To determine the direction and the field of research is the soul of discipline development. Humanistic and Economic Geography is a subject changing in both research field and even research direction. Recognition of research fields and disciplines for Humanistic and Economic Geography is essential. On the basis of combing the main branch development stage of Humanistic and Economic Geography in China for decades, the paper summarized the response of Humanistic and Economic Geography to the transformation development background of the social. On the one hand, the intersectionality of the discipline should be insisted, with the theory of ‘man-land’system as the direction and the combination of theory with practice being adhered. Humanistic and Economic Geography scholars should be with a new attitude and new vision, to think about the future development of discipline key fields, the development idea and the innovation of the theory and method. For the major problems which disciplines involved in a long time, strategic and consultative, predictive and summative work will gradually increase. In the paper, the development trend of some important fields such as information and social space economic organization, the new pattern of regional economy and‘New Urbanization’were expounded; some new ideas about ‘international hot spots’and ‘international frontier’, the theory research and the relationship between the theory and practice were proposed; and then the author put forward the suggestion that‘Humanistic Geography’to be renamed as‘Humanistic and Economic Geography’.
Taking large enterprises those headquarters in the Yangtze River Delta as samples, different ownership enterprises’ organization network evolution characteristics, types and the driving factors are analyzed after the reform and opening up. The main conclusions are as follows: State-owned enterprises organization network has evolved from independent star-like enterprise network to administration center network; While multinational companies organization network is center radiation network, and evolved to the multi-center network; Private enterprises organization network has evolved from small groups discrete network to multi-center flat network. In the network density view, state-owned enterprises rise at first, and then decrease; multinational company was the downward trend, private enterprise was on the rise. In the network structure view, state-owned enterprises network structure was balanced after concentrated; Multinational companies and private enterprises are tending to equilibrium. State-owned enterprises’ important network nodes are concentrated in administrative center cities; multinational companies’ important network nodes are concentrated in higher grade center cities and south of Jiangsu region; private enterprises’ important network nodes are concentrated incenter cities, private economy developed counties and small cities. Enterprise network can be divided into 3 types: local type, hub-and-spoke, multi-center flat. Most local type enterprises are resource-based, policy-based state-owned enterprises and private enterprises rooted in the local place. Hub-and-spoke type enterprises include all three kinds of enterprises. Most multi-center flat type enterprises are Large multinational companies and private enterprises. The type of enterprise space organization network is closely related to enterprise development phase. The evolution of enterprise space organization network was driven by factors in four dimensions: Enterprise expansion mode and organization structure adjustment as the factors inner-enterprise. Enterprise network governance as the factor between enterprises, including industry alliance and cooperation of enterprise functions. Regional assets and in fras tructure are the factors of regional level. Regional assets is the result of economies of scale and scope economy with “technology-organization-regional”. The conditions for enterprise organization diffusion are created, while the difference of regional in frastructure and industrial facilities is narrowing. Institution and technology are the factors of the forth level. In the economic transition period, institutional change and regional policy can influence the evolution of enterprise spatial organization network, “Time-space compression” technologies can also lead to the same influence. Those factors promote the evolution of enterprise spatial organization network structure to the equalization and multi-center flat form.
采用国家知识产权局1985~2013年中国电子信息产业联合申请发明专利信息数据,借助Ucinet、ArcGIS、Stata等分析工具,对中国电子信息产业创新网络特征、结构、演化、绩效进行了分析。研究发现：① 知名高校和大型企业是中国电子信息产业创新网络重要的科学知识源和技术知识源,也是创新合作优先连接主体,与美国跨国公司、西欧中小企业是创新网络科技知识源的特点不同;② 创新网络呈现“核心-边缘”模式,创新网络结构的“小世界网络”特征越来越明显;③ 本市、境外是创新合作最重要的空间载体,地理邻近有助于隐性知识交流,在国内合作创新网络构建中发挥着重要作用,技术邻近是促成境外合作创新的重要基础,进一步验证了Bathelt等学者倡导的关系经济地理学假说;④ 提高网络地位、占据结构洞位置能够提升主体创新绩效;⑤ 创新网络内部作用机理的地域差异明显,网络结构根植性对发达地区创新一般有负面影响,地理邻近对发达地区创新主体的创新绩效影响不显著,但地理邻近却有利于欠发达中西部地区创新主体间的隐性知识交流,有助于创新绩效的提高。因而,应引入“网络资本”来分析网络主体的创新绩效,弥补中心地理论中基于规模等级分析主体创新能力的传统做法。
In recent years, the innovation network metaphor has become commonplace within the economic geography, with a large and growing body of scholarly research focused on analyzing the impact of innovation network structures on knowledge flows and innovation outcomes. By using Ucinet, ArcGIS and Stata, this article aims to analyze the topology structure, spatial structure and the evolution of innovation networks of China’s electronic information industry, and the relationship between network structure and innovative performance based on the co-patent data issued by the State Intellectual Property Office of P R China from 1985 to 2013. The main findings of this study are drawn as follows. 1) The innovation network scale of China’s electronic information industry has a rapid growth from 1985 to 2013. From the university perspective, those actors at the center of the network are Tsinghua University, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Peking University, Zhejiang University, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Huazhong University of Science and Technology and Xi'an Jiaotong University. From the perspective of firms within the network, Huawei, Haier and China Mobile are found to possess the highest rates of centrality. It is noticeable that prestigious universities and large enterprises are the most influential actors within innovation network of China’s electronic information industry, and through their structurally central positions they are the most important bridging and connecting agents in the process of building innovation networks. The network characteristic is found to be clearly different from the United States and Western Europe, multinational corporations and small enterprises holding central and influential positions, respectively. 2) The overall structure of collaborative innovation networks features a “core-peripheral” paradigm and “small world” network properties, whereby dense clusters of network actors are linked to other clusters via a relatively small number of bridging links. 3) City level and overseas level are the major geographical scales of collaboration innovation. Geographic proximity plays an important role in increasing the likelihood of actors inside of China to form innovation partnerships, while technological proximity is the base for the foreign collaborative innovation. Knowledge sourced from external providers is considered to be a key factor within innovation processes of China’s electronic information industry. This finding offers support for “local buzz and global pipelines” hypothesis proposed by Harald Bathelt. 4) Analytically, the significant relationship is found between network structure and the rate of innovation. A strong network position and structural hole of an actor tends to increase their innovative performance. 5) The analysis has shown that structural embeddedness has negative impacts on innovation actors in eastern China. In general, the results demonstrate that knowledge flows among innovation actors in the leading regions to be unnecessarily spatially constrained, as opposed to innovation actors in central and the western China, geographic proximity facilitates tacit knowledge communication and improves innovation performance. In summary, it is clearly that the network space occupied by actors, defined by the nature of the relationships, may be equally, if not more important than the geographic space within which actors are located and interact. In order to better understand the innovative performance of actors, it is necessary to consider the notion of “network capital”, which refers to the value actors gain from the knowledge they are able to access from their networks as a means of innovating.
Implementation of smart growth provides the valuable experience for land intensive development and urban renewal in China. However, there is scant theoretical research focusing on the actual operation mechanism of smart growth policy. Existing literature on the applicability of American smart growth under China’s context primarily focuses the demonstration of policy rationality and how to make it localize and ignore the local operational mechanism which helps the macro policy achieve good effects. This research believes that the primary reason why American urban space achieves smart growth is largely due to the polycentric governance. This study firstly defines the stakeholders of polycentric governance (i.e. government, interest group, civil society and electric media), as well as their occupied resources, interest demand and value norm. Besides, it further divides these stakeholders into two groups in accordance with their relations with land rights. Then it establishes the well-rounded supporting system, including fund supporting, technology supporting and information supporting. Such comprehensive supporting system illustrates how the resources exchange among different stakeholders enable them achieve their objectives within the polycentric governance network. Furthermore, this research summarizes 4 operational mechanism of smart growth, including governmental top-down soft control of capital and guidelines and maintain mechanism of public order, promotion mechanism of cooperation and competition between government and interest group, feedback and supervision mechanism of implementation based on the citizens’ right, and whole network information releasing mechanism with the electric medium as the center. Such 4 operation mechanism enable the smart growth policy obtain great achievements on controlling of urban sprawl. In the final part, this study rethinks and makes a comparison on land development between China and America to point out useful suggestion on the path of China’s urban growth, which combines intensive incremental land expansion and stock renewal.
以长江三角洲为案例区,以1996~2013年为研究期限,选取1996、2002、2007、2013年4个重点年份,分别从班轮航线、班轮密度、空间联系3个方面分析长江三角洲集装箱班轮网络的空间格局与演化,共涉及74家船公司、10 726条集装箱班轮航线。研究表明：18 a来长江三角洲集装箱班轮网络空间结构趋于集中,与箱流的空间结构变化呈现相反趋势;上海港集装箱班轮航线数量、班轮密度领先于其它港口,国际枢纽港地位不断强化,宁波港虽在班轮航线、班轮密度增速方面超越上海港,但班轮网络组织能力明显落后于上海港;长江沿线基本形成以上海港为枢纽港,太仓、南京、张家港和南通港为干线港、其它港口为支线港的集装箱班轮运输网络;上海港和宁波港的关系已由原来主要依托沿海班轮支线联系的喂给关系演化为依托国际班轮航线联系的竞合关系。
Research based on shipping line has been the frontier issues and hot areas in the western port geography for the past few years, but it is still weak in the domestic. The article selects the Yangtze River Delta as a case because of the most active global container transport and better Liner network, with study period from 1996 to 2013 years and four key years of 1996, 2002, 2007, 2013. Respectively, the article has explored time-space evolution of container liner network in the Yangtze River Delta from shipping route, liner density and spatial linkage, involving 78 liner shipping companies and 10 726 container liner routes. Analysis shows: the spatial structure of container liner routes has tended to concentration in recently 18 years, and shows the opposite tendency of spatial structure of container flow. In the liner routes quantity and liner density, Shanghai port has been ahead of the other ports and its international hub has been constantly strengthen for the last 18 years. Although, the Ningbo’s growth rate has been greater than Shanghai, but compared with Shanghai, it still has a large gap in the liner network organization. In the Yangtze River liner network, it has basically formed a container liner shipping network with Shanghai as an international hub port, with Taicang, Nanjing, Zhangjiagang, Nantong as trunk ports and other ports as feeder ports. From the spatial linkages of container ports, the connection between Shanghai and Ningbo port has transformed from mainly relying on coastal liner routes to international shipping route, and their relationship also has evolved from feeding relationship to competing relationship.
Based on the panel data of 27 subsectors of manufacturing industry of 17 cities in Shandong Province from 2003 to 2014, using the share of the city’s manufacturing output accounting for the province’s total manufacturing output, the article analyzed the characteristics of the temporal and spatial pattern of the manufacturing industry and three sectors in Shandong Province, then investigated the main influencing factors based on the Spatial Durbin Model (SDM). The conclusions are as follows. Firstly, on the spatial distribution of manufacturing industry in Shandong Province during the past 12 years, it showed the decreasing trend from the east to the west, as well as the pattern of spatial clustering in eastern region toward to the mid and west region. As to the change of spatial distribution, since 2007 the total manufacturing industry showed the transfer out from the eastern costal region to the inland region, and the northern region in Shandong Province has become an important region of attracting industry. For the change of subsectors, most of the manufacturing subsectors, especially the textile, furniture manufacturing as the representative of the labor-intensive sectors, were accelerating the transfer from the eastern region to the inland. Secondly, there is obvious spatial autocorrelation for the distribution of manufacturing industry, showing that the distribution of manufacturing industry at the city level is impacted by the geographic location and adjacent relation. The expansion of the scale of local market and enterprises, the improvement of transportation infrastructure and human capital level contributed to increase the share of manufacturing industry in the region, while the rising labor cost was the constraint factor of the development of manufacturing industry in Shandong Province. Due to the spatial spillover, the improvement of transportation infrastructure could promote the manufacturing industry of the neighboring regions, but both the expansion of the scale of local market and enterprises showed inhibitory effects. And the human capital had no obvious effects. Lastly, the article put forward some suggestions of the development of manufacturing industry, such as improving the level of human capital in east region to promote the industry upgrading, and investing on the transportation infrastructure in the mid and west region, and establishing the regional cooperation mechanism of economic integration and so on.
将产业生态系统引入到海洋研究中,开展海洋产业生态系统适应性研究,界定海洋产业生态系统适应性的内涵及特征;采用均方差赋权法进行权重赋值,构建海洋产业生态系统适应性评价指标体系与评估模型,分析环渤海地区海洋产业生态系统的适应性时空演变及影响因素。结果表明： 从整体来看,环渤海地区海洋产业生态系统适应性差异较大,主要问题是环渤海地区各省市海洋产业发展参差不齐,产业基础和发展速度差异较大,海洋生态环境建设水平不一; 从空间来看,海洋产业生态系统适应性呈现山东>辽宁>天津>河北的空间分布特征;在海洋产业子系统各要素中,呈现敏感性越大,弹性越大的特征,海洋环境子系统适应性特征不明显; 从时间来看,环渤海地区海洋产业生态系统适应性在波动中不断增强,各省市适应性综合指数差距呈现逐渐扩大的趋势,这种扩大的趋势是由于海洋产业子系统年均增长的差异所致; 区域内部海洋产业生态系统适应性差异明显：天津市海洋产业子系统适应性指数最高,海洋环境子系统发展水平滞后;河北省海洋产业、环境子系统适应性指数较低,海洋产业生态系统发展水平低;辽宁省海洋产业、环境子系统适应性指数较小,海洋产业、环境子系统发育较平衡;山东省海洋产业、环境子系统适应性指数较高,海洋产业生态系统发展水平高,海洋产业子系统发展迅速。
The article establishes an adaptability assessment index and uses the variance weighting method for weight assignment. Based on the data of marine industry and environment in the Bohai Sea region, the article analyzes the marine industry ecosystem characteristics, types, and influencing factors in the Bohai Sea region. According to the model, the article obtains the adaptability characteristics of marine industry ecosystem in the Bohai Sea region. 1) From an overall viewpoint, the difference of adaptability of marine industrial system in the Bohai Sea region is relatively large. 2) From a view of space, the feature of adaptive spatial distribution in marine industry ecosystem shows the adaptive spatial distribution of Shandong>Liaoning>Tianjin>Hebei; In the industrial subsystem, it presents the adaptive spatial distribution of Tianjin>Shandong>Liaoning>Hebei; In the environmental subsystem, it presents the adaptive spatial distribution of Shandong>Liaoning>Tianjin>Hebei. 3) From a view of time, during 2006-2012, the adaptability of marine industry ecosystem in the Bohai Sea region increased, with a rising fluctuate. Comprehensive index of adaptation have a trend of expanding, for this trend, the main reason is the difference of the industrial system in adaptive growth. 4) From a view of specific provinces and city, according to the development of time, it concludes the characteristic of the development in specific province and city in marine industry ecosystem, analyzing the advantages and disadvantages of development. From the overall perspective, the adaptability is enhanced; the level of adaptation is promoted. By analyzing the coupling of Bohai marine industry and environment subsystem, the study obtains the marine industrial ecosystem level and adaptive characteristics, obtains the advantages and disadvantages of the marine industry ecosystem in the Bohai Sea region, thereby for the sustainable development provides countermeasures and suggestions in the Bohai Sea region.
Northeast China is considered as the important old industrial base. However the change of population distribution and driving factors were not clear yet under the circumstance of a new round of revitalization. Therefore, according to the population census data in 1990, 2000 and 2010, Lorenz curve, relative change rate of population density and Moran’s I are employed to analysis spatial pattern evolution of population distribution in Northeast China in 1990-2010, which consist of 176 counties. Subsequently, based on the partial least squares (PLS) regression method, 10 natural and social-economic factors are recognized to make quantitative analysis on spatial pattern evolution of population distribution in Northeast China. Major conclusion can be drawn as follows: 1) From the stand point of overall distribution pattern changes in nearly 20 years, average population density shows: Heilongjiang Province< Jilin Province<Liaoning Province. It is more obvious that ‘T’ type with multicenter of population distribution pattern which mainly to the provincial capital. 2) Population density experienced a changing process from comparative centralized to comparative dispersion. And zones which owned high population density occupy small land area, on the country, zones with low population density hold large land area. Population distribution presents remarkable and positive spatial autocorrelation. 3) From the perspective of changing type of population density, there are 80 counties’ population are increased and 96 are decreased, and it is obvious that polarization phenomenon of population distribution changing in Liaoning province. 4) Nature and social-economic are acting together on population density change, but the social-economic factors have impact on population density change more significantly than natural factors.
With China entering a period of new normal, the development of its economy has run into a new challenge, making industrial parks a major carrier of regional industry clusters. As regional industrial development sped up in various industrial parks along the Hexi Corridor, industrial structure convergence, obscure industrial advantage and many other problems have become increasingly conspicuous. Clustering is an effective way to realize dislocation development of industrial parks, as well as adjustment and optimization of regional industrial structure, thus to coordinate development among different types and scales of industrial parks scientifically to advance the adjustment of industrial structure along the Hexi Corridor, so we ought to recognize the level of clustering in the industrial parks and investigate the development status and formation mechanism of clustering. In this study, we described the cluster development mechanism of the industrial parks along the Hexi Corridor from the perspective of enterprise embeddedness, innovation driving force, open economy formation and industrial clustering by theoretical qualitative research through unstructured interviews. From the angle of enterprise geography, in accordance with the main points of organizational ecology and relational contract theory, we put forward four propositions: first, the level of enterprise embeddedness is low in the various industrial parks along the Hexi Corridor. It is hard for the enterprises to depend on each other based on non-trade relations since the regional “overall level” cannot provide sufficient external power for cluster growth. There is a lack of internal demand at the enterprise level that can promote cluster growth, the local embeddedness and netted clustering of enterprises are still at a low level, and there is not yet R&D, production or marketing system in the regional and local business environment; second, the independent innovation ability of the enterprises in the industrial parks along the Hexi Corridor has yet to be improved, so do the internal and external innovation environments. Third, the enterprises in the industrial parks along the Hexi Corridor are expected to have good prospects for internationalization, and inter-regional cooperation is being liberalized steadily at the present stage. The managers of industrial parks, as well as the operators of enterprises, who have a clear understanding of internationalization, have set a clear direction for internationalization and taken different strategies or paths to internationalize different industries; Fourth, as an effective means of promoting regional economic development, the cluster development of industrial parks is in line with the trend of regional industry integration along the Hexi Corridor. Research has shown that, to achieve cluster development, the enterprises in industrial parks need to make effective use of their explicit contracts, enforce their relational contracts, and enhance the ability of making planning and solving problems jointly; to boost the cluster development of the industrial parks along the Hexi Corridor, we should identify problems from a perspective of the internal and external factors in organizational ecology, so that external factors could provide a better environment for the changes of internal factors; enhance enterprise embeddedness, innovativeness and openness in accordance with the industrial cluster development model, and strengthen the contractual relationship between industries and enterprises, to upgrade cluster development to innovative cluster growth.
针对县域医疗卫生服务设施的空间布局问题,应用改进两步移动搜索法对德清县医疗卫生服务的空间可达性进行评价。具体改进包括：引入核密度型距离衰减函数对两步移动搜索法进行扩展、考虑医疗设施资源的未充分利用、对不同规模等级医疗机构设置不同服务阈值。计算结果表明：① 浙江省德清县域医疗卫生服务空间可达性呈圈层式空间分布特征,高可达性区域主要集中于县城及邻接区域,边缘地区缺医明显;② 基于改进两步移动搜索法和传统两步移动搜索法的可达性计算结果具有不同的整体特征,但前者可达性计算结果及空间分布更符合实际。
There is a big gap between urban and rural residents in China, as to their medical services and health conditions. Rural residents are facing many problems to get medical services with high quality, including severe lack of services, unreasonable locations of medical services, inefficient utilization of public services facilities, and so on. So it is crucial to locate medical services at the county level reasonably, which is the smallest administrative zone to coordinate the distribution and the providing of public services globally. Based on Optimized Two-step Floating Catchment Area (O-2SFCA) method, this study focuses on the evaluation of spatial accessibility for medical services at the county level, in order to support the spatial planning of medical services regionally. While taking Deqing County in Zhejiang Province as a case, this study takes all public hospitals and clinics in downtown, small towns and villages into account. Specially the O-2SFCA method is brought out, aiming to improve some deficiencies of traditional Two-step Floating Catchment Area (2SFCA) method, including the distance decay in the scope of threshold value, the inadequate exploitation of medical services, and different standards of services from hospitals of various levels. Firstly the O-2SFCA introduces the kernel density function to model distance decay, with the purpose of reveal the fact that the probability of people’s trip to get medical services declines as the distance between them increases, while more longer the distance become, more lower probability for people’s trip. Secondly the O-2SFCA proposesa ‘choice weight’ based on the Kernel function to represent competitions between different medical services considering travel cost and service capacity, accurately computes the people’s choice probability of each service facility in the scope of threshold value, and models the inefficient utilizing of medical services. Thirdly the O-2SFCA sets different searching boundary according to the service capacity and standards of medical facilities, for the sake of modeling different services standards of various hospitals and clinics. Spatial accessibility of all villages to get all the public medical service of Deqing County are calculated, separately based on the 2SFCA and O-2SFCA method. At last, two conclusions can be reached: 1) The spatial accessibility of medical services in Deqing County shows a special spatial pattern of circular distribution, and the downtown and neighboring regions hold the highest values of accessibility, while remote and mountain regions hold low accessibility because of the complex topography and the weak traffic conditions. 2) Obviously there are different features between those two computing results based on the 2SFCA and O-2SFCA, but the spatial accessibility calculated from O-2SFCA method is more reasonable, according to field investigations.
从城市产业角度出发,依据2009~2014年的相关数据,采用城市流和ESDA模型对合肥经济圈空间关联进行分析,揭示空间相互作用的时间演变过程和空间分布。结果表明：① 经济圈形成了较稳定的中心-外围格局,空间结构呈现以合肥为中心圈层式向外辐射状,淮南和六安有望成为次增长极。② 经济圈产业外向功能性不强且出现异化,城市流倾向度呈现明显的等级异质性和不均衡性。③ 经济圈产业外向发展存在显著的空间依赖性,空间自相关符合距离衰减规律。④ 经济圈区域不平衡态势明显,空间关联的时空分异特征明显。应推进区域一体化,加快区域协调发展。
The coordinated development of center city and the city in the edge area has been the hot topics in the study of economic geography, spatial interaction theory is an important theoretical basis for the study. From the perspective of urban industry, based on the related data of 2009-2014. The article based on the intensity of urban flow model and ESDA method analyzed the spatial correlation of Hefei Economic Circle, explored the time evolution process and space distribution of spatial interaction. The results showed that: 1) Economic circle has formed a more stable “the center-periphery” urban spatial pattern, the layout features of spatial correlation of urban flow of economic circle present a layers of type and radial outward which is centered around Hefei, Huainan and Lu’an is expected to become the main candidates of secondary growth pole in the Hefei Economic Circle. 2) The correlation between most economic circle core cities and other cities trends to increase gradually, the correlation between part of the cities in the edge area and core cities presents mixed, the regularity is not obvious, the characteristics of temporal and spatial variation of spatial correlation is obvious. Hefei Economic Circle area situation shows unbalanced clearly, the spatial differentiation characteristics of spatial correlation and the regularity of evolution shows obviously. 3) The industrial development of Hefei Economic Circle is closely related to the industrial development of the neighboring regions. There exists a significant spatial dependence on the spatial distribution of the development of outgoing service industry, but its spatial autocorrelation is consistent with the law of distance attenuation. The outgoing service industry function of the central city industry needs to be strengthened, the inadequate development of outgoing service industry result in the not high connection intensity between central city and other cities, the gap between the cities is more and more big, it shows obvious heterogeneity in the spatial correlation of the intensity of urban flow. The situation of regional imbalance in economic circle aggravate, the space “spillover effect” of economic circle should be further improved. 4) Compared with other nation’s mature urban agglomeration, there is a certain degree of spatial correlation between the cities of Hefei Economic Circle, but the spatial correlation is looser. Hefei has the effect of central city, but this kind of central city agglomeration ability is weak, the overall spatial correlation intensity between each city of the economic circle is low. It should promote regional integration, and accelerate the coordinated development of region.
This article analyzed spatial distribution features of rural settlements from both destiny and size based onland-use data for 2012 in Chengui Town, Hubei Province. The destiny and size of rural settlements were measured using kernel density estimation and hotspots analysis method, respectively. The valid covering radius of each large scale area of rural settlements were calculated using improved cost distance method. A new method considering spatial combination features was proposed to identify the reconstruction directions of rural settlements. The results showed that both the density and scale values of rural settlements presented an obvious spatial correlation. The destiny values decreased gradually from the central area to the surrounding area. The low density area mainly distributed in the southeast area, which included Nanshan, Tongshankou and Tiantaishan Village. The distribution of large scale of rural settlements was like a circle, whereas the small ones mainly distributed in Nanshan and Tiantaishan. Seven types were identified according to the combination features of density and scale. The density and scale with medium values were widespread in Chengui. However, it should be noted that small scale with low density coexisted with the large scale with high density. Eight central covering areas from A to H were identified. According to the scale features, these eight areas were further classified into three types, which included strong centers, common centers and weak centers. The strong centers included the covering areas of downtown and Tongshankou. The downtown area had the largest covering area, whereas Tongshankou was regarded as the key village, which covered the largest scale of rural settlements. Four common centers and two weak centers showed different functions in rural reconstruction. In general, the village-town system was consisted of a central town, a key village, several secondary centers and other common areas. Four reconstruction modes, including urbanization concentration, key village construction, cooperating consolidation and inner-village consolidation, were proposed according to the features of covering areas. The reconstruction directions and key points were emphasized based on the combination features of destiny and size. The findings provide important planning information for rural reconstruction.
The cruise industry has become one of the most rapidly developing segments in the entire tourism market. On a global basis, although the cruising sector is overwhelmed by North America and Europe, the Asia Pacific Region has reported exciting growth rates in recent years. As the core component of the Asian market, China is undergoing rapid development in terms of both infrastructure construction and cruise ship reception. A cruise port system has been established along Chinese coastline. In recent years, as the most developed cruise city in mainland of China, Shanghai is experiencing a fast developing phase with two outstanding cruise ports/terminals, the Shanghai Port International Cruise Terminal and the Wusongkou International Cruise Port, among which Wusongkou has the strongest berthing capacity for cruise ships in Asia Pacific Region, sending more than 986,000 homeport cruisers outside China in 2015. For a cruise homeport where infrastructure construction has been completed, it’s critical to continuously attract cruisers to visit through high level of service quality and tourist satisfaction. To do this, the key is to establish a comprehensive homeport satisfaction index system, identify expected satisfaction gap for each criteria, and then propose managerial strategies for improving tourist satisfaction. The purpose of this article is to evaluate cruiser satisfaction with cruise homeport, through an empirical study on Shanghai Wusongkou International Cruise Port. Firstly, we identified a homeport satisfaction index system including 27 criterion based on a broad literature review along with two brainstorming sessions. Then, a questionnaire was developed and distributed to more than 300 cruisers embarking on Shanghai. Based on collected data, we use a multiple criteria decision making method to evaluate and identify the gaps between each criteria and relevant aspired level. Our results show that homeport criterion with lower expected satisfaction level include internet service/WIFI, shopping/duty free shops, clearance/security check efficiency, currency exchange, children area, embarkation, seating room, parking lot, separation of passengers and vehicles, check in experience/welcome reception, post office/toilet/pubic phone, disembarkation, passenger transport (public and shuttle), etc. Finally, we proposed some managerial implications for Wusongkou to become a satisfied cruise homeport, including: 1) Improve network and information services; 2) Enhance value-added services in the port; 3) Establish a duty-free shopping area based on the Shanghai Free Trade Zone policies; 4) Focus on family travel groups, increase children's service facilities; 5) Improve efficiency of customs clearance and security check; 6) Optimize parking lot area and public transportation service; 7) Continue to strengthen safety and security measures. Generally speaking, results of this study could also contribute to development of other cruise ports in China.
Taking International Tourism Culture Demonstration Zone of Southern Anhui Province as the object of the study, this article, from the perspective of integrative development of culture and tourism, selecting eighteen UNESCO World Cultural Heritage, UNESCO World Heritage Tentative List and the other well-known cultural resources brands as evaluating indicators, measures the cultural resources abundance of the demonstration zone by establishing the evaluation index system of regional cultural resources abundance. The results of the study are listed as follows: in general, the International Tourism Culture Demonstration Zone of the Southern Anhui Province is quite abundant in its cultural resources, in which Huangshan, Anqing, Xuancheng and Chizhou are the best, which are followed by Maanshan and Wuhui, and Tongling is the worst one in evaluation. The best ones are mostly located in the southern, eastern and western areas of Anhui province. The gap between the southern and the northern Anhui is quite obvious. Viewing from the combination of cultural resources, for its abundant resources brands and huge exploiting potential, Huangshan takes the lead. Xuancheng, Anqing, and Chizhou comes after Huangshan in ranking, possessing a complete type of resources and good exploiting conditions. The combination of resources in Maanshan, Tongling and Wuhu are not satisfied, which are relatively monotonous in types and quite difficult to explore. Therefore, this article suggests that, according to the evaluation results of the cultural resources abundance in this zone, the government and tourism industry should actively explore effective patterns to exploit and use cultural resources, and adopt reasonable exploitation strategies at the same time: Firstly, the combination of regional cultural resources should be greatly promoted. A “hub-and-spoke” system can be built, in which Huangshan acting as a hub to accelerate the development of other cities. Then the transformation of resource assets into industrial advantages can be realized and a complementary regional tourism web can be weaved. Secondly, the selling points of cultural resources and the combination of cultural resources with tourism should be properly seized according to the combination of cultural resources in each city. The differential development of the individual city can be realized by integrating cultural resources into industry, digging the values of cultural resources, strengthening the vivid, cultural and recreational experience of cultural tourism products; Thirdly, while pushing forward protection, non-material cultural resources should be valued and exploited. To maintain its vitality and provide a variety of functions for the design of cultural tourism products, the traditional folk culture should be blended into modern life through the development of tourism; Lastly, a reasonable mechanism and a government-oriented, industry-centered, market-operated and society-involved platform should be established. The inheritance and innovation of demonstration zone’s good cultural resources can be achieved by making policies that support the integration and development of culture and tourism, putting stress on the cultivation of good brands, enhancing the level of information, and improving the quality of services.
Carbon emission embodied in trade plays an important role in reducing regional obligations towards carbon emission reduction in regional climate policy. Based on a multi-regional input-output analysis and structural decomposition method, this article analyzes the changes and geographic sources of the emissions embodied in trade in Henan Province, and examines how and why the EET changed in Henan Province in 2002-2010. Moreover, in policy terms, regional climate policy options that potentially reduce the impact of trade on individual region like Henan Province are also discussed. One finding from this study is that with the significantly increasing of the emissions embodied in exports and emissions embodied in imports in Henan Province in 2002-2010 in China, for Henan Province, the trend in terms of the geographic separation of consumers and the pollution emitted during the production of consumable items is increasing significantly. Furthermore, in terms of the driving forces onthe embodied emissions changes, emissions embodied in exports is affected most by demand in the other regions of China and production in the local region, while emissions embodied in imports is largely determined by demand in the local region and production in the other regions of China. In addition, for Henan’s emissions embodied in exports, their geographic sources are be mainly located in the central part of China and the southeastern China, whereas the geographic sources of the Henan’s emissions embodied in imports are primarily concentrated in the east of China, northeastern China and the central part of China. Another important finding is that if regions like Henan Province take binding commitments as a part of a coalition, instead of as individual regions, then the impacts of trade can be reduced. Notably, however, the extent of reduction in a coalition varies in different regions. Therefore, it is necessary that those regions that benefit most should provide financial and technological aid to those regions that suffer most or benefit least in climate policy.
为了全面得到植被发育斜坡非饱和带土体中优先域结构类型,以2个试验区5个玄武岩斜坡为研究对象,采用染色示踪试验揭示优先域的存在形式及其影响因素,并采用双环入渗试验对不同深度非饱和带土体渗透特征进行测定,揭示优先域对水分入渗的贡献。研究表明：植被发育斜坡非饱和带土体中优先域结构类型除了传统的植物根系腐烂后残留的通道、动物通道、土体干缩裂隙以外,还存在有根系-土体以及砾石-土体接触带空隙以及气候冻融交替产生的裂隙,其中植被根系对大孔隙的影响占主导地位;试验区斜坡非饱和带土体的饱和渗透速度随深度增加有降低的趋势,土体饱和渗透速度最大值高达513.6 mm/h（表层）;最小值13.33 mm/h,受广泛分布的优先域影响下形成的斜坡饱和带高渗透盖层对降水入渗的贡献是巨大的。
All kinds of soil macropores (preferential domain) is widespread in vadose zone of well vegetated slope, that have an effect on rapid moisture infiltration and supply a useful condition for aquifer feed water. For comprehensive collection the soil macropores types. Taking five basalt slope of two experimental areas as the research object, this article adopts dye tracer experiments to reveal the forms of the preferred domain and its influencing factors. Furthermore, the unsaturated zone soil infiltration characteristics with different depth were determined by the double-ring infiltrometer method in order to explain the contribution of macropores to water infiltration. The results show that preferential domain types also includes the fractures resulted from freezing-thawing events and the contact gap of root system-soil and gravels-soil apart from the traditional discovered macropores such as the rotten plant roots channels and faunal tunnels. Of all factors, the plant roots are the first and most important role on macropores. The soil saturated infiltration coefficient, the minimum and maximum of which is 513.6 mm/h (soil surface layer) and 13.33 mm/h, has a reduced tendency with the increase of depth. In conclusion, the contribution of huge permeability vadose zone to water infiltration is enormous.
基于洞庭湖流域内长沙市2010年1月至2012年12月降水事件、GNIP(Global Network for Isotopes in Precipitation)长沙站1988~1992年月降水同位素资料及ENSO（厄尔尼诺/拉尼娜和南方涛动）的2个常用指标（南方涛动指数SOI和Nino3区海面温度SST）,分析了流域降水同位素与ENSO关系。结果表明：洞庭湖流域降水中δ18O与降水量、气温在日、月尺度上均呈负相关且只有月度上与降水量的负相关不显著。洞庭湖流域降水中δ18O与ENSO的SST指标则呈显著正相关。ENSO对洞庭湖流域降水同位素的影响机制可能如下：春季,La Nina年源自西太平洋的东南风强盛,其转向为西南风的区域达到印度洋,而El Nino年,东南风转向为西南风的发生区域位于印度洋以东,前者有利于挟带印度洋远源水汽向中国东部区域输送,进而造成降水同位素的贫化;夏季,La Nina年印度洋水汽输送在中国南海转为经向继而向北延伸,而El Nino年,源自印度洋的水汽沿纬向穿过南海,在东海转向往北延伸,后者有利于挟带西太平洋的近源水汽输送到中国东部季风区,进而引起降水同位素的富集。
In this study, the relationship between stable water isotopes in precipitation and ENSO is analyzed by using isotopic composition of water samples taken from individual precipitation events that covered a period of Jan. 2010 to Dec. 2012 and International Atomic Energy Agency Global Network for Isotopes in Precipitation(GNIP) data set in Changsha, which located in Dongting Lake Basin. The results show that monthly precipitation δ18O have significant negative correlation with precipitation amount and temperature both at daily and monthly scales, except with precipitation amount atmonthly timescale. The linear regression coefficient is significant and positive between monthly precipitation δ18O and Nino3’s SST (one of ENSO’s important index).The mechanism for ENSO’s influence on stable water isotopes of precipitation in the study area may be as follows: during the spring season, the region where southeast monsoon turns to southwest monsoon reaches the Indian Ocean in El Nino condition, while the turning takes place in east of the Indian Ocean in La Nina condition, the former picks up long distance moisture and transports to the study area and produces more depleted precipitation isotopes than the latter. During the summer season, long-distance water vapor from the Indian Ocean which drived by the southwest monsoon have northly tranported to the eastern China over the South China Sea in the La Nina condition, while in the El Nino condition, the southwest monsoon passes the South China Sea till the East China Sea and takes more moistue from the West Pacific Ocean to the eastern China, then the latter leads to higher precipitation isotopes in the study area than the former.
基于阿克苏河流域1960~2010年的气象、水文观测数据,利用集合经验模态分解（EEMD）方法,对研究期内阿克苏河径流时间序列进行多尺度的分析,并探讨其在不同时间尺度上的振荡模态结构特征及其对气候因子的多尺度响应。结果表明：① 近50年来,阿克苏河年径流整体上呈现出显著的非线性增加趋势,且其变化在年际尺度上表现出准3 a和准6~7 a的周期性波动,在年代际尺度上表现出准13 a和准25 a的周期性变化;② 各周期分量的方差贡献率表明,年际振荡在径流长期变化中占据主导地位,年代际尺度在径流变化过程中也起着重要作用。重构的径流年际变化能够较为详细地描述原始径流序列在研究时期内的波动趋势,重构的径流年代际变化则有效揭示了阿克苏河径流在不同年代丰、枯水期交替出现的状态。③ 在年际尺度上径流与气温、降水和潜在蒸发都表现为不显著的正相关关系,而在年代际尺度上,径流量与气温和降水均表现为显著的正相关关系,与潜在蒸发表现为显著的负相关关系,且在年代际尺度上相关性和显著性明显强于年际尺度,表明年代际尺度更适于评价径流对气候波动的响应。结果表明EEMD是一种甄别非线性趋势和尺度循环的有效方法。
On the basis of the hydrological and meteorological data in the Aksu River Basin during 1960-2010, the multi-scale characteristics of runoff variability were analyzed using the ensemble empirical mode decomposition method (EEMD), and the aim is to investigate the oscillation mode structure characteristics of runoff change and its response to climate fluctuation at different time scales. Results indicated that in the past 50 years, the overall runoff of Aksu River in northwestern China has exhibited a significant non-linear upward trend, and its changes obviously manifested quasi-3 and quasi-6-7 years at inter-annual scale and showed quasi-13 and quasi-25 years at inter-decadal scale. Variance contribution rates of each component showed that the inter-annual change held a dominant position in the overall runoff change, and the inter-decadal change also played an important role in the overall runoff change for the Aksu River. The reconstructed inter-annual variation could describe the fluctuation state of original runoff during the study period; the reconstructed inter-decadal variability effectively revealed that the runoff for the Aksu River changed over the years, namely the state of abundance and low water period appear alternately. In addition, we found that runoff has a positive correlation to precipitation, temperature and potential evaporation (PET) at the inter-annual scale, but not significant in statistics. The runoff has a significant positive correlation to precipitation and temperature whereas a negative correlation to PET at the inter-decadal scale, furthermore, they are more significant and relevant at inter-decadal scale, indicating that the inter-decadal scale is more suitable for investigating the responses of runoff dynamics to climate fluctuation. Meanwhile, the results also suggested that EEMD is an effective method to distinguish the non-linear trend from multi-scale variability of non-linear and non-stationary signal and can be helpful to deepen the understanding of the multi-scale characteristics for runoff in arid area of the northwestern China.