corridor, block and so on, we plan green land system construction train of thoughts in different measure.
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    西藏交通社会效益评价及优化研究
    梅虎
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (2): 205-208.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.02.205
    摘要   PDF (180KB)
    通过选取28个具体指标,构建了西藏交通社会效益评价指标体系,并运用AHP法和李克特量表法定量评价了三种交通方式产生的社会效益。结果显示,政治影响在西藏交通发展中处于主导地位,须加大航空业的发展;同时指出西藏综合交通体系的构建应以西藏历史、地理及现状为基础,综合各种交通方式特点,重点考虑各种交通方式对西藏相对社会效益价值后确定其发展规划、建设和投资。
    After selecting 28 indexes, an evaluation system for social benefit of transportation in Tibet was established, and then the social benefits of aviation, highway and railway were evaluated via the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and Likert scale in this paper. According to the result, it is evident that the political significance is the most important index in the development of transportation, and there is good social benefit to develop aviation in Tibet. It is also suggested that the constructing of transportation system should be based on conditions of history, geography, and actuality in Tibet. What’s more, the development on each vehicle, combined with their characters, should be taken into account of the relative social benefit of transportation to invest and plan. In terms of the above study, it may be helpful to support a direct, macro control to construct transportation system, and achieve development between transportation and society harmoniously in Tibet.
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    "省公顷"在小城镇生态足迹分析中的应用研究——以山东省晏城镇生态建设为例
    冯娟, 赵全升, 谢文霞, 安乐生
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (2): 209-213.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.02.209
    摘要   PDF (968KB)
    为了更真实地反映同一个省内镇域的生态负荷及其生态容量现状,在综合分析了有关生态足迹模型的优缺点后,提出以"省公顷"为计量单位计算小城镇生态足迹的模型。用全球公顷(gha)和省公顷(pha)两种方法分别对晏城镇2004年生态足迹进行计算。计算结果表明:晏城镇2004年生态足迹采用gha 方法的计算结果为1.711 hm2/人,采用pha方法计算结果为1.210 hm2/人;该镇生物承载力采用gha 方法计算结果为0.985 hm2/人,采用pha方法计算结果为1.034 hm2/人;前者计算得到晏城镇生态赤字为0.726 hm2/人,后者为0.176 hm2/人。比较晏城镇和山东省各类土地类型的生态赤字/盈余,得出了晏城镇在耕地、林地和建筑用地都存在生态盈余,在化石能源用地、水域和草地存在生态赤字,分析造成生态赤字/盈余的原因,并提出相应对策。
    For more truthfulness to reflect the ecological footprint(EF)and biocapacity of small towns in the same province, the paper synthetically analyzed and compared the merits and shortcomings of Ecological Footprint Model, and proposed pha(provincial hectare)as a new area unit to calculate small towns’ EF. For comparison, the EF within Yancheng Town(2004)was calculated in gha(global hectare)and pha, with both results compared and analyzed. The results showed that the EF within Yancheng Town(2004)was 1.711 ha·cap-1 and the biocapacity was 0.985 ha·cap-1, as a results, the ecological deficit was 0.726 ha·cap-1. If using gha as unit area, the three indices mentioned above were 1.210 ha·cap-1, 1.034 ha·cap-1 and 0.176 ha·cap-1. By comparing the ecological deficit/ surplus of land types within Yancheng Town and Shandong Province, it showed that the cultivated land, residential site and built-up land and forestland of Yancheng Town had ecological surplus, but, wasted land, water field and grassland had ecological deficit. The paper analyzed the main cause of the differences and proposed corresponding countermeasures. By comparing the EF within Yancheng Town, Shandong Province, China and world, it indicated that the ecological situation within Yancheng Town in 2004 was beneficial for a relatively sustainable track of development. It is found that using pha to calculate small towns’ecological footprint is well worth studying in application and some problems of calculation must be improved and perfected.
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    耕地与建设用地变化驱动力比较分析
    赵小汎, 代力民, 陈文波, 于大炮, 周莉
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (2): 214-218.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.02.214
    摘要   PDF (570KB)
    基于南昌市新建县1991~2005年土地利用和自然社会经济数据,采用数理统计分析方法,定量综合探讨耕地和建设用地变化驱动力。结果表明,社会经济因子对耕地、建设用地变化驱动方向和强弱顺序表现差异性;驱动因素同一性主要表现在,经济发展状况、城镇化水平和人口增长是耕地和建设用地变化的驱动因子主分量;相同驱动因素的影响敏感性也表现出差异性。
    In order to discover the similarities and differences of driving forces on cultivated land and construction land changes, based on year-by-year renew investigation and statistical data involving nature, society and economy from 1991 to 2005 in Xinjian County of Nanchang City, driving forces of cultivated land and construction land use changes were analyzed synthetically and quantitatively in terms of mathematical statistics methods. Results indicated that driving factors display difference. Socio-economic factors make negative urge on cultivated land use change, relatively, and positive urge on construction land use change. And the sequences in strength of each socio-economic driving force on cultivated land or construction land show distinction. The similarity was manifested mainly in that the economic development, urbanization level and population growth are main components of all driving factors on cultivated land or construction land. Identically driving main components also displayed discrepancy in order of strength. For cultivated land, the sequence is economic development, population growth and urbanization. However, for construction land, that is economic development, urbanization and population growth. The research results contribute to knowing quantitatively and comparatively driving forces on cultivated land and construction land, and point out a way for land use change mechanism research.
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    基于EMD分析的山东省土地承载力的动力学预测
    张衍广, 林振山, 梁仁君
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (2): 219-223.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.02.219
    摘要   PDF (234KB)
    利用经验模态分解(EMD)方法对1949年以来山东省耕地变化和粮食生产波动的周期进行分解,运用动力学建模方法对山东省未来20年耕地数量和粮食产量进行数值模拟和预测。结果表明:山东省粮食生产存在 3.5、7.5、10和20年左右的4个周期;山东省耕地面积存在9、12、35和57年左右的4个周期。山东省粮食生产量呈上升趋势,由于粮食种植占用土地比重过大,易引发生态问题。调整农业种植结构,缩减粮食种植比重,易引发粮食安全问题。
    Land resources carrying capacity security is a very important issue which has a significant influence on the social stability of both a country and a region.Meanwhile,the fluctuation of grain output has a close relation with land resources carrying capacity security.Thereby,the researches on the periods,amplitudes and characteristics of the fluctuation of grain output and its causes are propitious to reduce the intensity of the fluctuation,to eliminate unfavorable factors,and further to keep the stability of grain output to insure land resources carrying capacity security.Empirical Mode Decomposition(EMD) is a powerful method for analyzing the nonlinear and non-stationary time series.Therefore EMD method was introduced to study the fluctuation of grain production in Shandong Province,and the data have been decomposed into two imfs and a residual trend term.The conclusions are drawn: The fluctuations of grain output have 3.5-year,7.5-year,10-year and 20-year time scales.Shown from the residual trend term,the grain output has increased continually since 1949.By using dynamics modeling method,grain yields in future 20 years were simulated.Looking from the grain yield that the Shandong Province grain productivity assumes the trend of escalation and according to the existing farming inventory and the historical trend of development that there is not the grain short problem in Shandong Province.But we cannot depend upon the expansion of sown area to increase the grain yield,to guard against the initiation ecological questions.
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    增暖背景下中国东北地区极端降水事件的演变特征
    杨素英, 孙凤华, 马建中
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (2): 224-228.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.02.224
    摘要   PDF (917KB)
    利用中国东北地区93站1959~2002年逐日降水资料,研究该区极端降水事件时空演变特征,结果表明:东北地区极端降水事件阈值由东南沿海向西北内陆逐渐减小,6~9月是极端降水事件集中出现月份;1985~2002年是极端降水事件偏多,且为一突变现象;东北地区短时间内连续发生极端降水事件概率较大,其中1~5天时间间隔极端降水事件占23.7%;80年代中期后东北地区增暖背景下,极端降水事件和有1~5天时间间隔的极端降水事件明显增加,特别是松花江下游和牡丹江流域及西辽河上游地区,频次和强度存在增加或增强趋势。
    Determination of the threshold by Gamma distribution function and study on spatial and temporal change of precipitation extremes are based on the daily precipitation data of 93 stations during the period 1959-2002 in Northeast China. The main results are summarized as follows: The precipitation extremes’ thresholds decreased gradually from the southeast littoral areas to the northwestern inland. Precipitation extremes were concentrated in June-September, and the increasing was a catastrophe during the period 1985-2002. The probability of the precipitation extremes successively occurred was greater, in which the neighbouring extremes separated by a time gap of 1-5 days was 23.7%. The total extremes increased especially in the lower reaches of the Songhua River and the Mudanjiang River,and the upper reaches of the Liaohe River,as the same with the precipitantion extreme with the time gap of 1-5 days.
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    中国典型季风海洋性冰川区“冰川-径流” 系统的全球变化敏感性研究
    李宗省, 何元庆, 贾文雄, 庞洪喜, 院玲玲, 宁宝英, 刘巧, 和献中, 宋波, 张宁宁
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (2): 229-234.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.02.229
    摘要   PDF (1211KB)
    分析多种数据和资料,再现海螺沟冰川过去100年来的冰川进退过程,分析发现,冰川末端变化阶段在滞后期的基础上,与北半球和中国气温变化的阶段相对应。运用水量-物质平衡法恢复海螺沟冰川45年来的物质平衡变化情况,通过相关性检验发现,物质平衡变化与北半球和中国同期(1960~2004年)气温变化表现出显著负相关。20世纪80年代全球加速变暖,海螺沟冰川冰舌段消融速率为7.86 m/a,冰川河径流量年际和季节变化表明流量主要贡献者是冰雪融水。分析表明,全球变暖是冰川后退、持续亏损及径流量增加的主要原因。
    The monsoonal temperate glaciers in China are located in the region of the southeastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, and these monsoonal temperate glaciers have obvious response to global change. This study takes "glacier-runoff" system of the Bingchuan River Basin of Hailuogou in Gongga Mountain region as research object, because this area has abundant information and data about glacier change. The research have found two important results: (1) The glaciers in Gongga Mountain have sensitive response to global warming since the early of the 20th century, based on glacier-variation data and mass balance data over the past 100 years; (2) glacial runoff has also sensitively corresponded to global warming since the 1980s, as indicated by observed hydrological and climatic data. In conclusion, there is a "glacier-runoff-global change" organism in monsoonal temperate glacier region of China, therefore, "glacier-runoff" system is very sensitive to global change. And what’s more, the result indicated that global changing is the main cause of glaciers retreat, glaciers ablation and runoff rise.
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    夏季风期间青藏高原地形对降水的影响
    张杰, 李栋梁, 王文
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (2): 235-240.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.02.235
    摘要   PDF (1394KB)
    利用高分辨率的3″数字高程模型资料,青藏高原东部102个常规气象观测站5~10月份的降水资料,采用多元逐步回归的方法,分类建立青藏高原雨季逐月降水量和6个地理、地形因子间关系模型,估算青藏高原地区雨季降水量空间分布。结果表明,以此方法建立的青藏高原降水量与诸因子间方程的相关性显著, 通过置信度0.95 的检验,相对误差在20%内;受季风影响,高原东部地区降水呈现出南北差异,降水高值中心也出现北进-东移-南撤的分布特征,反映了季风水汽输送规律;地理因子、高度及局地地形因子对降水的空间分布的影响有很大差异。
    By using high resolution 3″DEM data, precipitation data from May to October of 94 weather stations in the east of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, based on multivariable stepwise regression method, the estimating model of monthly precipitation are done combined with terrain factors. The result shows that the estimated results of precipitation are very well, relative errors are less than 20%, the correlative coefficient pass the test of 0.95. Under the influence of summer monsoon, the precipitation distribution is different in the north and the south region, and the high value center of precipitation is developed south, moved east and withdraw south, which reflects the transferring law of water-vapor of monsoon. The influence of terrains factors on precipitation is marketable.
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    基于复杂性测度的中国洪灾受灾面积变化研究
    尹义星, 许有鹏, 陈莹
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (2): 241-246.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.02.241
    摘要   PDF (941KB)
    采用复杂性测度方法来进行中国洪涝灾害受灾面积变化的研究。结果表明:(1) 20世纪80、90年代中国洪灾受灾面积及其复杂度均持续上升,说明洪灾剧烈,而且复杂多变、不确定性增加;进入21世纪,两者趋缓或下降,即中国洪涝灾害有所缓解;(2) 从分省区的结果来看,洪灾受灾面积的未来趋势具有区域特征,主要可划分为两个加剧的区域和两个减缓的区域;全国各省市区依据受灾面积趋势可划分为4个等级,在此基础上给出中国的未来洪灾受灾面积趋势图。
    China is a country with large flood-prone area, thus the research on flood is of great significance. The theory of complexity has provided completely new method for the research on the complex system of flood disaster. To detect the tendency in the future, we apply the method of information entropy to analyze the flood-affected area variation by using the flood disaster data of the whole country and 31 provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions. The results are as follows. The average flood-affected area and its complexity increased very fast in the 1980s and 1990s of the 20th century, so that flood disaster was more changeable and its uncertainty increased. However, entering the 21st century, both of them relieved or decreased slightly. As for the provinces, the paper discovers the regional character of future’s trend of flood-affected area. The whole country may be classified into two flood intensified regions and two flood alleviated regions. The paper classifies the provinces of the whole country into four ranks according to the flood area tendency, and a map of future’s tendency of flood disaster area is given at the end.
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    咸阳市三原县新庄不同植被土层含水量研究
    赵景波, 牛俊杰, 黄芳
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (2): 247-252.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.02.247
    摘要   PDF (642KB)
    通过测定咸阳市三原县新庄2005和2006年降雨正常年份人工林地土壤含水量得知,从地表向下土层含水量呈由高到低再到高的变化;2005年草地和玉米地土层含水量由上向下呈逐渐增高趋势,比同年12龄杨树林地和13龄中国梧桐林地平均含水量高约7%。2003年降水量达880 mm丰水年后,人工林土壤干层中水分完全恢复,人工林出现持续近4年茂盛生长期,预计2007年该区将会再次出现发育弱的土壤干层。
    According to the measurement of soil moisture underground from zero to six metres of 12-year-old Chinese poplar, 13-year-old Chinese parasol, grassland and the corn land in Xinzhuang Village of Sanyuan, we studied the changes of soil moisture in different soil layers of 0-600 cm under different vegetation. The results show that from the upper to the lower, the soil moisture in artificial forest land changes from high to low, then to high in 2005 and 2006 with normal annual precipitation. The soil moisture in grassland and corn land is about 7% more than that in artificial forest land, and it become more and more downwards. After abundant annual precipitationl of 880 mm in 2003, the average soil moisture in the soil layer of 200-400 cm under 12-year-old Chinese poplar, 13-year-old Chinese parasols in 2005 and 12-year-old Chinese poplar, 13-year-old Chinese parasols in 2006 were higher than those in the dried soil in 2001, which indicates that if the precipitation were increasing, the dried earth layer would become non-dried earth layer. If the annual precipitation were up to 880 mm, the soil moisture could meet the normal growth of artificial forests for about 4 years. Guanzhong Plain and areas with similar annual precipitation are suitable for developing of forests basically. But because of the influence of weak dried earth layer, the forests can’t grow well. According to consuming amount of the soil moisture at 2% per year after the rainy year, weak dried earth layer will appear again under artificial forests in 2007 in Guanzhong Plain if mean annual precipitation is normal. The rainy year is the important supplying period of water for underground water in this area. Water seeping from soil to groundwater is normal in rainy year with a mean annual precipitation about 880 mm and lasting three years after the rainy year.
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    内蒙古高原东南部森林-草原交错带的地形-气候-植被格局和植被恢复对策
    何思源, 刘鸿雁, 任佶, 印轶
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (2): 253-258.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.02.253
    摘要   PDF (639KB)
    探讨内蒙古高原东南缘森林-草原交错带地形-气候-植被格局,表明植被分布受气候和地形综合影响,在区域尺度上,随降水量减少阔叶林逐步由桦林向栎林、山杨林转变,针叶林更为接近森林旱极;在局地尺度上,阔叶林多分布在蒸发微弱、土壤容重较小的陡阴坡,草原分布在对应的阳坡上,非地带性榆树疏林分布在毛管作用微弱、蒸发小的沙地上。交错带植被建设应在降水量允许范围内优先考虑针叶树;其次要考虑坡向、坡位对土壤水分条件的影响,森林应尽量栽植在坡度10°~40°的阴坡;在区域和局地尺度上都应注意造林密度以及乔灌草结合,沙地不宜栽植密林。
    The landform-climate-vegetation patterns of forest-steppe ecotone on the southeast of Inner Mongolia Plateau were revealed and the result showed that vegetation distribution was affected by the combination of climate and landform. Regionally, forest community type changed along precipitation gradient from reletively humid areas to arid areas as birch, oak and popular forest, and needle leaved forest was distributed closer to forest drought limit. Locally, broad-leaved forest was distributed mostly on shady slope where evaporation was weak and soil bulk density was low and steppe on sunny slope with strong evaporation. Elm woodland was distributed on sandy land with weak capillary force and little evaporation. Based on these results, we pointed out that first, regionally when choosing tree species, their individualistic precipitation limitation should be in primary consideration; second, in microzone with the range of appropriate precipitation, considering the effects of slope aspect on soil water condition, forest should be nourished on shady slope with an angle of 10 to 40 degree; third, local species, forest density and combination of tree, shrub and grass must be taken into account on both regional and local scale, and it is inappropriate to grow dense forest on sandy land.
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    青藏高原春季植被变化特征及其对夏季气温的影响
    李洪权, 范广洲, 周定文, 华维, 刘雅勤, 李学敏
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (2): 259-265.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.02.259
    摘要   PDF (1292KB)
    分析1982~2001年NDVI和青藏高原地区台站气温资料,得到结论:近20年来春季高原植被总体呈明显的增加趋势,其中以高原北部、西北部和南部日喀则附近地区的植被增加最明显。高原NDVI与季节同期和滞后的气温以正相关为主。春季NDVI与滞后0~3季气温都表现为正相关,尤以高原春季NDVI与夏季气温的相关更为显著。高原春季NDVI如果处于异常偏小(或偏大) 状态,同时高原的北部和中西部是较明显的NDVI负距平(或正距平)分布时,则高原地区夏季气温具有整体上(或大部分地区)偏低(或偏高)的倾向,平均气温和最高气温在高原西部和北部表现明显,对最低气温的影响的关键区位于高原的中南部和东南部。
    Based on the monthly Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data that is made by GIMMS workgroup of NASA and the monthly air temperature data from 55 stations in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau for the period of 1982 to 2001, the change characteristic of spring NDVI and the relationship between the spring NDVI anomaly and the summer air temperature have been studied by using the methods of Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF), correlation analyse and Singular Value Decomposition (SVD). The results are summarized as follows: (1) Spring vegetation presents obviously increased direction over the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, especially there are more obvious increase in the north and northwest of the plateau and the vicinity of Xigaz?. The mean and maximum air temperature are increased obviously in the north and northwest of the plateau, and the obvious area of minimum air temperature is located in the mid-east of the plateau. (2) The positive correlation between NDVI and air temperature lags 0 to 3 seasons. (3) The correlative coefficient spatial distribution between spring NDVI and summer mean temperature is consistent with its distribution between spring NDVI and maximal temperature. The obvious region of positive correlation is located in the west and northeast of the plateau. The spatial distribution of positive correlative coefficient between spring NDVI and summer minimal temperature is obvious in the northwest and southeast over the plateau. (4) The plateau summer air temperature has a close connection with the preceding spring NDVI. When spring NDVI is abnormally low (or high) over the plateau, and it is obvious negative (or positive) anomaly in the north and the mid-west of plateau, then the summer mean and maximum air temperature are low (or high) in the whole or great part of the plateau, especially obvious in the west and north of the plateau. The influence of spring NDVI on summer minimum air temperature presents consistent positive correlation in whole area, and the key area is located in the mid-south and southeast of the plateau.
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    新疆玛纳斯湖变迁的气候和构造分析
    史兴民, 李有利, 杨景春
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (2): 266-271.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.02.266
    摘要   PDF (1477KB)
    在卫星影像分析、野外调查的基础上,结合前人研究的资料研究,玛纳斯湖的气候演化背景和区域构造活动背景。然后从玛纳斯湖水面高低和空间位置两个方面讨论玛纳斯湖的演化历史。指出第四纪以来玛纳斯湖出现6次高湖面,经历古玛纳斯湖向北迁移-古玛纳斯湖盆形成-退缩-解体-衰竭的演化过程。
    Manas Lake is located at west of Junggar basin. Manas Lake changes are concerned with tectonic movement, environmental change, drainage development and so on. Based on satellite images, field work and previous research, climate background and tectonic background of Manas Lake changes are analyzed in this paper. Manas Lake change history are discussed from lake surface and location change. There are six high lake surface from the Quaternary Period. The Palaeo-Manas Lake moved from south to north, so Manas Lake basin came in being, and subsequently Manas Lake underwent an evolutionary process from shrink to separation and exhaustion.
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    新疆地区表土孢粉空间分布规律研究
    罗传秀, 郑卓, 潘安定, 安放舟, BEAUDOUIN Celia, 黄康有
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (2): 272-275.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.02.272
    摘要   PDF (487KB)
    中国新疆地区表土花粉研究结果展示了干旱区主要孢粉的空间分布规律,大部分表土花粉属种的地理空间分布与含量与相应植物的分布区域基本一致,藜科、蒿属、麻黄属及木本植物云杉属、桦木属等花粉普遍呈超代表性,柽柳属花粉呈低代表性。干旱区主要草灌木表土花粉数据的聚类分析结果可以基本反映本区植物群落的主要生态组合类型。主成分分析进一步表明该区草本和灌木花粉分布主要受水文和湿度等因素控制。
    The present study analyzes the pollen distribution in Xinjiang Region. The results show clearly that pollen percentage localities are accordant with their dominant community of vegetation. Artemisia pollen has relative high percentage on the Kunlun Mountains, the Altay Mountains and around Junggar Basin. Chenopodiaceae pollen occur widely on the Altay Mountains, Junggar Basin, the Tianshan Mountains and the Kunlun Mountains. Ephedra and other shrub pollen occur highly around Tarim Basin. The distribution of tree pollen, such as Picea, Betula , is mainly on the Altay Mountains and the Tianshan Mountains. The results of cluster analysis can reflect the main ecology assembalges of plant communities in study area. The result of principal component analysis confirms that the distribution of steppe and shrub pollen are mainly controlled by hydrology and humidity factors in study area.
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    江陵地区全新世早期人类活动的孢粉记录
    谢远云, 李长安, 王秋良, 殷鸿福
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (2): 276-281.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.02.276
    摘要   PDF (979KB)
    江陵剖面沉积物孢粉提供全新世早期人类活动的证据。早期人类活动始于6 200 a B.P.,人类大规模活动始于3 400 a B.P.。随着定居点扩大和人类活动加强,地表土壤侵蚀严重,入湖的陆源粗颗粒物质和营养物质增多。湖泊沉积物表现为粗颗粒含量迅速增加,各粒径波动频繁,TOC、TN和C/N的高值以及有机质δ13C的低值。2 500 a B.P.以后,沉积环境发生了显著变化,由湖泊及湖沼堆积转化为洪水漫滩堆积,气候变干,人类逐渐撤离该地区。
    The evidence of human activities around Jiangling area was revealed by sporo-pollen records from sediments in the Jiangling section, Hubei Province. The preliminary human activities started from about 6 200 yr B.P., marked by cultivation on economic crop Papaverraceae and the increased occurrence of pasture plant, such as Labiatae and Plantago. The increased herbs of pasture and crop suggested the primitive stockbreeding and agriculture in the study region. The human activities increased from about 4 700 yr B.P. The broad-leaved trees of Betula and Ulmus, and the aquatic herbs of Myriophyllum, and the spore of Selaginella and Microlepria, started to appear continuously in large amounts, and the weed plants of Artemisia had a speedy increase. The human activities were mainly agricultural planting and grazing near settlement, yet with small piece of economic trees. The large-scale human activities started from 3 400 yr B.P., the Gramineae content ascended fleetly, suggesting the extension of farmland around the lake shore. The broad-leaved trees of Betula, Ulmus, and the herbs of Papaverraceae, Labiatae, Plantago, Artemisia, Chenopodiaceae, Myriophyllum, and the spore of Selaginella, Microlepria had a evident increase. The increases in broad-leaved trees and weed herbs indicate the expansion of settlement around which broad-leaved trees were replanted. The extension of settlement and the enhancement of human activities resulted in the enhanced erosion of surface soil and the increase of coarse particle matters from land and nutritive material. The lacustrine sediments were characterized by the prompt increase of coarse materials, and frequent fluctuation of different forms of grain size, and high value of TOC, TN, and C/N, and low value of organic matter δ13C. The sedimental environment came to evident variance after 2 500 yr B.P., that is, lacustrine and limnic deposit became to floodplain deposit, and human evacuate from Jiangling area by degrees.
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    芜湖市城市边缘区土壤重金属污染空间特征研究
    阎伍玖
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (2): 282-285.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.02.282
    摘要   PDF (437KB)
    通过对安徽省芜湖市城市边缘区14个典型土壤采样点重金属As、Hg、Pb、Cd、Zn、Cr污染现状的调查与分析,以本地区自然土壤中重金属元素自然含量的平均值作为评价标准,分别计算出各调查区土壤单因子污染指数,应用对应分析技术,初步研究了芜湖市城市边缘区土壤重金属污染的空间分异特征。结果表明,芜湖城市边缘区土壤重金属污染已相当显著,且各区域间土壤重金属污染水平具有明显的差异。总体上看,鸠江、马塘、西江等样点较其他区域污染严重,各区域间Pb、Hg污染水平差异明显,但As、Cd、Zn、Cr污染水平差异不大。
    On the basis of the data on As, Hg, Pb, Cd, Zn, Cr heavy metal contents of soils sampled from 14 depth profiles in the periurban zone of Wuhu City, Anhui Provice, the status of soil pollution by heavy metals was studied by use of background contents of these elements under the natural soil condition. Meanwhile, the correspondence analysis method was applied to studing spatial differentiation of metal heavy pollution of the sample soils. The study indicates that on the whole the most of heavy metal existing in the sample soils quite resulted in obvious pollution. Different features of pollution were revealed in different regions. In general, the pollution is more serious in Jiujiang, Matang, and Xijiang area than in the other regions. It was also demonstrated that there was no significant spatial differentiation in contents of heavy metals in the soils, except Pb and Hg.
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    吉林省不同水系的高锰酸盐指数、化学需氧量和总有机碳的相关关系比较
    袁懋, 董德明, 花修艺, 张立辉
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (2): 286-290.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.02.286
    摘要   PDF (719KB)
    通过对吉林省四大水系的主要河流在2005~2006年内采样,测其高锰酸盐指数(PV)、化学需氧量(COD)和总有机碳(TOC),用最小二乘法对PV—TOC、COD—TOC和COD—PV进行线性回归,并进行相关关系的显著性检验,建立吉林省四大水系主要河流PV—TOC、COD—TOC和COD—PV的定量关系模型。结果表明,吉林省四大水系主要河流中PV—TOC、COD—TOC和COD—PV之间均具有显著的线性相关关系,不同水系的线性相关关系之间存在一定的差异。
    Water samples were taken from four main river systems, i.e. Songhuajiang River system, Tumenjiang River system, Yalujiang River system and Liaohe River system, in Jilin Province in year 2005 and 2006, and the permanganate values(PV), chemical oxygen demand(COD)values and total organic carbon(TOC)values were measured for these samples, respectively. The quantitative relationships between PV and TOC, COD and TOC, and COD and PV values of water samples collected from the four river systems were analyzed using the linear least square regression method and the significance levels were also tested. Based on these analyses, the models that described these relationships were also established. The results indicate that there are significant linear correlations between PV and TOC, COD and TOC, and COD and PV values of the four river systems. Due to the different location and the different composition, these relationships between PV and TOC, COD and TOC, COD and PV values of different river systems are distinctive. Comparatively, PV value is more suitable to describe less polluted water while COD value is more suitable to be used for polluted water, but TOC value is the best one of the three parameters which can reflect the pollution condition of the water samples more factually.
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    哈达山水利枢纽对第二松花江下游地区汞污染的影响
    张仲胜, 王起超, 邵志国, 张磊, 张秀武
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (2): 291-295.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.02.291
    摘要   PDF (919KB)
    通过调查第二松花江10个典型断面沉积物、江水中总汞及江水中不同形态的汞浓度,研究了建坝对于库区汞污染的影响。建坝之后,由于水文条件改变,悬移质发生沉降,库区沉积物中汞浓度将会增加,库区会变成汞的汇。库区下游出水处江水汞浓度将降低至0.032 μg/L。每年通过推移质输沙向库区输入约4.37 kg汞,通过悬移质输沙向库区输入约856.8 kg汞。由于输沙的影响,每年将会在库区形成厚约1.23 cm的沉积物。库区上游沉积物的再悬浮、水库淹没区汞的溶出,对库区汞通量影响不大。
    With economic development, a dam will be built on the Hadashan, which was on the downstream of the Second Songhua River. The total mercury contents in sediments, those in water and the different mercury contents in water of ten sample sites were investigated in order to discuss the impact of the dam on the mercury pollution of the reservoir which would form after the dam was finished. It showed that the suspend particles would deposit resulted from the hydrological conditions changed, which led to the rise of total mercury contents in the reservoir formed by the dam. In the reservoir, the mercury would be sunk. Total mercury contents in water of the drainage site of the reservoir would reduce to 0.032μg/L. The reservoir would be imported in 4.37 kg mercury in the processed particles and 856.8kg mercury in the suspend particles every year. About 1.23cm depth of sediment would be formed by the bedload transported by water in the bottom of the reservoir. The total mercury of re-suspend particles in the upstream of the reservoir and the released mercury in the submerge area have no significantly impact on the mercury pollution of the reservoir.
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    基于SVM的泥石流危险度评价研究
    原立峰
    地理科学. 2008, 28 (2): 296-300.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2008.02.296
    摘要   PDF (228KB)

    选取泥石流一次(可能)最大冲出量(L1)、泥石流发生频率(L2)、流域面积(S1)、主沟长度(S2)、流域最大相对高差(S3)、流域切割密度(S6)和泥沙补给段长度比(S9)7个因子作为泥石流沟谷危险度评价因子,运用支持向量机理论,以云南省37条泥石流沟的259个基础数据为样本进行学习训练和测试,建立泥石流危险度评价的支持向量机模型,通过实例验证,取得良好效果。


    In order to improve the limitation of traditional debris flow hazard assessment methods, a SVM-based debris flow hazard assessment method was proposed. Seven factors including the most volume of once flow (L1), frequency (L2), watershed area (S1), valley length (S2), watershed relative height difference (S3), valley incision density(S6) and the length ratio of sediment supplement (S9) were chosen as assessment factors of debris flow hazard degree. Using support vector machine (SVM) theory, selecting Radial Basis Function, and using trial-and-error method for optimal selection of parameters, C=8, r=2. Thirty seven debris flow channels with 259 basic data in Yunnan Province were selected as training samples, and an assessment model based on SVM was created. The model was applied to evaluating debris flow hazard degree of Jishi Valley hydropower station of Huanghe (Yellow) River. Assessment result consistency came to 73.33% comparing to fuzzy mathematic method. The results show that the model has advantage of best generation, high training speed, and convenient for modeling through an instance application. It will be thought as being broad application scope that SVM was applied to hazard assessment of debris flow.

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